Dan Fullerton

Circular Motion

Slide Duration:Table of Contents

Section 1: Introduction

What is Physics?

7m 38s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:12
- What is Physics?0:31
- What is Matter, Energy, and How to They Interact0:55
- Why?0:58
- Physics Answers the 'Why' Questions.1:05
- Matter1:23
- Matter1:29
- Mass1:33
- Inertial Mass1:53
- Gravitational Mass2:12
- A Spacecraft's Mass2:58
- Energy3:37
- Energy: The Ability or Capacity to Do Work3:39
- Work: The Process of Moving an Object3:45
- The Ability or Capacity to Move an Object3:54
- Mass-Energy Equivalence4:51
- Relationship Between Mass and Energy E=mc25:01
- The Mass of An Object is Really a Measure of Its Energy5:05
- The Study of Everything5:42
- Introductory Course6:19
- Next Steps7:15

Math Review

24m 12s

- Intro0:00
- Outline0:10
- Objectives0:28
- Why Do We Need Units?0:52
- Need to Set Specific Standards for Our Measurements1:01
- Physicists Have Agreed to Use the Systeme International1:24
- The Systeme International1:50
- Based on Powers of 101:52
- 7 Fundamental Units: Meter, Kilogram, Second, Ampere, Candela, Kelvin, Mole2:02
- The Meter2:18
- Meter is a Measure of Length2:20
- Measurements Smaller than a Meter, Use: Centimeter, Millimeter, Micrometer, Nanometer2:25
- Measurements Larger Than a Meter, Use Kilometer2:38
- The Kilogram2:46
- Roughly Equivalent to 2.2 English Pounds2:49
- Grams, Milligrams2:53
- Megagram2:59
- Seconds3:10
- Base Unit of Time3:12
- Minute, Hour, Day3:20
- Milliseconds, Microseconds3:33
- Derived Units3:41
- Velocity3:45
- Acceleration3:57
- Force4:04
- Prefixes for Powers of 104:21
- Converting Fundamental Units, Example 14:53
- Converting Fundamental Units, Example 27:18
- Two-Step Conversions, Example 18:24
- Two-Step Conversions, Example 210:06
- Derived Unit Conversions11:29
- Multi-Step Conversions13:25
- Metric Estimations15:04
- What are Significant Figures?16:01
- Represent a Manner of Showing Which Digits In a Number Are Known to Some Level of Certainty16:03
- Example16:09
- Measuring with Sig Figs16:36
- Rule 116:40
- Rule 216:44
- Rule 316:52
- Reading Significant Figures16:57
- All Non-Zero Digits Are Significant17:04
- All Digits Between Non-Zero Digits Are Significant17:07
- Zeros to the Left of the Significant Digits17:11
- Zeros to the Right of the Significant Digits17:16
- Non-Zero Digits17:21
- Digits Between Non-Zeros Are Significant17:45
- Zeroes to the Right of the Sig Figs Are Significant18:17
- Why Scientific Notation?18:36
- Physical Measurements Vary Tremendously in Magnitude18:38
- Example18:47
- Scientific Notation in Practice19:23
- Example 119:28
- Example 219:44
- Using Scientific Notation20:02
- Show Your Value Using Correct Number of Significant Figures20:05
- Move the Decimal Point20:09
- Show Your Number Being Multiplied by 10 Raised to the Appropriate Power20:14
- Accuracy and Precision20:23
- Accuracy20:36
- Precision20:41
- Example 1: Scientific Notation w/ Sig Figs21:48
- Example 2: Scientific Notation - Compress22:25
- Example 3: Scientific Notation - Compress23:07
- Example 4: Scientific Notation - Expand23:31

Vectors & Scalars

25m 5s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:05
- Scalars0:29
- Definition of Scalar0:39
- Temperature, Mass, Time0:45
- Vectors1:12
- Vectors are Quantities That Have Magnitude and Direction1:13
- Represented by Arrows1:31
- Vector Representations1:47
- Graphical Vector Addition2:42
- Graphical Vector Subtraction4:58
- Vector Components6:08
- Angle of a Vector8:22
- Vector Notation9:52
- Example 1: Vector Components14:30
- Example 2: Vector Components16:05
- Example 3: Vector Magnitude17:26
- Example 4: Vector Addition19:38
- Example 5: Angle of a Vector24:06

Section 2: Mechanics

Defining & Graphing Motion

30m 11s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:07
- Position0:40
- An Object's Position Cab Be Assigned to a Variable on a Number Scale0:43
- Symbol for Position1:07
- Distance1:13
- When Position Changes, An Object Has Traveled Some Distance1:14
- Distance is Scalar and Measured in Meters1:21
- Example 1: Distance1:34
- Displacement2:17
- Displacement is a Vector Which Describes the Straight Line From Start to End Point2:18
- Measured in Meters2:27
- Example 2: Displacement2:39
- Average Speed3:32
- The Distance Traveled Divided by the Time Interval3:33
- Speed is a Scalar3:47
- Example 3: Average Speed3:57
- Average Velocity4:37
- The Displacement Divided by the Time Interval4:38
- Velocity is a Vector4:53
- Example 4: Average Velocity5:06
- Example 5: Chuck the Hungry Squirrel5:55
- Acceleration8:02
- Rate At Which Velocity Changes8:13
- Acceleration is a Vector8:26
- Example 6: Acceleration Problem8:52
- Average vs. Instantaneous9:44
- Average Values Take Into Account an Entire Time Interval9:50
- Instantaneous Value Tells the Rate of Change of a Quantity at a Specific Instant in Time9:54
- Example 7: Average Velocity10:06
- Particle Diagrams11:57
- Similar to the Effect of Oil Leak from a Car on the Pavement11:59
- Accelerating13:03
- Position-Time Graphs14:17
- Shows Position as a Function of Time14:24
- Slope of x-t Graph15:08
- Slope Gives You the Velocity15:09
- Negative Indicates Direction16:27
- Velocity-Time Graphs16:45
- Shows Velocity as a Function of Time16:49
- Area Under v-t Graphs17:47
- Area Under the V-T Graph Gives You Change in Displacement17:48
- Example 8: Slope of a v-t Graph19:45
- Acceleration-Time Graphs21:44
- Slope of the v-t Graph Gives You Acceleration21:45
- Area Under the a-t Graph Gives You an Object's Change in Velocity22:24
- Example 10: Motion Graphing24:03
- Example 11: v-t Graph27:14
- Example 12: Displacement From v-t Graph28:14

Kinematic Equations

36m 13s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:07
- Problem-Solving Toolbox0:42
- Graphs Are Not Always the Most Effective0:47
- Kinematic Equations Helps us Solve for Five Key Variables0:56
- Deriving the Kinematic Equations1:29
- Kinematic Equations7:40
- Problem Solving Steps8:13
- Label Your Horizontal or Vertical Motion8:20
- Choose a Direction as Positive8:24
- Create a Motion Analysis Table8:33
- Fill in Your Givens8:42
- Solve for Unknowns8:45
- Example 1: Horizontal Kinematics8:51
- Example 2: Vertical Kinematics11:13
- Example 3: 2 Step Problem13:25
- Example 4: Acceleration Problem16:44
- Example 5: Particle Diagrams17:56
- Example 6: Quadratic Solution20:13
- Free Fall24:24
- When the Only Force Acting on an Object is the Force of Gravity, the Motion is Free Fall24:27
- Air Resistance24:51
- Drop a Ball24:56
- Remove the Air from the Room25:02
- Analyze the Motion of Objects by Neglecting Air Resistance25:06
- Acceleration Due to Gravity25:22
- g = 9.8 m/s225:25
- Approximate g as 10 m/s2 on the AP Exam25:37
- G is Referred to as the Gravitational Field Strength25:48
- Objects Falling From Rest26:15
- Objects Starting from Rest Have an Initial velocity of 026:19
- Acceleration is +g26:34
- Example 7: Falling Objects26:47
- Objects Launched Upward27:59
- Acceleration is -g28:04
- At Highest Point, the Object has a Velocity of 028:19
- Symmetry of Motion28:27
- Example 8: Ball Thrown Upward28:47
- Example 9: Height of a Jump29:23
- Example 10: Ball Thrown Downward33:08
- Example 11: Maximum Height34:16

Projectiles

20m 32s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:06
- What is a Projectile?0:26
- An Object That is Acted Upon Only By Gravity0:29
- Typically Launched at an Angle0:43
- Path of a Projectile1:03
- Projectiles Launched at an Angle Move in Parabolic Arcs1:06
- Symmetric and Parabolic1:32
- Horizontal Range and Max Height1:49
- Independence of Motion2:17
- Vertical2:49
- Horizontal2:52
- Example 1: Horizontal Launch3:49
- Example 2: Parabolic Path7:41
- Angled Projectiles8:30
- Must First Break Up the Object's Initial Velocity Into x- and y- Components of Initial Velocity8:32
- An Object Will Travel the Maximum Horizontal Distance with a Launch Angle of 45 Degrees8:43
- Example 3: Human Cannonball8:55
- Example 4: Motion Graphs12:55
- Example 5: Launch From a Height15:33
- Example 6: Acceleration of a Projectile19:56

Relative Motion

10m 52s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:06
- Reference Frames0:18
- Motion of an Observer0:21
- No Way to Distinguish Between Motion at Rest and Motion at a Constant Velocity0:44
- Motion is Relative1:35
- Example 11:39
- Example 22:09
- Calculating Relative Velocities2:31
- Example 12:43
- Example 22:48
- Example 32:52
- Example 14:58
- Example 2: Airspeed6:19
- Example 3: 2-D Relative Motion7:39
- Example 4: Relative Velocity with Direction9:40

Newton's 1st Law of Motion

10m 16s

- Intro0:00
- Objective0:05
- Newton's 1st Law of Motion0:16
- An Object At Rest Will Remain At Rest0:21
- An Object In Motion Will Remain in Motion0:26
- Net Force0:39
- Also Known As the Law of Inertia0:46
- Force1:02
- Push or Pull1:04
- Newtons1:08
- Contact and Field Forces1:31
- Contact Forces1:50
- Field Forces2:11
- What is a Net Force?2:30
- Vector Sum of All the Forces Acting on an Object2:33
- Translational Equilibrium2:37
- Unbalanced Force Is a Net Force2:46
- What Does It Mean?3:49
- An Object Will Continue in Its Current State of Motion Unless an Unbalanced Force Acts Upon It3:50
- Example of Newton's First Law4:20
- Objects in Motion5:05
- Will Remain in Motion At Constant Velocity5:06
- Hard to Find a Frictionless Environment on Earth5:10
- Static Equilibrium5:40
- Net Force on an Object is 05:44
- Inertia6:21
- Tendency of an Object to Resist a Change in Velocity6:23
- Inertial Mass6:35
- Gravitational Mass6:40
- Example 1: Inertia7:10
- Example 2: Inertia7:37
- Example 3: Translational Equilibrium8:03
- Example 4: Net Force8:40

Newton's 2nd Law of Motion

34m 55s

- Intro0:00
- Objective0:07
- Free Body Diagrams0:37
- Tools Used to Analyze Physical Situations0:40
- Show All the Forces Acting on a Single Object0:45
- Drawing FBDs0:58
- Draw Object of Interest as a Dot1:00
- Sketch a Coordinate System1:10
- Example 1: Falling Elephant1:18
- Example 2: Falling Elephant with Air Resistance2:07
- Example 3: Soda on Table3:00
- Example 4: Box in Equilibrium4:25
- Example 5: Block on a Ramp5:01
- Pseudo-FBDs5:53
- Draw When Forces Don't Line Up with Axes5:56
- Break Forces That Don’t Line Up with Axes into Components That Do6:00
- Example 6: Objects on a Ramp6:32
- Example 7: Car on a Banked Turn10:23
- Newton's 2nd Law of Motion12:56
- The Acceleration of an Object is in the Direction of the Directly Proportional to the Net Force Applied13:06
- Newton's 1st Two Laws Compared13:45
- Newton's 1st Law13:51
- Newton's 2nd Law14:10
- Applying Newton's 2nd Law14:50
- Example 8: Applying Newton's 2nd Law15:23
- Example 9: Stopping a Baseball16:52
- Example 10: Block on a Surface19:51
- Example 11: Concurrent Forces21:16
- Mass vs. Weight22:28
- Mass22:29
- Weight22:47
- Example 12: Mass vs. Weight23:16
- Translational Equilibrium24:47
- Occurs When There Is No Net Force on an Object24:49
- Equilibrant24:57
- Example 13: Translational Equilibrium25:29
- Example 14: Translational Equilibrium26:56
- Example 15: Determining Acceleration28:05
- Example 16: Suspended Mass31:03

Newton's 3rd Law of Motion

5m 58s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:06
- Newton's 3rd Law of Motion0:20
- All Forces Come in Pairs0:24
- Examples1:22
- Action-Reaction Pairs2:07
- Girl Kicking Soccer Ball2:11
- Rocket Ship in Space2:29
- Gravity on You2:53
- Example 1: Force of Gravity3:34
- Example 2: Sailboat4:00
- Example 3: Hammer and Nail4:49
- Example 4: Net Force5:06

Friction

17m 49s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:06
- Examples0:23
- Friction Opposes Motion0:24
- Kinetic Friction0:27
- Static Friction0:36
- Magnitude of Frictional Force Is Determined By Two Things0:41
- Coefficient Friction2:27
- Ratio of the Frictional Force and the Normal Force2:28
- Chart of Different Values of Friction2:48
- Kinetic or Static?3:31
- Example 1: Car Sliding4:18
- Example 2: Block on Incline5:03
- Calculating the Force of Friction5:48
- Depends Only Upon the Nature of the Surfaces in Contact and the Magnitude of the Force5:50
- Terminal Velocity6:14
- Air Resistance6:18
- Terminal Velocity of the Falling Object6:33
- Example 3: Finding the Frictional Force7:36
- Example 4: Box on Wood Surface9:13
- Example 5: Static vs. Kinetic Friction11:49
- Example 6: Drag Force on Airplane12:15
- Example 7: Pulling a Sled13:21

Dynamics Applications

35m 27s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- Free Body Diagrams0:49
- Drawing FBDs1:09
- Draw Object of Interest as a Dot1:12
- Sketch a Coordinate System1:18
- Example 1: FBD of Block on Ramp1:39
- Pseudo-FBDs1:59
- Draw Object of Interest as a Dot2:00
- Break Up the Forces2:07
- Box on a Ramp2:12
- Example 2: Box at Rest4:28
- Example 3: Box Held by Force5:00
- What is an Atwood Machine?6:46
- Two Objects are Connected by a Light String Over a Mass-less Pulley6:49
- Properties of Atwood Machines7:13
- Ideal Pulleys are Frictionless and Mass-less7:16
- Tension is Constant in a Light String Passing Over an Ideal Pulley7:23
- Solving Atwood Machine Problems8:02
- Alternate Solution12:07
- Analyze the System as a Whole12:12
- Elevators14:24
- Scales Read the Force They Exert on an Object Placed Upon Them14:42
- Can be Used to Analyze Using Newton's 2nd Law and Free body Diagrams15:23
- Example 4: Elevator Accelerates Upward15:36
- Example 5: Truck on a Hill18:30
- Example 6: Force Up a Ramp19:28
- Example 7: Acceleration Down a Ramp21:56
- Example 8: Basic Atwood Machine24:05
- Example 9: Masses and Pulley on a Table26:47
- Example 10: Mass and Pulley on a Ramp29:15
- Example 11: Elevator Accelerating Downward33:00

Impulse & Momentum

26m 6s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:06
- Momentum0:31
- Example0:35
- Momentum measures How Hard It Is to Stop a Moving Object0:47
- Vector Quantity0:58
- Example 1: Comparing Momenta1:48
- Example 2: Calculating Momentum3:08
- Example 3: Changing Momentum3:50
- Impulse5:02
- Change In Momentum5:05
- Example 4: Impulse5:26
- Example 5: Impulse-Momentum6:41
- Deriving the Impulse-Momentum Theorem9:04
- Impulse-Momentum Theorem12:02
- Example 6: Impulse-Momentum Theorem12:15
- Non-Constant Forces13:55
- Impulse or Change in Momentum13:56
- Determine the Impulse by Calculating the Area of the Triangle Under the Curve14:07
- Center of Mass14:56
- Real Objects Are More Complex Than Theoretical Particles14:59
- Treat Entire Object as if Its Entire Mass Were Contained at the Object's Center of Mass15:09
- To Calculate the Center of Mass15:17
- Example 7: Force on a Moving Object15:49
- Example 8: Motorcycle Accident17:49
- Example 9: Auto Collision19:32
- Example 10: Center of Mass (1D)21:29
- Example 11: Center of Mass (2D)23:28

Collisions

21m 59s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Conservation of Momentum0:18
- Linear Momentum is Conserved in an Isolated System0:21
- Useful for Analyzing Collisions and Explosions0:27
- Momentum Tables0:58
- Identify Objects in the System1:05
- Determine the Momenta of the Objects Before and After the Event1:10
- Add All the Momenta From Before the Event and Set Them Equal to Momenta After the Event1:15
- Solve Your Resulting Equation for Unknowns1:20
- Types of Collisions1:31
- Elastic Collision1:36
- Inelastic Collision1:56
- Example 1: Conservation of Momentum (1D)2:02
- Example 2: Inelastic Collision5:12
- Example 3: Recoil Velocity7:16
- Example 4: Conservation of Momentum (2D)9:29
- Example 5: Atomic Collision16:02

Describing Circular Motion

7m 18s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:07
- Uniform Circular Motion0:20
- Circumference0:32
- Average Speed Formula Still Applies0:46
- Frequency1:03
- Number of Revolutions or Cycles Which Occur Each Second1:04
- Hertz1:24
- Formula for Frequency1:28
- Period1:36
- Time It Takes for One Complete Revolution or Cycle1:37
- Frequency and Period1:54
- Example 1: Car on a Track2:08
- Example 2: Race Car3:55
- Example 3: Toy Train4:45
- Example 4: Round-A-Bout5:39

Centripetal Acceleration & Force

26m 37s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- Uniform Circular Motion0:38
- Direction of ac1:41
- Magnitude of ac3:50
- Centripetal Force4:08
- For an Object to Accelerate, There Must Be a Net Force4:18
- Centripetal Force4:26
- Calculating Centripetal Force6:14
- Example 1: Acceleration7:31
- Example 2: Direction of ac8:53
- Example 3: Loss of Centripetal Force9:19
- Example 4: Velocity and Centripetal Force10:08
- Example 5: Demon Drop10:55
- Example 6: Centripetal Acceleration vs. Speed14:11
- Example 7: Calculating ac15:03
- Example 8: Running Back15:45
- Example 9: Car at an Intersection17:15
- Example 10: Bucket in Horizontal Circle18:40
- Example 11: Bucket in Vertical Circle19:20
- Example 12: Frictionless Banked Curve21:55

Gravitation

32m 56s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- Universal Gravitation0:29
- The Bigger the Mass the Closer the Attraction0:48
- Formula for Gravitational Force1:16
- Calculating g2:43
- Mass of Earth2:51
- Radius of Earth2:55
- Inverse Square Relationship4:32
- Problem Solving Hints7:21
- Substitute Values in For Variables at the End of the Problem Only7:26
- Estimate the Order of Magnitude of the Answer Before Using Your Calculator7:38
- Make Sure Your Answer Makes Sense7:55
- Example 1: Asteroids8:20
- Example 2: Meteor and the Earth10:17
- Example 3: Satellite13:13
- Gravitational Fields13:50
- Gravity is a Non-Contact Force13:54
- Closer Objects14:14
- Denser Force Vectors14:19
- Gravitational Field Strength15:09
- Example 4: Astronaut16:19
- Gravitational Potential Energy18:07
- Two Masses Separated by Distance Exhibit an Attractive Force18:11
- Formula for Gravitational Field19:21
- How Do Orbits Work?19:36
- Example5: Gravitational Field Strength for Space Shuttle in Orbit21:35
- Example 6: Earth's Orbit25:13
- Example 7: Bowling Balls27:25
- Example 8: Freely Falling Object28:07
- Example 9: Finding g28:40
- Example 10: Space Vehicle on Mars29:10
- Example 11: Fg vs. Mass Graph30:24
- Example 12: Mass on Mars31:14
- Example 13: Two Satellites31:51

Rotational Kinematics

15m 33s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:07
- Radians and Degrees0:26
- In Degrees, Once Around a Circle is 360 Degrees0:29
- In Radians, Once Around a Circle is 2π0:34
- Example 1: Degrees to Radians0:57
- Example 2: Radians to Degrees1:31
- Linear vs. Angular Displacement2:00
- Linear Position2:05
- Angular Position2:10
- Linear vs. Angular Velocity2:35
- Linear Speed2:39
- Angular Speed2:42
- Direction of Angular Velocity3:05
- Converting Linear to Angular Velocity4:22
- Example 3: Angular Velocity Example4:41
- Linear vs. Angular Acceleration5:36
- Example 4: Angular Acceleration6:15
- Kinematic Variable Parallels7:47
- Displacement7:52
- Velocity8:10
- Acceleration8:16
- Time8:22
- Kinematic Variable Translations8:30
- Displacement8:34
- Velocity8:42
- Acceleration8:50
- Time0:00
- Kinematic Equation Parallels9:09
- Kinematic Equations9:12
- Delta9:33
- Final Velocity Squared and Angular Velocity Squared9:54
- Example 5: Medieval Flail10:24
- Example 6: CD Player10:57
- Example 7: Carousel12:13
- Example 8: Circular Saw13:35

Torque

11m 21s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:05
- Torque0:18
- Force That Causes an Object to Turn0:22
- Must be Perpendicular to the Displacement to Cause a Rotation0:27
- Lever Arm: The Stronger the Force, The More Torque0:45
- Direction of the Torque Vector1:53
- Perpendicular to the Position Vector and the Force Vector1:54
- Right-Hand Rule2:08
- Newton's 2nd Law: Translational vs. Rotational2:46
- Equilibrium3:58
- Static Equilibrium4:01
- Dynamic Equilibrium4:09
- Rotational Equilibrium4:22
- Example 1: Pirate Captain4:32
- Example 2: Auto Mechanic5:25
- Example 3: Sign Post6:44
- Example 4: See-Saw9:01

Rotational Dynamics

36m 6s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- Types of Inertia0:39
- Inertial Mass (Translational Inertia)0:42
- Moment of Inertia (Rotational Inertia)0:53
- Moment of Inertia for Common Objects1:48
- Example 1: Calculating Moment of Inertia2:53
- Newton's 2nd Law - Revisited5:09
- Acceleration of an Object5:15
- Angular Acceleration of an Object5:24
- Example 2: Rotating Top5:47
- Example 3: Spinning Disc7:54
- Angular Momentum9:41
- Linear Momentum9:43
- Angular Momentum10:00
- Calculating Angular Momentum10:51
- Direction of the Angular Momentum Vector11:26
- Total Angular Momentum12:29
- Example 4: Angular Momentum of Particles14:15
- Example 5: Rotating Pedestal16:51
- Example 6: Rotating Discs18:39
- Angular Momentum and Heavenly Bodies20:13
- Types of Kinetic Energy23:41
- Objects Traveling with a Translational Velocity23:45
- Objects Traveling with Angular Velocity24:00
- Translational vs. Rotational Variables24:33
- Example 7: Kinetic Energy of a Basketball25:45
- Example 8: Playground Round-A-Bout28:17
- Example 9: The Ice Skater30:54
- Example 10: The Bowler33:15

Work & Power

31m 20s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- What Is Work?0:31
- Power Output0:35
- Transfer Energy0:39
- Work is the Process of Moving an Object by Applying a Force0:46
- Examples of Work0:56
- Calculating Work2:16
- Only the Force in the Direction of the Displacement Counts2:33
- Formula for Work2:48
- Example 1: Moving a Refrigerator3:16
- Example 2: Liberating a Car3:59
- Example 3: Crate on a Ramp5:20
- Example 4: Lifting a Box7:11
- Example 5: Pulling a Wagon8:38
- Force vs. Displacement Graphs9:33
- The Area Under a Force vs. Displacement Graph is the Work Done by the Force9:37
- Find the Work Done9:49
- Example 6: Work From a Varying Force11:00
- Hooke's Law12:42
- The More You Stretch or Compress a Spring, The Greater the Force of the Spring12:46
- The Spring's Force is Opposite the Direction of Its Displacement from Equilibrium13:00
- Determining the Spring Constant14:21
- Work Done in Compressing the Spring15:27
- Example 7: Finding Spring Constant16:21
- Example 8: Calculating Spring Constant17:58
- Power18:43
- Work18:46
- Power18:50
- Example 9: Moving a Sofa19:26
- Calculating Power20:41
- Example 10: Motors Delivering Power21:27
- Example 11: Force on a Cyclist22:40
- Example 12: Work on a Spinning Mass23:52
- Example 13: Work Done by Friction25:05
- Example 14: Units of Power28:38
- Example 15: Frictional Force on a Sled29:43

Energy

20m 15s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:07
- What is Energy?0:24
- The Ability or Capacity to do Work0:26
- The Ability or Capacity to Move an Object0:34
- Types of Energy0:39
- Energy Transformations2:07
- Transfer Energy by Doing Work2:12
- Work-Energy Theorem2:20
- Units of Energy2:51
- Kinetic Energy3:08
- Energy of Motion3:13
- Ability or Capacity of a Moving Object to Move Another Object3:17
- A Single Object Can Only Have Kinetic Energy3:46
- Example 1: Kinetic Energy of a Motorcycle5:08
- Potential Energy5:59
- Energy An Object Possesses6:10
- Gravitational Potential Energy7:21
- Elastic Potential Energy9:58
- Internal Energy10:16
- Includes the Kinetic Energy of the Objects That Make Up the System and the Potential Energy of the Configuration10:20
- Calculating Gravitational Potential Energy in a Constant Gravitational Field10:57
- Sources of Energy on Earth12:41
- Example 2: Potential Energy13:41
- Example 3: Energy of a System14:40
- Example 4: Kinetic and Potential Energy15:36
- Example 5: Pendulum16:55

Conservation of Energy

23m 20s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- Law of Conservation of Energy0:22
- Energy Cannot Be Created or Destroyed.. It Can Only Be Changed0:27
- Mechanical Energy0:34
- Conservation Laws0:40
- Examples0:49
- Kinematics vs. Energy4:34
- Energy Approach4:56
- Kinematics Approach6:04
- The Pendulum8:07
- Example 1: Cart Compressing a Spring13:09
- Example 214:23
- Example 3: Car Skidding to a Stop16:15
- Example 4: Accelerating an Object17:27
- Example 5: Block on Ramp18:06
- Example 6: Energy Transfers19:21

Simple Harmonic Motion

58m 30s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- What Is Simple Harmonic Motion?0:57
- Nature's Typical Reaction to a Disturbance1:00
- A Displacement Which Results in a Linear Restoring Force Results in SHM1:25
- Review of Springs1:43
- When a Force is Applied to a Spring, the Spring Applies a Restoring Force1:46
- When the Spring is in Equilibrium, It Is 'Unstrained'1:54
- Factors Affecting the Force of A Spring2:00
- Oscillations3:42
- Repeated Motions3:45
- Cycle 13:52
- Period3:58
- Frequency4:07
- Spring-Block Oscillator4:47
- Mass of the Block4:59
- Spring Constant5:05
- Example 1: Spring-Block Oscillator6:30
- Diagrams8:07
- Displacement8:42
- Velocity8:57
- Force9:36
- Acceleration10:09
- U10:24
- K10:47
- Example 2: Harmonic Oscillator Analysis16:22
- Circular Motion vs. SHM23:26
- Graphing SHM25:52
- Example 3: Position of an Oscillator28:31
- Vertical Spring-Block Oscillator31:13
- Example 4: Vertical Spring-Block Oscillator34:26
- Example 5: Bungee36:39
- The Pendulum43:55
- Mass Is Attached to a Light String That Swings Without Friction About the Vertical Equilibrium44:04
- Energy and the Simple Pendulum44:58
- Frequency and Period of a Pendulum48:25
- Period of an Ideal Pendulum48:31
- Assume Theta is Small48:54
- Example 6: The Pendulum50:15
- Example 7: Pendulum Clock53:38
- Example 8: Pendulum on the Moon55:14
- Example 9: Mass on a Spring56:01

Section 3: Fluids

Density & Buoyancy

19m 48s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Fluids0:27
- Fluid is Matter That Flows Under Pressure0:31
- Fluid Mechanics is the Study of Fluids0:44
- Density0:57
- Density is the Ratio of an Object's Mass to the Volume It Occupies0:58
- Less Dense Fluids1:06
- Less Dense Solids1:09
- Example 1: Density of Water1:27
- Example 2: Volume of Gold2:19
- Example 3: Floating3:06
- Buoyancy3:54
- Force Exerted by a Fluid on an Object, Opposing the Object's Weight3:56
- Buoyant Force Determined Using Archimedes Principle4:03
- Example 4: Buoyant Force5:12
- Example 5: Shark Tank5:56
- Example 6: Concrete Boat7:47
- Example 7: Apparent Mass10:08
- Example 8: Volume of a Submerged Cube13:21
- Example 9: Determining Density15:37

Pressure & Pascal's Principle

18m 7s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Pressure0:25
- Pressure is the Effect of a Force Acting Upon a Surface0:27
- Formula for Pressure0:41
- Force is Always Perpendicular to the Surface0:50
- Exerting Pressure1:03
- Fluids Exert Outward Pressure in All Directions on the Sides of Any Container Holding the Fluid1:36
- Earth's Atmosphere Exerts Pressure1:42
- Example 1: Pressure on Keyboard2:17
- Example 2: Sleepy Fisherman3:03
- Example 3: Scale on Planet Physica4:12
- Example 4: Ranking Pressures5:00
- Pressure on a Submerged Object6:45
- Pressure a Fluid Exerts on an Object Submerged in That Fluid6:46
- If There Is Atmosphere Above the Fluid7:03
- Example 5: Gauge Pressure Scuba Diving7:27
- Example 6: Absolute Pressure Scuba Diving8:13
- Pascal's Principle8:51
- Force Multiplication Using Pascal's Principle9:24
- Example 7: Barber's Chair11:38
- Example 8: Hydraulic Auto Lift13:26
- Example 9: Pressure on a Penny14:41
- Example 10: Depth in Fresh Water16:39
- Example 11: Absolute vs. Gauge Pressure17:23

Continuity Equation for Fluids

7m

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- Conservation of Mass for Fluid Flow0:18
- Law of Conservation of Mass for Fluids0:21
- Volume Flow Rate Remains Constant Throughout the Pipe0:35
- Volume Flow Rate0:59
- Quantified In Terms Of Volume Flow Rate1:01
- Area of Pipe x Velocity of Fluid1:05
- Must Be Constant Throughout Pipe1:10
- Example 1: Tapered Pipe1:44
- Example 2: Garden Hose2:37
- Example 3: Oil Pipeline4:49
- Example 4: Roots of Continuity Equation6:16

Bernoulli's Principle

20m

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- Bernoulli's Principle0:21
- Airplane Wings0:35
- Venturi Pump1:56
- Bernoulli's Equation3:32
- Example 1: Torricelli's Theorem4:38
- Example 2: Gauge Pressure7:26
- Example 3: Shower Pressure8:16
- Example 4: Water Fountain12:29
- Example 5: Elevated Cistern15:26

Section 4: Thermal Physics

Temperature, Heat, & Thermal Expansion

24m 17s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:12
- Thermal Physics0:42
- Explores the Internal Energy of Objects Due to the Motion of the Atoms and Molecules Comprising the Objects0:46
- Explores the Transfer of This Energy From Object to Object0:53
- Temperature1:00
- Thermal Energy Is Related to the Kinetic Energy of All the Particles Comprising the Object1:03
- The More Kinetic Energy of the Constituent Particles Have, The Greater the Object's Thermal Energy1:12
- Temperature and Phases of Matter1:44
- Solids1:48
- Liquids1:56
- Gases2:02
- Average Kinetic Energy and Temperature2:16
- Average Kinetic Energy2:24
- Boltzmann's Constant2:29
- Temperature Scales3:06
- Converting Temperatures4:37
- Heat5:03
- Transfer of Thermal Energy5:06
- Accomplished Through Collisions Which is Conduction5:13
- Methods of Heat Transfer5:52
- Conduction5:59
- Convection6:19
- Radiation6:31
- Quantifying Heat Transfer in Conduction6:37
- Rate of Heat Transfer is Measured in Watts6:42
- Thermal Conductivity7:12
- Example 1: Average Kinetic Energy7:35
- Example 2: Body Temperature8:22
- Example 3: Temperature of Space9:30
- Example 4: Temperature of the Sun10:44
- Example 5: Heat Transfer Through Window11:38
- Example 6: Heat Transfer Across a Rod12:40
- Thermal Expansion14:18
- When Objects Are Heated, They Tend to Expand14:19
- At Higher Temperatures, Objects Have Higher Average Kinetic Energies14:24
- At Higher Levels of Vibration, The Particles Are Not Bound As Tightly to Each Other14:30
- Linear Expansion15:11
- Amount a Material Expands is Characterized by the Material's Coefficient of Expansion15:14
- One-Dimensional Expansion -> Linear Coefficient of Expansion15:20
- Volumetric Expansion15:38
- Three-Dimensional Expansion -> Volumetric Coefficient of Expansion15:45
- Volumetric Coefficient of Expansion is Roughly Three Times the Linear Coefficient of Expansion16:03
- Coefficients of Thermal Expansion16:24
- Example 7: Contracting Railroad Tie16:59
- Example 8: Expansion of an Aluminum Rod18:37
- Example 9: Water Spilling Out of a Glass20:18
- Example 10: Average Kinetic Energy vs. Temperature22:18
- Example 11: Expansion of a Ring23:07

Ideal Gases

24m 15s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:10
- Ideal Gases0:25
- Gas Is Comprised of Many Particles Moving Randomly in a Container0:34
- Particles Are Far Apart From One Another0:46
- Particles Do Not Exert Forces Upon One Another Unless They Come In Contact in an Elastic Collision0:53
- Ideal Gas Law1:18
- Atoms, Molecules, and Moles2:56
- Protons2:59
- Neutrons3:15
- Electrons3:18
- Examples3:25
- Example 1: Counting Moles4:58
- Example 2: Moles of CO2 in a Bottle6:00
- Example 3: Pressurized CO26:54
- Example 4: Helium Balloon8:53
- Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas10:17
- The Average Kinetic Energy of the Particles of an Ideal Gas10:21
- Total Internal Energy of the Ideal Gas Can Be Found by Multiplying the Average Kinetic Energy of the Gas's Particles by the Numbers of Particles in the Gas10:32
- Example 5: Internal Energy of Oxygen12:00
- Example 6: Temperature of Argon12:41
- Root-Mean-Square Velocity13:40
- This is the Square Root of the Average Velocity Squared For All the Molecules in the System13:43
- Derived from the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Function13:56
- Calculating vrms14:56
- Example 7: Average Velocity of a Gas18:32
- Example 8: Average Velocity of a Gas19:44
- Example 9: vrms of Molecules in Equilibrium20:59
- Example 10: Moles to Molecules22:25
- Example 11: Relating Temperature and Internal Energy23:22

Thermodynamics

22m 29s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:06
- Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics0:26
- First Law of Thermodynamics1:00
- The Change in the Internal Energy of a Closed System is Equal to the Heat Added to the System Plus the Work Done on the System1:04
- It is a Restatement of the Law of Conservation of Energy1:19
- Sign Conventions Are Important1:25
- Work Done on a Gas1:44
- Example 1: Adding Heat to a System3:25
- Example 2: Expanding a Gas4:07
- P-V Diagrams5:11
- Pressure-Volume Diagrams are Useful Tools for Visualizing Thermodynamic Processes of Gases5:13
- Use Ideal Gas Law to Determine Temperature of Gas5:25
- P-V Diagrams II5:55
- Volume Increases, Pressure Decreases6:00
- As Volume Expands, Gas Does Work6:19
- Temperature Rises as You Travel Up and Right on a PV Diagram6:29
- Example 3: PV Diagram Analysis6:40
- Types of PV Processes7:52
- Adiabatic8:03
- Isobaric8:19
- Isochoric8:28
- Isothermal8:35
- Adiabatic Processes8:47
- Heat Is not Transferred Into or Out of The System8:50
- Heat = 08:55
- Isobaric Processes9:19
- Pressure Remains Constant9:21
- PV Diagram Shows a Horizontal Line9:27
- Isochoric Processes9:51
- Volume Remains Constant9:52
- PV Diagram Shows a Vertical Line9:58
- Work Done on the Gas is Zero10:01
- Isothermal Processes10:27
- Temperature Remains Constant10:29
- Lines on a PV Diagram Are Isotherms10:31
- PV Remains Constant10:38
- Internal Energy of Gas Remains Constant10:40
- Example 4: Adiabatic Expansion10:46
- Example 5: Removing Heat11:25
- Example 6: Ranking Processes13:08
- Second Law of Thermodynamics13:59
- Heat Flows Naturally From a Warmer Object to a Colder Object14:02
- Heat Energy Cannot be Completely Transformed Into Mechanical Work14:11
- All Natural Systems Tend Toward a Higher Level of Disorder14:19
- Heat Engines14:52
- Heat Engines Convert Heat Into Mechanical Work14:56
- Efficiency of a Heat Engine is the Ratio of the Engine You Get Out to the Energy You Put In14:59
- Power in Heat Engines16:09
- Heat Engines and PV Diagrams17:38
- Carnot Engine17:54
- It Is a Theoretical Heat Engine That Operates at Maximum Possible Efficiency18:02
- It Uses Only Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes18:08
- Carnot's Theorem18:11
- Example 7: Carnot Engine18:49
- Example 8: Maximum Efficiency21:02
- Example 9: PV Processes21:51

Section 5: Electricity & Magnetism

Electric Fields & Forces

38m 24s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:10
- Electric Charges0:34
- Matter is Made Up of Atoms0:37
- Protons Have a Charge of +10:45
- Electrons Have a Charge of -11:00
- Most Atoms Are Neutral1:04
- Ions1:15
- Fundamental Unit of Charge is the Coulomb1:29
- Like Charges Repel, While Opposites Attract1:50
- Example 1: Charge on an Object2:22
- Example 2: Charge of an Alpha Particle3:36
- Conductors and Insulators4:27
- Conductors Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely4:30
- Insulators Do Not Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely4:39
- Resistivity is a Material Property4:45
- Charging by Conduction5:05
- Materials May Be Charged by Contact, Known as Conduction5:07
- Conductors May Be Charged by Contact5:24
- Example 3: Charging by Conduction5:38
- The Electroscope6:44
- Charging by Induction8:00
- Example 4: Electrostatic Attraction9:23
- Coulomb's Law11:46
- Charged Objects Apply a Force Upon Each Other = Coulombic Force11:52
- Force of Attraction or Repulsion is Determined by the Amount of Charge and the Distance Between the Charges12:04
- Example 5: Determine Electrostatic Force13:09
- Example 6: Deflecting an Electron Beam15:35
- Electric Fields16:28
- The Property of Space That Allows a Charged Object to Feel a Force16:44
- Electric Field Strength Vector is the Amount of Electrostatic Force Observed by a Charge Per Unit of Charge17:01
- The Direction of the Electric Field Vector is the Direction a Positive Charge Would Feel a Force17:24
- Example 7: Field Between Metal Plates17:58
- Visualizing the Electric Field19:27
- Electric Field Lines Point Away from Positive Charges and Toward Negative Charges19:40
- Electric Field Lines Intersect Conductors at Right Angles to the Surface19:50
- Field Strength and Line Density Decreases as You Move Away From the Charges19:58
- Electric Field Lines20:09
- E Field Due to a Point Charge22:32
- Electric Fields Are Caused by Charges22:35
- Electric Field Due to a Point Charge Can Be Derived From the Definition of the Electric Field and Coulomb's Law22:38
- To Find the Electric Field Due to Multiple Charges23:09
- Comparing Electricity to Gravity23:56
- Force24:02
- Field Strength24:16
- Constant24:37
- Charge/ Mass Units25:01
- Example 8: E Field From 3 Point Charges25:07
- Example 9: Where is the E Field Zero?31:43
- Example 10: Gravity and Electricity36:38
- Example 11: Field Due to Point Charge37:34

Electric Potential Difference

35m 58s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Electric Potential Energy0:32
- When an Object Was Lifted Against Gravity By Applying a Force for Some Distance, Work Was Done0:35
- When a Charged Object is Moved Against an Electric Field by Applying a Force for Some Distance, Work is Done0:43
- Electric Potential Difference1:30
- Example 1: Charge From Work2:06
- Example 2: Electric Energy3:09
- The Electron-Volt4:02
- Electronvolt (eV)4:15
- 1eV is the Amount of Work Done in Moving an Elementary Charge Through a Potential Difference of 1 Volt4:28
- Example 3: Energy in eV5:33
- Equipotential Lines6:32
- Topographic Maps Show Lines of Equal Altitude, or Equal Gravitational Potential6:36
- Lines Connecting Points of Equal Electrical Potential are Known as Equipotential Lines6:57
- Drawing Equipotential Lines8:15
- Potential Due to a Point Charge10:46
- Calculate the Electric Field Vector Due to a Point Charge10:52
- Calculate the Potential Difference Due to a Point Charge11:05
- To Find the Potential Difference Due to Multiple Point Charges11:16
- Example 4: Potential Due to a Point Charge11:52
- Example 5: Potential Due to Point Charges13:04
- Parallel Plates16:34
- Configurations in Which Parallel Plates of Opposite Charge are Situated a Fixed Distance From Each Other16:37
- These Can Create a Capacitor16:45
- E Field Due to Parallel Plates17:14
- Electric Field Away From the Edges of Two Oppositely Charged Parallel Plates is Constant17:15
- Magnitude of the Electric Field Strength is Give By the Potential Difference Between the Plates Divided by the Plate Separation17:47
- Capacitors18:09
- Electric Device Used to Store Charge18:11
- Once the Plates Are Charged, They Are Disconnected18:30
- Device's Capacitance18:46
- Capacitors Store Energy19:28
- Charges Located on the Opposite Plates of a Capacitor Exert Forces on Each Other19:31
- Example 6: Capacitance20:28
- Example 7: Charge on a Capacitor22:03
- Designing Capacitors24:00
- Area of the Plates24:05
- Separation of the Plates24:09
- Insulating Material24:13
- Example 8: Designing a Capacitor25:35
- Example 9: Calculating Capacitance27:39
- Example 10: Electron in Space29:47
- Example 11: Proton Energy Transfer30:35
- Example 12: Two Conducting Spheres32:50
- Example 13: Equipotential Lines for a Capacitor34:48

Current & Resistance

21m 14s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:06
- Electric Current0:19
- Path Through Current Flows0:21
- Current is the Amount of Charge Passing a Point Per Unit Time0:25
- Conventional Current is the Direction of Positive Charge Flow0:43
- Example 1: Current Through a Resistor1:19
- Example 2: Current Due to Elementary Charges1:47
- Example 3: Charge in a Light Bulb2:35
- Example 4: Flashlights3:03
- Conductivity and Resistivity4:41
- Conductivity is a Material's Ability to Conduct Electric Charge4:53
- Resistivity is a Material's Ability to Resist the Movement of Electric Charge5:11
- Resistance vs. Resistivity vs. Resistors5:35
- Resistivity Is a Material Property5:40
- Resistance Is a Functional Property of an Element in an Electric Circuit5:57
- A Resistor is a Circuit Element7:23
- Resistors7:45
- Example 5: Calculating Resistance8:17
- Example 6: Resistance Dependencies10:09
- Configuration of Resistors10:50
- When Placed in a Circuit, Resistors Can be Organized in Both Serial and Parallel Arrangements10:53
- May Be Useful to Determine an Equivalent Resistance Which Could Be Used to Replace a System or Resistors with a Single Equivalent Resistor10:58
- Resistors in Series11:15
- Resistors in Parallel12:35
- Example 7: Finding Equivalent Resistance15:01
- Example 8: Length and Resistance17:43
- Example 9: Comparing Resistors18:21
- Example 10: Comparing Wires19:12

Ohm's Law & Power

10m 35s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:06
- Ohm's Law0:21
- Relates Resistance, Potential Difference, and Current Flow0:23
- Example 1: Resistance of a Wire1:22
- Example 2: Circuit Current1:58
- Example 3: Variable Resistor2:30
- Ohm's 'Law'?3:22
- Very Useful Empirical Relationship3:31
- Test if a Material is 'Ohmic'3:40
- Example 4: Ohmic Material3:58
- Electrical Power4:24
- Current Flowing Through a Circuit Causes a Transfer of Energy Into Different Types4:26
- Example: Light Bulb4:36
- Example: Television4:58
- Calculating Power5:09
- Electrical Energy5:14
- Charge Per Unit Time Is Current5:29
- Expand Using Ohm's Law5:48
- Example 5: Toaster7:43
- Example 6: Electric Iron8:19
- Example 7: Power of a Resistor9:19
- Example 8: Information Required to Determine Power in a Resistor9:55

Circuits & Electrical Meters

8m 44s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- Electrical Circuits0:21
- A Closed-Loop Path Through Which Current Can Flow0:22
- Can Be Made Up of Most Any Materials, But Typically Comprised of Electrical Devices0:27
- Circuit Schematics1:09
- Symbols Represent Circuit Elements1:30
- Lines Represent Wires1:33
- Sources for Potential Difference: Voltaic Cells, Batteries, Power Supplies1:36
- Complete Conducting Paths2:43
- Voltmeters3:20
- Measure the Potential Difference Between Two Points in a Circuit3:21
- Connected in Parallel with the Element to be Measured3:25
- Have Very High Resistance3:59
- Ammeters4:19
- Measure the Current Flowing Through an Element of a Circuit4:20
- Connected in Series with the Circuit4:25
- Have Very Low Resistance4:45
- Example 1: Ammeter and Voltmeter Placement4:56
- Example 2: Analyzing R6:27
- Example 3: Voltmeter Placement7:12
- Example 4: Behavior or Electrical Meters7:31

Circuit Analysis

48m 58s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:07
- Series Circuits0:27
- Series Circuits Have Only a Single Current Path0:29
- Removal of any Circuit Element Causes an Open Circuit0:31
- Kirchhoff's Laws1:36
- Tools Utilized in Analyzing Circuits1:42
- Kirchhoff's Current Law States1:47
- Junction Rule2:00
- Kirchhoff's Voltage Law States2:05
- Loop Rule2:18
- Example 1: Voltage Across a Resistor2:23
- Example 2: Current at a Node3:45
- Basic Series Circuit Analysis4:53
- Example 3: Current in a Series Circuit9:21
- Example 4: Energy Expenditure in a Series Circuit10:14
- Example 5: Analysis of a Series Circuit12:07
- Example 6: Voltmeter In a Series Circuit14:57
- Parallel Circuits17:11
- Parallel Circuits Have Multiple Current Paths17:13
- Removal of a Circuit Element May Allow Other Branches of the Circuit to Continue Operating17:15
- Basic Parallel Circuit Analysis18:19
- Example 7: Parallel Circuit Analysis21:05
- Example 8: Equivalent Resistance22:39
- Example 9: Four Parallel Resistors23:16
- Example 10: Ammeter in a Parallel Circuit26:27
- Combination Series-Parallel Circuits28:50
- Look For Portions of the Circuit With Parallel Elements28:56
- Work Back to Original Circuit29:09
- Analysis of a Combination Circuit29:20
- Internal Resistance34:11
- In Reality, Voltage Sources Have Some Amount of 'Internal Resistance'34:16
- Terminal Voltage of the Voltage Source is Reduced Slightly34:25
- Example 11: Two Voltage Sources35:16
- Example 12: Internal Resistance42:46
- Example 13: Complex Circuit with Meters45:22
- Example 14: Parallel Equivalent Resistance48:24

RC Circuits

24m 47s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- Capacitors in Parallel0:34
- Capacitors Store Charge on Their Plates0:37
- Capacitors In Parallel Can Be Replaced with an Equivalent Capacitor0:46
- Capacitors in Series2:42
- Charge on Capacitors Must Be the Same2:44
- Capacitor In Series Can Be Replaced With an Equivalent Capacitor2:47
- RC Circuits5:40
- Comprised of a Source of Potential Difference, a Resistor Network, and One or More Capacitors5:42
- Uncharged Capacitors Act Like Wires6:04
- Charged Capacitors Act Like Opens6:12
- Charging an RC Circuit6:23
- Discharging an RC Circuit11:36
- Example 1: RC Analysis14:50
- Example 2: More RC Analysis18:26
- Example 3: Equivalent Capacitance21:19
- Example 4: More Equivalent Capacitance22:48

Magnetic Fields & Properties

19m 48s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:07
- Magnetism0:32
- A Force Caused by Moving Charges0:34
- Magnetic Domains Are Clusters of Atoms with Electrons Spinning in the Same Direction0:51
- Example 1: Types of Fields1:23
- Magnetic Field Lines2:25
- Make Closed Loops and Run From North to South Outside the Magnet2:26
- Magnetic Flux2:42
- Show the Direction the North Pole of a Magnet Would Tend to Point If Placed in the Field2:54
- Example 2: Lines of Magnetic Force3:49
- Example 3: Forces Between Bar Magnets4:39
- The Compass5:28
- The Earth is a Giant Magnet5:31
- The Earth's Magnetic North pole is Located Near the Geographic South Pole, and Vice Versa5:33
- A Compass Lines Up with the Net Magnetic Field6:07
- Example 3: Compass in Magnetic Field6:41
- Example 4: Compass Near a Bar Magnet7:14
- Magnetic Permeability7:59
- The Ratio of the Magnetic Field Strength Induced in a Material to the Magnetic Field Strength of the Inducing Field8:02
- Free Space8:13
- Highly Magnetic Materials Have Higher Values of Magnetic Permeability8:34
- Magnetic Dipole Moment8:41
- The Force That a Magnet Can Exert on Moving Charges8:46
- Relative Strength of a Magnet8:54
- Forces on Moving Charges9:10
- Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields9:11
- Magnetic Fields Exert Forces on Moving Charges9:17
- Direction of the Magnetic Force9:57
- Direction is Given by the Right-Hand Rule10:05
- Right-Hand Rule10:09
- Mass Spectrometer10:52
- Magnetic Fields Accelerate Moving Charges So That They Travel in a Circle10:58
- Used to Determine the Mass of an Unknown Particle11:04
- Velocity Selector12:44
- Mass Spectrometer with an Electric Field Added12:47
- Example 5: Force on an Electron14:13
- Example 6: Velocity of a Charged Particle15:25
- Example 7: Direction of the Magnetic Force16:52
- Example 8: Direction of Magnetic Force on Moving Charges17:43
- Example 9: Electron Released From Rest in Magnetic Field18:53

Current-Carrying Wires

21m 29s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Force on a Current-Carrying Wire0:30
- A Current-Carrying Wire in a Magnetic Field May Experience a Magnetic Force0:33
- Direction Given by the Right-Hand Rule1:11
- Example 1: Force on a Current-Carrying Wire1:38
- Example 2: Equilibrium on a Submerged Wire2:33
- Example 3: Torque on a Loop of Wire5:55
- Magnetic Field Due to a Current-Carrying Wire8:49
- Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields8:53
- Wires Carry Moving Charges8:56
- Direction Given by the Right-Hand Rule9:21
- Example 4: Magnetic Field Due to a Wire10:56
- Magnetic Field Due to a Solenoid12:12
- Solenoid is a Coil of Wire12:19
- Direction Given by the Right-Hand Rule12:47
- Forces on 2 Parallel Wires13:34
- Current Flowing in the Same Direction14:52
- Current Flowing in Opposite Directions14:57
- Example 5: Magnetic Field Due to Wires15:19
- Example 6: Strength of an Electromagnet18:35
- Example 7: Force on a Wire19:30
- Example 8: Force Between Parallel Wires20:47

Intro to Electromagnetic Induction

17m 26s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Induced EMF0:42
- Charges Flowing Through a Wire Create Magnetic Fields0:45
- Changing Magnetic Fields Cause Charges to Flow or 'Induce' a Current in a Process Known As Electromagnetic Induction0:49
- Electro-Motive Force is the Potential Difference Created by a Changing Magnetic Field0:57
- Magnetic Flux is the Amount of Magnetic Fields Passing Through an Area1:17
- Finding the Magnetic Flux1:36
- Magnetic Field Strength1:39
- Angle Between the Magnetic Field Strength and the Normal to the Area1:51
- Calculating Induced EMF3:01
- The Magnitude of the Induced EMF is Equal to the Rate of Change of the Magnetic Flux3:04
- Induced EMF in a Rectangular Loop of Wire4:03
- Lenz's Law5:17
- Electric Generators and Motors9:28
- Generate an Induced EMF By Turning a Coil of Wire in a magnetic Field9:31
- Generators Use Mechanical Energy to Turn the Coil of Wire9:39
- Electric Motor Operates Using Same Principle10:30
- Example 1: Finding Magnetic Flux10:43
- Example 2: Finding Induced EMF11:54
- Example 3: Changing Magnetic Field13:52
- Example 4: Current Induced in a Rectangular Loop of Wire15:23

Section 6: Waves & Optics

Wave Characteristics

26m 41s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Waves0:32
- Pulse1:00
- A Pulse is a Single Disturbance Which Carries Energy Through a Medium or Space1:05
- A Wave is a Series of Pulses1:18
- When a Pulse Reaches a Hard Boundary1:37
- When a Pulse Reaches a Soft or Flexible Boundary2:04
- Types of Waves2:44
- Mechanical Waves2:56
- Electromagnetic Waves3:14
- Types of Wave Motion3:38
- Longitudinal Waves3:39
- Transverse Waves4:18
- Anatomy of a Transverse Wave5:18
- Example 1: Waves Requiring a Medium6:59
- Example 2: Direction of Displacement7:36
- Example 3: Bell in a Vacuum Jar8:47
- Anatomy of a Longitudinal Wave9:22
- Example 4: Tuning Fork9:57
- Example 5: Amplitude of a Sound Wave10:24
- Frequency and Period10:47
- Example 6: Period of an EM Wave11:23
- Example 7: Frequency and Period12:01
- The Wave Equation12:32
- Velocity of a Wave is a Function of the Type of Wave and the Medium It Travels Through12:36
- Speed of a Wave is Related to Its Frequency and Wavelength12:41
- Example 8: Wavelength Using the Wave Equation13:54
- Example 9: Period of an EM Wave14:35
- Example 10: Blue Whale Waves16:03
- Sound Waves17:29
- Sound is a Mechanical Wave Observed by Detecting Vibrations in the Inner Ear17:33
- Particles of Sound Wave Vibrate Parallel With the Direction of the Wave's Velocity17:56
- Example 11: Distance from Speakers18:24
- Resonance19:45
- An Object with the Same 'Natural Frequency' May Begin to Vibrate at This Frequency19:55
- Classic Example20:01
- Example 12: Vibrating Car20:32
- Example 13: Sonar Signal21:28
- Example 14: Waves Across Media24:06
- Example 15: Wavelength of Middle C25:24

Wave Interference

20m 45s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Superposition0:30
- When More Than One Wave Travels Through the Same Location in the Same Medium0:32
- The Total Displacement is the Sum of All the Individual Displacements of the Waves0:46
- Example 1: Superposition of Pulses1:01
- Types of Interference2:02
- Constructive Interference2:05
- Destructive Interference2:18
- Example 2: Interference2:47
- Example 3: Shallow Water Waves3:27
- Standing Waves4:23
- When Waves of the Same Frequency and Amplitude Traveling in Opposite Directions Meet in the Same Medium4:26
- A Wave in Which Nodes Appear to be Standing Still and Antinodes Vibrate with Maximum Amplitude Above and Below the Axis4:35
- Standing Waves in String Instruments5:36
- Standing Waves in Open Tubes8:49
- Standing Waves in Closed Tubes9:57
- Interference From Multiple Sources11:43
- Constructive11:55
- Destructive12:14
- Beats12:49
- Two Sound Waves with Almost the Same Frequency Interfere to Create a Beat Pattern12:52
- A Frequency Difference of 1 to 4 Hz is Best for Human Detection of Beat Phenomena13:05
- Example 414:13
- Example 518:03
- Example 619:14
- Example 7: Superposition20:08

Wave Phenomena

19m 2s

- Intro0:00
- Objective0:08
- Doppler Effect0:36
- The Shift In A Wave's Observed Frequency Due to Relative Motion Between the Source of the Wave and Observer0:39
- When Source and/or Observer Move Toward Each Other0:45
- When Source and/or Observer Move Away From Each Other0:52
- Practical Doppler Effect1:01
- Vehicle Traveling Past You1:05
- Applications Are Numerous and Widespread1:56
- Doppler Effect - Astronomy2:43
- Observed Frequencies Are Slightly Lower Than Scientists Would Predict2:50
- More Distant Celestial Objects Are Moving Away from the Earth Faster Than Nearer Objects3:22
- Example 1: Car Horn3:36
- Example 2: Moving Speaker4:13
- Diffraction5:35
- The Bending of Waves Around Obstacles5:37
- Most Apparent When Wavelength Is Same Order of Magnitude as the Obstacle/ Opening6:10
- Single-Slit Diffraction6:16
- Double-Slit Diffraction8:13
- Diffraction Grating11:07
- Sharper and Brighter Maxima11:46
- Useful for Determining Wavelengths Accurately12:07
- Example 3: Double Slit Pattern12:30
- Example 4: Determining Wavelength16:05
- Example 5: Radar Gun18:04
- Example 6: Red Shift18:29

Light As a Wave

11m 35s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:14
- Electromagnetic (EM) Waves0:31
- Light is an EM Wave0:43
- EM Waves Are Transverse Due to the Modulation of the Electric and Magnetic Fields Perpendicular to the Wave Velocity1:00
- Electromagnetic Wave Characteristics1:37
- The Product of an EM Wave's Frequency and Wavelength Must be Constant in a Vacuum1:43
- Polarization3:36
- Unpoloarized EM Waves Exhibit Modulation in All Directions3:47
- Polarized Light Consists of Light Vibrating in a Single Direction4:07
- Polarizers4:29
- Materials Which Act Like Filters to Only Allow Specific Polarizations of Light to Pass4:33
- Polarizers Typically Are Sheets of Material in Which Long Molecules Are Lined Up Like a Picket Fence5:10
- Polarizing Sunglasses5:22
- Reduce Reflections5:26
- Polarizing Sunglasses Have Vertical Polarizing Filters5:48
- Liquid Crystal Displays6:08
- LCDs Use Liquid Crystals in a Suspension That Align Themselves in a Specific Orientation When a Voltage is Applied6:13
- Cross-Orienting a Polarizer and a Matrix of Liquid Crystals so Light Can Be Modulated Pixel-by-Pixel6:26
- Example 1: Color of Light7:30
- Example 2: Analyzing an EM Wave8:49
- Example 3: Remote Control9:45
- Example 4: Comparing EM Waves10:32

Reflection & Mirrors

24m 32s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:10
- Waves at Boundaries0:37
- Reflected0:43
- Transmitted0:45
- Absorbed0:48
- Law of Reflection0:58
- The Angle of Incidence is Equal to the Angle of Reflection1:00
- They Are Both Measured From a Line Perpendicular, or Normal, to the Reflecting Surface1:22
- Types of Reflection1:54
- Diffuse Reflection1:57
- Specular Reflection2:08
- Example 1: Specular Reflection2:24
- Mirrors3:20
- Light Rays From the Object Reach the Plane Mirror and Are Reflected to the Observer3:27
- Virtual Image3:33
- Magnitude of Image Distance4:05
- Plane Mirror Ray Tracing4:15
- Object Distance4:26
- Image Distance4:43
- Magnification of Image7:03
- Example 2: Plane Mirror Images7:28
- Example 3: Image in a Plane Mirror7:51
- Spherical Mirrors8:10
- Inner Surface of a Spherical Mirror8:19
- Outer Surface of a Spherical Mirror8:30
- Focal Point of a Spherical Mirror8:40
- Converging8:51
- Diverging9:00
- Concave (Converging) Spherical Mirrors9:09
- Light Rays Coming Into a Mirror Parallel to the Principal Axis9:14
- Light Rays Passing Through the Center of Curvature10:17
- Light Rays From the Object Passing Directly Through the Focal Point10:52
- Mirror Equation (Lens Equation)12:06
- Object and Image Distances Are Positive on the Reflecting Side of the Mirror12:13
- Formula12:19
- Concave Mirror with Object Inside f12:39
- Example 4: Concave Spherical Mirror14:21
- Example 5: Image From a Concave Mirror14:51
- Convex (Diverging) Spherical Mirrors16:29
- Light Rays Coming Into a Mirror Parallel to the Principal Axis16:37
- Light Rays Striking the Center of the Mirror16:50
- Light Rays Never Converge on the Reflective Side of a Convex Mirror16:54
- Convex Mirror Ray Tracing17:07
- Example 6: Diverging Rays19:12
- Example 7: Focal Length19:28
- Example 8: Reflected Sonar Wave19:53
- Example 9: Plane Mirror Image Distance20:20
- Example 10: Image From a Concave Mirror21:23
- Example 11: Converging Mirror Image Distance23:09

Refraction & Lenses

39m 42s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Refraction0:42
- When a Wave Reaches a Boundary Between Media, Part of the Wave is Reflected and Part of the Wave Enters the New Medium0:43
- Wavelength Must Change If the Wave's Speed Changes0:57
- Refraction is When This Causes The Wave to Bend as It Enters the New Medium1:12
- Marching Band Analogy1:22
- Index of Refraction2:37
- Measure of How Much Light Slows Down in a Material2:40
- Ratio of the Speed of an EM Wave in a Vacuum to the Speed of an EM Wave in Another Material is Known as Index of Refraction3:03
- Indices of Refraction3:21
- Dispersion4:01
- White Light is Refracted Twice in Prism4:23
- Index of Refraction of the Prism Material Varies Slightly with Respect to Frequency4:41
- Example 1: Determining n5:14
- Example 2: Light in Diamond and Crown Glass5:55
- Snell's Law6:24
- The Amount of a Light Wave Bends As It Enters a New Medium is Given by the Law of Refraction6:32
- Light Bends Toward the Normal as it Enters a Material With a Higher n7:08
- Light Bends Toward the Normal as it Enters a Material With a Lower n7:14
- Example 3: Angle of Refraction7:42
- Example 4: Changes with Refraction9:31
- Total Internal Reflection10:10
- When the Angle of Refraction Reaches 90 Degrees10:23
- Critical Angle10:34
- Total Internal Reflection10:51
- Applications of TIR12:13
- Example 5: Critical Angle of Water13:17
- Thin Lenses14:15
- Convex Lenses14:22
- Concave Lenses14:31
- Convex Lenses15:24
- Rays Parallel to the Principal Axis are Refracted Through the Far Focal Point of the Lens15:28
- A Ray Drawn From the Object Through the Center of the Lens Passes Through the Center of the Lens Unbent15:53
- Example 6: Converging Lens Image16:46
- Example 7: Image Distance of Convex Lens17:18
- Concave Lenses18:21
- Rays From the Object Parallel to the Principal Axis Are Refracted Away from the Principal Axis on a Line from the Near Focal Point Through the Point Where the Ray Intercepts the Center of the Lens18:25
- Concave Lenses Produce Upright, Virtual, Reduced Images20:30
- Example 8: Light Ray Thought a Lens20:36
- Systems of Optical Elements21:05
- Find the Image of the First Optical Elements and Utilize It as the Object of the Second Optical Element21:16
- Example 9: Lens and Mirrors21:35
- Thin Film Interference27:22
- When Light is Incident Upon a Thin Film, Some Light is Reflected and Some is Transmitted Into the Film27:25
- If the Transmitted Light is Again Reflected, It Travels Back Out of the Film and Can Interfere27:31
- Phase Change for Every Reflection from Low-Index to High-Index28:09
- Example 10: Thin Film Interference28:41
- Example 11: Wavelength in Diamond32:07
- Example 12: Light Incident on Crown Glass33:57
- Example 13: Real Image from Convex Lens34:44
- Example 14: Diverging Lens35:45
- Example 15: Creating Enlarged, Real Images36:22
- Example 16: Image from a Converging Lens36:48
- Example 17: Converging Lens System37:50

Wave-Particle Duality

23m 47s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:11
- Duality of Light0:37
- Photons0:47
- Dual Nature0:53
- Wave Evidence1:00
- Particle Evidence1:10
- Blackbody Radiation & the UV Catastrophe1:20
- Very Hot Objects Emitted Radiation in a Specific Spectrum of Frequencies and Intensities1:25
- Color Objects Emitted More Intensity at Higher Wavelengths1:45
- Quantization of Emitted Radiation1:56
- Photoelectric Effect2:38
- EM Radiation Striking a Piece of Metal May Emit Electrons2:41
- Not All EM Radiation Created Photoelectrons2:49
- Photons of Light3:23
- Photon Has Zero Mass, Zero Charge3:32
- Energy of a Photon is Quantized3:36
- Energy of a Photon is Related to its Frequency3:41
- Creation of Photoelectrons4:17
- Electrons in Metals Were Held in 'Energy Walls'4:20
- Work Function4:32
- Cutoff Frequency4:54
- Kinetic Energy of Photoelectrons5:14
- Electron in a Metal Absorbs a Photon with Energy Greater Than the Metal's Work Function5:16
- Electron is Emitted as a Photoelectron5:24
- Any Absorbed Energy Beyond That Required to Free the Electron is the KE of the Photoelectron5:28
- Photoelectric Effect in a Circuit6:37
- Compton Effect8:28
- Less of Energy and Momentum8:49
- Lost by X-Ray Equals Energy and Gained by Photoelectron8:52
- Compton Wavelength9:09
- Major Conclusions9:36
- De Broglie Wavelength10:44
- Smaller the Particle, the More Apparent the Wave Properties11:03
- Wavelength of a Moving Particle is Known as Its de Broglie Wavelength11:07
- Davisson-Germer Experiment11:29
- Verifies Wave Nature of Moving Particles11:30
- Shoot Electrons at Double Slit11:34
- Example 111:46
- Example 213:07
- Example 313:48
- Example 4A15:33
- Example 4B18:47
- Example 5: Wave Nature of Light19:54
- Example 6: Moving Electrons20:43
- Example 7: Wavelength of an Electron21:11
- Example 8: Wrecking Ball22:50

Section 7: Modern Physics

Atomic Energy Levels

14m 21s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:09
- Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment0:35
- Most of the Particles Go Through Undeflected1:12
- Some Alpha Particles Are Deflected Large Amounts1:15
- Atoms Have a Small, Massive, Positive Nucleus1:20
- Electrons Orbit the Nucleus1:23
- Most of the Atom is Empty Space1:26
- Problems with Rutherford's Model1:31
- Charges Moving in a Circle Accelerate, Therefore Classical Physics Predicts They Should Release Photons1:39
- Lose Energy When They Release Photons1:46
- Orbits Should Decay and They Should Be Unstable1:50
- Bohr Model of the Atom2:09
- Electrons Don't Lose Energy as They Accelerate2:20
- Each Atom Allows Only a Limited Number of Specific Orbits at Each Energy Level2:35
- Electrons Must Absorb or Emit a Photon of Energy to Change Energy Levels2:40
- Energy Level Diagrams3:29
- n=1 is the Lowest Energy State3:34
- Negative Energy Levels Indicate Electron is Bound to Nucleus of the Atom4:03
- When Electron Reaches 0 eV It Is No Longer Bound4:20
- Electron Cloud Model (Probability Model)4:46
- Electron Only Has A Probability of Being Located in Certain Regions Surrounding the Nucleus4:53
- Electron Orbitals Are Probability Regions4:58
- Atomic Spectra5:16
- Atoms Can Only Emit Certain Frequencies of Photons5:19
- Electrons Can Only Absorb Photons With Energy Equal to the Difference in Energy Levels5:34
- This Leads to Unique Atomic Spectra of Emitted and Absorbed Radiation for Each Element5:37
- Incandescence Emits a Continuous Energy5:43
- If All Colors of Light Are Incident Upon a Cold Gas, The Gas Only Absorbs Frequencies Corresponding to Photon Energies Equal to the Difference Between the Gas's Atomic Energy Levels6:16
- Continuous Spectrum6:42
- Absorption Spectrum6:50
- Emission Spectrum7:08
- X-Rays7:36
- The Photoelectric Effect in Reverse7:38
- Electrons Are Accelerated Through a Large Potential Difference and Collide with a Molybdenum or Platinum Plate7:53
- Example 1: Electron in Hydrogen Atom8:24
- Example 2: EM Emission in Hydrogen10:05
- Example 3: Photon Frequencies11:30
- Example 4: Bright-Line Spectrum12:24
- Example 5: Gas Analysis13:08

Nuclear Physics

15m 47s

- Intro0:00
- Objectives0:08
- The Nucleus0:33
- Protons Have a Charge or +1 e0:39
- Neutrons Are Neutral (0 Charge)0:42
- Held Together by the Strong Nuclear Force0:43
- Example 1: Deconstructing an Atom1:20
- Mass-Energy Equivalence2:06
- Mass is a Measure of How Much Energy an Object Contains2:16
- Universal Conservation of Laws2:31
- Nuclear Binding Energy2:53
- A Strong Nuclear Force Holds Nucleons Together3:04
- Mass of the Individual Constituents is Greater Than the Mass of the Combined Nucleus3:19
- Binding Energy of the Nucleus3:32
- Mass Defect3:37
- Nuclear Decay4:30
- Alpha Decay4:42
- Beta Decay5:09
- Gamma Decay5:46
- Fission6:40
- The Splitting of a Nucleus Into Two or More Nuclei6:42
- For Larger Nuclei, the Mass of Original Nucleus is Greater Than the Sum of the Mass of the Products When Split6:47
- Fusion8:14
- The Process of Combining Two Or More Smaller Nuclei Into a Larger Nucleus8:15
- This Fuels Our Sun and Stars8:28
- Basis of Hydrogen Bomb8:31
- Forces in the Universe9:00
- Strong Nuclear Force9:06
- Electromagnetic Force9:13
- Weak Nuclear Force9:22
- Gravitational Force9:27
- Example 2: Deuterium Nucleus9:39
- Example 3: Particle Accelerator10:24
- Example 4: Tritium Formation12:03
- Example 5: Beta Decay13:02
- Example 6: Gamma Decay14:15
- Example 7: Annihilation14:39

Section 8: Sample AP Exams

AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part 1

38m 1s

- Intro0:00
- Problem 11:33
- Problem 21:57
- Problem 32:50
- Problem 43:46
- Problem 54:13
- Problem 64:41
- Problem 76:12
- Problem 86:49
- Problem 97:49
- Problem 109:31
- Problem 1110:08
- Problem 1211:03
- Problem 1311:30
- Problem 1412:28
- Problem 1514:04
- Problem 1615:05
- Problem 1715:55
- Problem 1817:06
- Problem 1918:43
- Problem 2019:58
- Problem 2122:03
- Problem 2222:49
- Problem 2323:28
- Problem 2424:04
- Problem 2525:07
- Problem 2626:46
- Problem 2728:03
- Problem 2828:49
- Problem 2930:20
- Problem 3031:10
- Problem 3133:03
- Problem 3233:46
- Problem 3334:47
- Problem 3436:07
- Problem 3536:44

AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part 2

37m 49s

- Intro0:00
- Problem 360:18
- Problem 370:42
- Problem 382:13
- Problem 394:10
- Problem 404:47
- Problem 415:52
- Problem 427:22
- Problem 438:16
- Problem 449:11
- Problem 459:42
- Problem 4610:56
- Problem 4712:03
- Problem 4813:58
- Problem 4914:49
- Problem 5015:36
- Problem 5115:51
- Problem 5217:18
- Problem 5317:59
- Problem 5419:10
- Problem 5521:27
- Problem 5622:40
- Problem 5723:19
- Problem 5823:50
- Problem 5925:35
- Problem 6026:45
- Problem 6127:57
- Problem 6228:32
- Problem 6329:52
- Problem 6430:27
- Problem 6531:27
- Problem 6632:22
- Problem 6733:18
- Problem 6835:21
- Problem 6936:27
- Problem 7036:46

AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 1

16m 53s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:23
- Question 28:55

AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 2

9m 20s

- Intro0:00
- Question 30:14
- Question 44:34

AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 3

18m 12s

- Intro0:00
- Question 50:15
- Question 63:29
- Question 76:18
- Question 812:53

Section 9: Additional Examples

Metric Estimation

3m 53s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:38
- Question 20:51
- Question 31:09
- Question 41:24
- Question 51:49
- Question 62:11
- Question 72:27
- Question 82:49
- Question 93:03
- Question 103:23

Defining Motion

7m 6s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:13
- Question 20:50
- Question 31:56
- Question 42:24
- Question 53:32
- Question 64:01
- Question 75:36
- Question 86:36

Motion Graphs

6m 48s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:13
- Question 22:01
- Question 33:06
- Question 43:41
- Question 54:30
- Question 65:52

Horizontal Kinematics

8m 16s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:19
- Question 22:19
- Question 33:16
- Question 44:36
- Question 56:43

Free Fall

7m 56s

- Intro0:00
- Question 1-40:12
- Question 52:36
- Question 63:11
- Question 74:44
- Question 86:16

Projectile Motion

4m 17s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:13
- Question 20:45
- Question 31:25
- Question 42:00
- Question 52:32
- Question 63:38

Newton's 1st Law

4m 34s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:15
- Question 21:02
- Question 31:50
- Question 42:04
- Question 52:26
- Question 62:54
- Question 73:11
- Question 83:29
- Question 93:47
- Question 104:02

Newton's 2nd Law

5m 40s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:16
- Question 20:55
- Question 31:50
- Question 42:40
- Question 53:33
- Question 63:56
- Question 74:29

Newton's 3rd Law

3m 44s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:17
- Question 20:44
- Question 31:14
- Question 41:51
- Question 52:11
- Question 62:29
- Question 72:53

Friction

6m 37s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:13
- Question 20:47
- Question 31:25
- Question 42:26
- Question 53:43
- Question 64:41
- Question 75:13
- Question 85:50

Ramps and Inclines

6m 13s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:18
- Question 21:01
- Question 32:50
- Question 43:11
- Question 55:08

Circular Motion

5m 17s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:21
- Question 21:01
- Question 31:50
- Question 42:33
- Question 53:10
- Question 63:31
- Question 73:56
- Question 84:33

Gravity

6m 33s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:19
- Question 21:05
- Question 32:09
- Question 42:53
- Question 53:17
- Question 64:00
- Question 74:41
- Question 85:20

Momentum & Impulse

9m 29s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:19
- Question 22:17
- Question 33:25
- Question 43:56
- Question 54:28
- Question 65:04
- Question 76:18
- Question 86:57
- Question 97:47

Conservation of Momentum

9m 33s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:15
- Question 22:08
- Question 34:03
- Question 44:10
- Question 56:08
- Question 66:55
- Question 78:26

Work & Power

6m 2s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:13
- Question 20:29
- Question 30:55
- Question 41:36
- Question 52:18
- Question 63:22
- Question 74:01
- Question 84:18
- Question 94:49

Springs

7m 59s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:13
- Question 42:26
- Question 53:37
- Question 64:39
- Question 75:28
- Question 85:51

Energy & Energy Conservation

8m 47s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:18
- Question 21:27
- Question 31:44
- Question 42:33
- Question 52:44
- Question 63:33
- Question 74:41
- Question 85:19
- Question 95:37
- Question 107:12
- Question 117:40

Electric Charge

7m 6s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:10
- Question 21:03
- Question 31:32
- Question 42:12
- Question 53:01
- Question 63:49
- Question 74:24
- Question 84:50
- Question 95:32
- Question 105:55
- Question 116:26

Coulomb's Law

4m 13s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:14
- Question 20:47
- Question 31:25
- Question 42:25
- Question 53:01

Electric Fields & Forces

4m 11s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:19
- Question 20:51
- Question 31:30
- Question 42:19
- Question 53:12

Electric Potential

5m 12s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:14
- Question 20:42
- Question 31:08
- Question 41:43
- Question 52:22
- Question 62:49
- Question 73:14
- Question 84:02

Electrical Current

6m 54s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:13
- Question 20:42
- Question 32:01
- Question 43:02
- Question 53:52
- Question 64:15
- Question 74:37
- Question 84:59
- Question 95:50

Resistance

5m 15s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:12
- Question 20:53
- Question 31:44
- Question 42:31
- Question 53:21
- Question 64:06

Ohm's Law

4m 27s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:12
- Question 20:33
- Question 30:59
- Question 41:32
- Question 51:56
- Question 62:50
- Question 73:19
- Question 83:50

Circuit Analysis

6m 36s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:12
- Question 22:16
- Question 32:33
- Question 42:42
- Question 53:18
- Question 65:51
- Question 76:00

Magnetism

3m 43s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:16
- Question 20:31
- Question 30:56
- Question 41:19
- Question 51:35
- Question 62:36
- Question 73:03

Wave Basics

4m 21s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:13
- Question 20:36
- Question 30:47
- Question 41:13
- Question 51:27
- Question 61:39
- Question 71:54
- Question 82:22
- Question 92:51
- Question 103:32

Wave Characteristics

5m 33s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:23
- Question 21:04
- Question 32:01
- Question 42:50
- Question 53:12
- Question 63:57
- Question 74:16
- Question 84:42
- Question 94:56

Wave Behaviors

3m 52s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:13
- Question 20:40
- Question 31:04
- Question 41:17
- Question 51:39
- Question 62:07
- Question 72:41
- Question 83:09

Reflection

3m 48s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:12
- Question 20:50
- Question 31:29
- Question 41:46
- Question 53:08

Refraction

2m 49s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:29
- Question 51:03
- Question 61:24
- Question 72:01

Diffraction

2m 34s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:16
- Question 20:31
- Question 30:50
- Question 41:05
- Question 51:37
- Question 62:04

Electromagnetic Spectrum

7m 6s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:24
- Question 20:39
- Question 31:05
- Question 41:51
- Question 52:03
- Question 62:58
- Question 73:14
- Question 83:52
- Question 94:30
- Question 105:04
- Question 116:01
- Question 126:16

Wave-Particle Duality

5m 30s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:15
- Question 20:34
- Question 30:53
- Question 41:54
- Question 52:16
- Question 62:27
- Question 72:42
- Question 82:59
- Question 93:45
- Question 104:13
- Question 114:33

Energy Levels

8m 13s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:25
- Question 21:18
- Question 31:43
- Question 42:08
- Question 53:17
- Question 63:54
- Question 74:40
- Question 85:15
- Question 95:54
- Question 106:41
- Question 117:14

Mass-Energy Equivalence

8m 15s

- Intro0:00
- Question 10:19
- Question 21:02
- Question 31:37
- Question 42:17
- Question 52:55
- Question 63:32
- Question 74:13
- Question 85:04
- Question 95:29
- Question 105:58
- Question 116:48
- Question 127:39

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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Physics 1 & 2

For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Physics 1 & 2

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