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Lecture Comments (33)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Wed Sep 14, 2016 5:48 AM

Post by Shikha Bansal on September 13, 2016

For example 1, shouldn't y1=0 therefore getting a negative answer? Instead we assumed y2 was 0. Is y not the length from the surface of the fluid?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Fri Jul 1, 2016 11:52 AM

Post by Peter Ke on July 1, 2016

For example 4 at 14:51, I thought the gauge pressure is 200,000 Pa. Why did you have to use the absolute pressure equation?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Mon Nov 23, 2015 7:25 AM

Post by Parth Shorey on November 13, 2015

What about the pressure in Example 1? What was it?

3 answers

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Wed Aug 12, 2015 5:21 PM

Post by Anh Dang on August 12, 2015

If the water in the water pump isn't open to atmosphere, how would atmospheric pressure affect the water pump in the example with the water fountain?  Why would you have to use the absolute pressure equation?  

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Wed Aug 12, 2015 5:20 PM

Post by Anh Dang on August 12, 2015

In example 1, V1 = 0.  But how can we assume that if it didn't tell us so?  How would we know if the quantity of water at the top is so much greater than that at v2 that its velocity is negligible if the question didn't say that?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Wed Oct 15, 2014 8:18 PM

Post by Sally Acebo on October 15, 2014

in EX1, Why was V1=0m/s again? Why was that assumed?

3 answers

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Tue Jul 22, 2014 5:48 PM

Post by Jamal Tischler on July 22, 2014

How can we derive Bernoulli s Equation (to prove the formula) ?

0 answers

Post by John Parker on March 21, 2014

For example 5, if there was a cover over the top of the cistern, would we be unable to solve since the pressure would be unknown? I guess my question is: Would P1 change if we put a cover over the top of the cistern, making it no longer "open to atmosphere?"

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Mon Dec 16, 2013 8:20 PM

Post by Josh George on December 16, 2013

You're absolutely incredible. These lectures are phenomenal. Thank you very much!

1 answer

Last reply by: Briana Kallias
Sun Dec 15, 2013 7:05 PM

Post by Briana Kallias on December 15, 2013

In the last example, 5, when you are finding the vertical acceleration how did you get 10 m/s^2?

2 answers

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Sun Dec 8, 2013 10:02 AM

Post by Emmil Zarrugh on December 7, 2013

For example 3, is it safe to say pascal's principle does not apply (P1 does not equal P2) because there is a height difference between the two points, therefore only bernoulli's principle applies?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Wed Nov 13, 2013 7:14 AM

Post by Min Kirax on November 12, 2013

In the 5th example, towards the end for finding out the horizontal kinematics, how did the distance become equal to velocity times time?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Sun Jun 9, 2013 5:24 AM

Post by Jay Gill on June 9, 2013

In Example 2, can you please mathematically elucidate how point A has a higher pressure?

I am using formula P=F/A, and finding point B to have the greater pressure since it has the smaller area.

Thank in advance,


its late, so I'm probably just missing something-(sigh) where does the day go...

2 answers

Last reply by: Saki Amagai
Mon Apr 29, 2013 6:45 AM

Post by Saki Amagai on April 20, 2013

Why don't we subtract the atmospheric pressure 1.34 atm on the 3rd example? We are looking for gauge pressure... so shouldn't we take away 1atm away from it, like the one in the 4th example? Or is it different depending on whether the pipe is enclosed or not? Sorry.. I'm really confused here:/

Bernoulli's Principle

  • Faster fluid velocities lead to lower pressures, while slower fluid velocities lead to higher pressures.
  • Airplane wings take advantage of this to provide a portion of the wing's lift.
  • Venturi Pumps use this principle and can be found in common applications such as gas delivery systems, carburetors, and sump pumps.
  • Bernoulli’s Equation describes the conservation of energy in fluid flow.
  • Pasted Graphic.pdf

Bernoulli's Principle

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Objectives 0:08
  • Bernoulli's Principle 0:21
  • Airplane Wings 0:35
  • Venturi Pump 1:56
  • Bernoulli's Equation 3:32
  • Example 1: Torricelli's Theorem 4:38
  • Example 2: Gauge Pressure 7:26
  • Example 3: Shower Pressure 8:16
  • Example 4: Water Fountain 12:29
  • Example 5: Elevated Cistern 15:26

Transcription: Bernoulli's Principle

Welcome back to

Today we are going to finish up our study of fluids, by talking about Bernoulli's principle.0002

Our objectives are going to be to understand how Bernoulli's principle describes the conservation of energy in fluid flow and apply Bernoulli's principle to problems of fluids in motion.0008

Let us start by talking about Bernoulli's principle qualitatively.0021

Bernoulli's principle states that fluids moving at higher velocities lead to lower pressure and fluids moving at lower velocities lead to higher pressures.0024

This comes into play quite a bit when you talk about the design of an airplane wing.0035

If the airplane's moving forward to the right, then as the air goes over the wing, it has a longer path up above the wing.0040

And because it has a longer path compared to below the wing, where it has a shorter path above the wing with a longer path, it has a higher relative velocity.0049

If you have the higher air velocity over that wing, you get lower pressure and where you have the shorter path, you end up with a lower velocity where the air does not have to travel as far in the same amount of time, so you end up with a higher pressure.0070

If you have higher pressure below and lower pressure above that wants to equal out and you get a net force up.0090

That force is one of the components of lift.0099

Now note that it is not the only component and that there is a lot more to lift and flight than just Bernoulli's principle in the airplane wing shape, but that is one component of it -- one application of Bernoulli's principle.0102

Another one is called a venturi pump. The idea here is it that you can make a vacuum pump or another type of pump using fluid flow.0116

If you have fluid or an incompressible fluid in a closed system coming through from the left to the right here, and as it goes there, you have a narrow opening, you must have faster flow here -- we know that from our continuity equations for fluids.0125

And if we have faster flow, we must have lower pressures here.0140

As we have lower pressures there, what we are going to get is a pumping action in which we can start sucking things up this way to join that fluid flow.0144

So we force a lot of water or some other fluid through the pipe this way, constricted here and you are going to get a sucking action, you are going to get a pumping action.0157

These are used in venturi pumps -- applications of those -- things like carburetors...0168

...It is responsible for sailboat propulsion, gas delivery systems, or even for some folks who have sump pumps in case the power ever goes out.0173

Often times you will see these as a backup sump pump.0183

When the power goes out, if the water level gets too high in the sump, what happens it is lifts a float that turns on a bunch of water pressure and the water pressure comes running through here and this is connected to that cistern and sucks up the water to pull it out with that pumping action.0186

This is a way to help keep your basement dry even when you do not have power to keep that sump pump running.0205

All right. Bernoulli's equation quantitatively looks a little bit scarier.0212

It relates the pressure velocity and height of a liquid in a tube at various points.0217

Do not let it scare you, it is all a fairly simple equation, it just looks like a lot all at once.0221

Pressure 1 plus 1/2 the fluid density times the square of its velocity plus the fluid density times (g) times its height equals (P2 plus 1/2 ρv22 plus ρgy22.0226

Really what this is is a statement of conservation of energy.0241

Notice how similar this looks -- 1/2 ρv2 to 1/2mv2 -- similar to kinetic energy -- ρgy is similar to (mgh), which is similar to gravitational potential energy.0244

These are some pretty close parallels here.0256

It really is a version of conservation of energy.0258

What it says is the pressure at any point in the tube plus 1/2 the density times the square of the velocity added to (ρgy) must be the same anywhere at any point in the tube.0262

As we check this out, let us take a look and use it to derive what is known as Torricelli's theorem.0276

If we have water sitting in a large jug at a height of 0.2 m above the spigot, what is the pressure on the spigot and at what velocity will the water leave the spigot when the spigot is opened?0282

Well, the first thing we need to realize is that (P1) up here and (P2) up here are both open to atmosphere.0294

So we are going to say P1 = P2 = Atmosphere, and we are not going to worry about the difference in height compared to the overall atmospheric pressure as that is going to be negligible.0300

Now as we start to look at this, we will start by writing down Bernoulli's equation -- P1 + 1/2ρv12 + ρgy1 = P2 + 1/2ρv22 + ρgy2.0311

Now as we look at this, up here at the top of our fluid, because we have so much fluid there, we can assume that (v1) is approximately equal to 0.0335

Now, (P1) and (P2) are both atmosphere, so we can subtract both of those right out and that will simplify right there.0346

We said (v1) is approximately 0, and that term goes away, so what we are left with now is ρgy1 = 1/2ρv22 + ρgy2.0354

All right, we are getting closer already.0372

I can divide out the density to say that gy1 = 1/2v22 + gy2...0374

...or solving for (v2) -- v22 = 2g × y1 - y2 (the quantity) = 2 × 10 and our height difference from y1 to y2 is just 0.2 m...0387 that implies that v22 is going to be equal to 4 or take the square root of v2 must equal 2 m/s.0405

And what we have really done here is we have derived at what is known as Torricelli's theorem -- this part right here v22 = 2gy1 - y2 or more commonly written -- take the square root, v2 = 2g × y1 - y2, square root...0418

...calculating the velocity coming out of a container of liquid like this, Torricelli's theorem.0439

We can look at an example with gauge pressure here too.0448

Water flows through a large diameter pipe at Point (A) before it is constricted into a smaller diameter pipe at Point (B).0450

How does the gauge pressure compare at Points A and B?0458

Well, if the water is going through this pipe and it is being constricted, it must be going faster right?0462

So the velocity at (B) must be greater than the velocity of (A).0468

We know that from out continuity equations for fluids.0472

If it is going faster at (B) then (B) must have lower pressure than (A), therefore (A) must have a higher pressure than (B).0476

Let us take a look at the shower problem.0497

A water main of area 0.003 m2 at ground level flows at 2 m/s into Kate's house.0501

At the second floor shower head, 5 m above ground level, the pipe has an area of 0.001 m2.0507

Find the velocity of the water in the pipe as well as the gauge pressure just prior to the shower head if the water main's pressure gauge reads 2 atmosphere.0513

Well let us start with a diagram here -- water main of area 0.003 -- so we are going to start over here with a pipe over here at ground level and we know if we put a gauge on it, that it is going to read 2 atmosphere's right there.0523

It has a cross-sectional area of 0.003 m2 and it is flowing at 2 m/s into the house -- that is at section one.0537

Now, somewhere up here it has a height difference of about 5 m and before it comes out, it is now down to a cross-sectional area of 0.001 m2.0548

We need to figure out, here at section two, area two, what the velocity is of the water in the pipe as well as the gauge pressure just prior to that shower head.0564

To start off to find the velocity of the pipe, I am going to use the continuity equation for fluids.0573

a1v1 = a2v2, therefore the velocity here at Point 2 is going to be equal to a1/a2 × v1 or 0.003/0.001 × 2 m/s (v1) = 6 m/s.0579

All right, now let us see if we can find out the gauge pressure, just prior to that shower head.0611

We will use Bernoulli's equation, P1 + 1/2ρv12 + ρgy1 = P2 + 1/2ρv22 + ρgy2.0618

Now, if we set (y1) over here and call this ground level, y1 = 0, that term becomes 0, and that goes away.0640

Now let us start substituting in our values to see if we cannot find what (P2) is going to be.0649

Over here at (P1), we already know our pressure is 2 atmospheres or 200,000 Pa + 1/2 × 100,000 kg/m3 (density of freshwater) -- v1 is 2 m/s2...0655

...equal to P2 + 1/2(1,000) (density), v22 (6 m/s2) + ρ (1,000) × g(10) and y2 is 5 m higher, so 5.0677

So a little bit of math here -- 200,000 + 1,000 × 4 -- 1/2 of that will be 2,000 = P2 + 36,000 × 1/2 (18,000) + 10,000 × 5 = 50,000...0701

... so solving for P2 then = 202,000 - 68,000 or 134,000 Pa...0721

...or approximately 1.34 atmospheres.0734

Great! Let us take a look at a water fountain example.0747

Sandy is designing a water fountain for her front yard.0751

She would like the fountain to spray to a height of 10 m -- that is a pretty impressive water fountain.0754

What gauge pressure must her water pump develop?0759

Well, let us start with a diagram again.0763

We will start over here at her pump and that is going to go to a point where it is going to release the water up at ground level and once it is there, we want the water to go up to a height of 10 m or so.0765

We will start again with Bernoulli's equation -- P1 + 1/2ρv12 + ρgy1 = P2 + 1/2ρv22 + ρgy2.0783

If we call this section over here on the left (1) and over here (2), right away we can make some simplifications.0802

At (1), we will assume that we have so much water that the velocity there in the pipe is roughly 0 -- that term goes away.0813

We are also doing this at ground level, so y1 = 0.0823

On the right hand side at its highest point right here, we want the velocity of the water to be 0 and that is what happens when it gets to its highest point, so velocity (2) will go to 0, therefore, P1 = P2 + ρgy2.0826

We are looking for P1 and P2 is open to atmosphere, so we know that is going to be 100,000 Pa + ρ(1000) × g (10 m/s2) × y2...0848

...we want that 10 m high, so P1 = 100,000 + 1,000 × 100 for a total of 200,000 Pa.0862

So that is the pressure that we need total, so 200,000 Pa is equal to P1, which is equal to atmospheric pressure + ρgh...0879

...where P0, here, is our atmospheric pressure (100,000 Pa) and ρgh here is our gauge pressure.0894

So if 200,000 = 100,000 + gauge pressure, that means our gauge pressure must be 100,000 Pa in order to make the water fountain shoot the water 10 m high.0908

Let us take a look at one more -- an elevated cistern problem.0925

We have a water cistern that is elevated 15 m above the ground and it feeds a pipe that terminates horizontally 5 m above the ground as shown.0930

With what velocity will the water leave the pipe and how far from the end of the pipe, will the water strike the ground?0938

The first thing I am going to do is try to come up with a strategy here.0945

I think I can use Bernoulli's principle to find the velocity of the water right here at what we will call Point (2) and then it becomes a projectile problem as to where it is going to land.0949

If we call this our Point (1), we have a height of 15 m here and a height of 5 meters here, to find the velocity, why do I not just bring this back and if I call Point (2) ground level for the first part of the problem for figuring out the velocity, then the height here will be 10 m because that is the difference.0960

So let us apply Bernoulli's equation and see how this is all going to look and work out.0980

Bernoulli's equation -- P1 + 1/2ρv12 + ρgy1 = P2 + 1/2ρv22 + ρgy2.0985

As we look at that, some simplifications we can make -- P1 is open to atmosphere; P2 is open to atmosphere, so they will have the same pressure and we can subtract those out of both sides -- v1 is going to be roughly 0, so we can make that go away.1003

On the right hand side, if we are calling this the 0 height level for the first part of our problem, setting that as our 0 and the height here is 10, so we can make that term go away.1021

So we have simplified Bernoulli's equation to say that ρgy1 = 1/2ρv22 or as we substitute in our values -- first off we can get rid of the rho's.1031

We have gy1 = 1/2v22 or v22 = 2gy1 or v2 = the square root of 2gy1.1050

Notice how similar that looks -- v = square root of (2gh), the conservation of energy value we found in order to determine how fast something is moving after it has been dropped some distance...1062

...V = square root of 2gh by kinematics or by conservation of energy approach.1077

It is the same idea, so (v2) will be equal to the square root of 2 × g (10 m/s2) × y1 (10 m) or the square root of 200, that is about 14.1 m/s.1083

Our water is going to be leaving the pipe down here with a horizontal velocity of 14.1 m/s.1098

Now we have ourselves a projectile problem, where we have a height of 5 m and we need to find the horizontal distance the water travels.1106

All right. Well let us first figure out how long that water is going to be in the air.1116

That is a vertical kinematics problem, where V-initial vertically is 0, δy will be 5 meters, acceleration will be 10 m/s2 and we need to find the time.1120

I would use the equation δy = V-initial(t) + 1/2 at2, but again, V-initial is 0, so that term goes away.1135

(T) then becomes 2δy/a (square root) or 2 ×5/10 (square root) or 1 s.1148

Now I can use my horizontal kinematics to figure out how far it goes.1162

Horizontally, the velocity is going to be a constant 14.1 m/s and it is going to be in the air for 1 s, so δx is just going to be velocity × time, 14.1 × 1 or 14.1 m.1168

Putting a couple of these concepts together to get a big picture solution.1187

All right. Hopefully that gets you a great start with Bernoulli's principles and Bernoulli's equations.1192

Thanks for watching. Make it a great day everyone!1197