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INSTRUCTORS Raffi Hovasapian John Zhu
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Raffi Hovasapian

Raffi Hovasapian

Volumes IV: Volumes By Cylindrical Shells

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Limits and Derivatives
Overview & Slopes of Curves

42m 8s

Intro
0:00
Overview & Slopes of Curves
0:21
Differential and Integral
0:22
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
6:36
Differentiation or Taking the Derivative
14:24
What Does the Derivative Mean and How do We Find it?
15:18
Example: f'(x)
19:24
Example: f(x) = sin (x)
29:16
General Procedure for Finding the Derivative of f(x)
37:33
More on Slopes of Curves

50m 53s

Intro
0:00
Slope of the Secant Line along a Curve
0:12
Slope of the Tangent Line to f(x) at a Particlar Point
0:13
Slope of the Secant Line along a Curve
2:59
Instantaneous Slope
6:51
Instantaneous Slope
6:52
Example: Distance, Time, Velocity
13:32
Instantaneous Slope and Average Slope
25:42
Slope & Rate of Change
29:55
Slope & Rate of Change
29:56
Example: Slope = 2
33:16
Example: Slope = 4/3
34:32
Example: Slope = 4 (m/s)
39:12
Example: Density = Mass / Volume
40:33
Average Slope, Average Rate of Change, Instantaneous Slope, and Instantaneous Rate of Change
47:46
Example Problems for Slopes of Curves

59m 12s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Water Tank
0:13
Part A: Which is the Independent Variable and Which is the Dependent?
2:00
Part B: Average Slope
3:18
Part C: Express These Slopes as Rates-of-Change
9:28
Part D: Instantaneous Slope
14:54
Example II: y = √(x-3)
28:26
Part A: Calculate the Slope of the Secant Line
30:39
Part B: Instantaneous Slope
41:26
Part C: Equation for the Tangent Line
43:59
Example III: Object in the Air
49:37
Part A: Average Velocity
50:37
Part B: Instantaneous Velocity
55:30
Desmos Tutorial

18m 43s

Intro
0:00
Desmos Tutorial
1:42
Desmos Tutorial
1:43
Things You Must Learn To Do on Your Particular Calculator
2:39
Things You Must Learn To Do on Your Particular Calculator
2:40
Example I: y=sin x
4:54
Example II: y=x³ and y = d/(dx) (x³)
9:22
Example III: y = x² {-5 <= x <= 0} and y = cos x {0 < x < 6}
13:15
The Limit of a Function

51m 53s

Intro
0:00
The Limit of a Function
0:14
The Limit of a Function
0:15
Graph: Limit of a Function
12:24
Table of Values
16:02
lim x→a f(x) Does not Say What Happens When x = a
20:05
Example I: f(x) = x²
24:34
Example II: f(x) = 7
27:05
Example III: f(x) = 4.5
30:33
Example IV: f(x) = 1/x
34:03
Example V: f(x) = 1/x²
36:43
The Limit of a Function, Cont.
38:16
Infinity and Negative Infinity
38:17
Does Not Exist
42:45
Summary
46:48
Example Problems for the Limit of a Function

24m 43s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Explain in Words What the Following Symbols Mean
0:10
Example II: Find the Following Limit
5:21
Example III: Use the Graph to Find the Following Limits
7:35
Example IV: Use the Graph to Find the Following Limits
11:48
Example V: Sketch the Graph of a Function that Satisfies the Following Properties
15:25
Example VI: Find the Following Limit
18:44
Example VII: Find the Following Limit
20:06
Calculating Limits Mathematically

53m 48s

Intro
0:00
Plug-in Procedure
0:09
Plug-in Procedure
0:10
Limit Laws
9:14
Limit Law 1
10:05
Limit Law 2
10:54
Limit Law 3
11:28
Limit Law 4
11:54
Limit Law 5
12:24
Limit Law 6
13:14
Limit Law 7
14:38
Plug-in Procedure, Cont.
16:35
Plug-in Procedure, Cont.
16:36
Example I: Calculating Limits Mathematically
20:50
Example II: Calculating Limits Mathematically
27:37
Example III: Calculating Limits Mathematically
31:42
Example IV: Calculating Limits Mathematically
35:36
Example V: Calculating Limits Mathematically
40:58
Limits Theorem
44:45
Limits Theorem 1
44:46
Limits Theorem 2: Squeeze Theorem
46:34
Example VI: Calculating Limits Mathematically
49:26
Example Problems for Calculating Limits Mathematically

21m 22s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Evaluate the Following Limit by Showing Each Application of a Limit Law
0:16
Example II: Evaluate the Following Limit
1:51
Example III: Evaluate the Following Limit
3:36
Example IV: Evaluate the Following Limit
8:56
Example V: Evaluate the Following Limit
11:19
Example VI: Calculating Limits Mathematically
13:19
Example VII: Calculating Limits Mathematically
14:59
Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity

50m 1s

Intro
0:00
Limit as x Goes to Infinity
0:14
Limit as x Goes to Infinity
0:15
Let's Look at f(x) = 1 / (x-3)
1:04
Summary
9:34
Example I: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
12:16
Example II: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
21:22
Example III: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
24:10
Example IV: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
36:00
Example Problems for Limits at Infinity

36m 31s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
0:14
Example II: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
3:27
Example III: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
8:11
Example IV: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
14:20
Example V: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
20:07
Example VI: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
23:36
Continuity

53m

Intro
0:00
Definition of Continuity
0:08
Definition of Continuity
0:09
Example: Not Continuous
3:52
Example: Continuous
4:58
Example: Not Continuous
5:52
Procedure for Finding Continuity
9:45
Law of Continuity
13:44
Law of Continuity
13:45
Example I: Determining Continuity on a Graph
15:55
Example II: Show Continuity & Determine the Interval Over Which the Function is Continuous
17:57
Example III: Is the Following Function Continuous at the Given Point?
22:42
Theorem for Composite Functions
25:28
Theorem for Composite Functions
25:29
Example IV: Is cos(x³ + ln x) Continuous at x=π/2?
27:00
Example V: What Value of A Will make the Following Function Continuous at Every Point of Its Domain?
34:04
Types of Discontinuity
39:18
Removable Discontinuity
39:33
Jump Discontinuity
40:06
Infinite Discontinuity
40:32
Intermediate Value Theorem
40:58
Intermediate Value Theorem: Hypothesis & Conclusion
40:59
Intermediate Value Theorem: Graphically
43:40
Example VI: Prove That the Following Function Has at Least One Real Root in the Interval [4,6]
47:46
Derivative I

40m 2s

Intro
0:00
Derivative
0:09
Derivative
0:10
Example I: Find the Derivative of f(x)=x³
2:20
Notations for the Derivative
7:32
Notations for the Derivative
7:33
Derivative & Rate of Change
11:14
Recall the Rate of Change
11:15
Instantaneous Rate of Change
17:04
Graphing f(x) and f'(x)
19:10
Example II: Find the Derivative of x⁴ - x²
24:00
Example III: Find the Derivative of f(x)=√x
30:51
Derivatives II

53m 45s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Find the Derivative of (2+x)/(3-x)
0:18
Derivatives II
9:02
f(x) is Differentiable if f'(x) Exists
9:03
Recall: For a Limit to Exist, Both Left Hand and Right Hand Limits Must Equal to Each Other
17:19
Geometrically: Differentiability Means the Graph is Smooth
18:44
Example II: Show Analytically that f(x) = |x| is Nor Differentiable at x=0
20:53
Example II: For x > 0
23:53
Example II: For x < 0
25:36
Example II: What is f(0) and What is the lim |x| as x→0?
30:46
Differentiability & Continuity
34:22
Differentiability & Continuity
34:23
How Can a Function Not be Differentiable at a Point?
39:38
How Can a Function Not be Differentiable at a Point?
39:39
Higher Derivatives
41:58
Higher Derivatives
41:59
Derivative Operator
45:12
Example III: Find (dy)/(dx) & (d²y)/(dx²) for y = x³
49:29
More Example Problems for The Derivative

31m 38s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Sketch f'(x)
0:10
Example II: Sketch f'(x)
2:14
Example III: Find the Derivative of the Following Function sing the Definition
3:49
Example IV: Determine f, f', and f'' on a Graph
12:43
Example V: Find an Equation for the Tangent Line to the Graph of the Following Function at the Given x-value
13:40
Example VI: Distance vs. Time
20:15
Example VII: Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration
23:56
Example VIII: Graph the Displacement Function
28:20
II. Differentiation
Differentiation of Polynomials & Exponential Functions

47m 35s

Intro
0:00
Differentiation of Polynomials & Exponential Functions
0:15
Derivative of a Function
0:16
Derivative of a Constant
2:35
Power Rule
3:08
If C is a Constant
4:19
Sum Rule
5:22
Exponential Functions
6:26
Example I: Differentiate
7:45
Example II: Differentiate
12:38
Example III: Differentiate
15:13
Example IV: Differentiate
16:20
Example V: Differentiate
19:19
Example VI: Find the Equation of the Tangent Line to a Function at a Given Point
12:18
Example VII: Find the First & Second Derivatives
25:59
Example VIII
27:47
Part A: Find the Velocity & Acceleration Functions as Functions of t
27:48
Part B: Find the Acceleration after 3 Seconds
30:12
Part C: Find the Acceleration when the Velocity is 0
30:53
Part D: Graph the Position, Velocity, & Acceleration Graphs
32:50
Example IX: Find a Cubic Function Whose Graph has Horizontal Tangents
34:53
Example X: Find a Point on a Graph
42:31
The Product, Power & Quotient Rules

47m 25s

Intro
0:00
The Product, Power and Quotient Rules
0:19
Differentiate Functions
0:20
Product Rule
5:30
Quotient Rule
9:15
Power Rule
10:00
Example I: Product Rule
13:48
Example II: Quotient Rule
16:13
Example III: Power Rule
18:28
Example IV: Find dy/dx
19:57
Example V: Find dy/dx
24:53
Example VI: Find dy/dx
28:38
Example VII: Find an Equation for the Tangent to the Curve
34:54
Example VIII: Find d²y/dx²
38:08
Derivatives of the Trigonometric Functions

41m 8s

Intro
0:00
Derivatives of the Trigonometric Functions
0:09
Let's Find the Derivative of f(x) = sin x
0:10
Important Limits to Know
4:59
d/dx (sin x)
6:06
d/dx (cos x)
6:38
d/dx (tan x)
6:50
d/dx (csc x)
7:02
d/dx (sec x)
7:15
d/dx (cot x)
7:27
Example I: Differentiate f(x) = x² - 4 cos x
7:56
Example II: Differentiate f(x) = x⁵ tan x
9:04
Example III: Differentiate f(x) = (cos x) / (3 + sin x)
10:56
Example IV: Differentiate f(x) = e^x / (tan x - sec x)
14:06
Example V: Differentiate f(x) = (csc x - 4) / (cot x)
15:37
Example VI: Find an Equation of the Tangent Line
21:48
Example VII: For What Values of x Does the Graph of the Function x + 3 cos x Have a Horizontal Tangent?
25:17
Example VIII: Ladder Problem
28:23
Example IX: Evaluate
33:22
Example X: Evaluate
36:38
The Chain Rule

24m 56s

Intro
0:00
The Chain Rule
0:13
Recall the Composite Functions
0:14
Derivatives of Composite Functions
1:34
Example I: Identify f(x) and g(x) and Differentiate
6:41
Example II: Identify f(x) and g(x) and Differentiate
9:47
Example III: Differentiate
11:03
Example IV: Differentiate f(x) = -5 / (x² + 3)³
12:15
Example V: Differentiate f(x) = cos(x² + c²)
14:35
Example VI: Differentiate f(x) = cos⁴x +c²
15:41
Example VII: Differentiate
17:03
Example VIII: Differentiate f(x) = sin(tan x²)
19:01
Example IX: Differentiate f(x) = sin(tan² x)
21:02
More Chain Rule Example Problems

25m 32s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Differentiate f(x) = sin(cos(tanx))
0:38
Example II: Find an Equation for the Line Tangent to the Given Curve at the Given Point
2:25
Example III: F(x) = f(g(x)), Find F' (6)
4:22
Example IV: Differentiate & Graph both the Function & the Derivative in the Same Window
5:35
Example V: Differentiate f(x) = ( (x-8)/(x+3) )⁴
10:18
Example VI: Differentiate f(x) = sec²(12x)
12:28
Example VII: Differentiate
14:41
Example VIII: Differentiate
19:25
Example IX: Find an Expression for the Rate of Change of the Volume of the Balloon with Respect to Time
21:13
Implicit Differentiation

52m 31s

Intro
0:00
Implicit Differentiation
0:09
Implicit Differentiation
0:10
Example I: Find (dy)/(dx) by both Implicit Differentiation and Solving Explicitly for y
12:15
Example II: Find (dy)/(dx) of x³ + x²y + 7y² = 14
19:18
Example III: Find (dy)/(dx) of x³y² + y³x² = 4x
21:43
Example IV: Find (dy)/(dx) of the Following Equation
24:13
Example V: Find (dy)/(dx) of 6sin x cos y = 1
29:00
Example VI: Find (dy)/(dx) of x² cos² y + y sin x = 2sin x cos y
31:02
Example VII: Find (dy)/(dx) of √(xy) = 7 + y²e^x
37:36
Example VIII: Find (dy)/(dx) of 4(x²+y²)² = 35(x²-y²)
41:03
Example IX: Find (d²y)/(dx²) of x² + y² = 25
44:05
Example X: Find (d²y)/(dx²) of sin x + cos y = sin(2x)
47:48
III. Applications of the Derivative
Linear Approximations & Differentials

47m 34s

Intro
0:00
Linear Approximations & Differentials
0:09
Linear Approximations & Differentials
0:10
Example I: Linear Approximations & Differentials
11:27
Example II: Linear Approximations & Differentials
20:19
Differentials
30:32
Differentials
30:33
Example III: Linear Approximations & Differentials
34:09
Example IV: Linear Approximations & Differentials
35:57
Example V: Relative Error
38:46
Related Rates

45m 33s

Intro
0:00
Related Rates
0:08
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #1
0:09
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #2
1:46
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #3
2:06
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #4
2:50
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #5
3:38
Example I: Radius of a Balloon
5:15
Example II: Ladder
12:52
Example III: Water Tank
19:08
Example IV: Distance between Two Cars
29:27
Example V: Line-of-Sight
36:20
More Related Rates Examples

37m 17s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Shadow
0:14
Example II: Particle
4:45
Example III: Water Level
10:28
Example IV: Clock
20:47
Example V: Distance between a House and a Plane
29:11
Maximum & Minimum Values of a Function

40m 44s

Intro
0:00
Maximum & Minimum Values of a Function, Part 1
0:23
Absolute Maximum
2:20
Absolute Minimum
2:52
Local Maximum
3:38
Local Minimum
4:26
Maximum & Minimum Values of a Function, Part 2
6:11
Function with Absolute Minimum but No Absolute Max, Local Max, and Local Min
7:18
Function with Local Max & Min but No Absolute Max & Min
8:48
Formal Definitions
10:43
Absolute Maximum
11:18
Absolute Minimum
12:57
Local Maximum
14:37
Local Minimum
16:25
Extreme Value Theorem
18:08
Theorem: f'(c) = 0
24:40
Critical Number (Critical Value)
26:14
Procedure for Finding the Critical Values of f(x)
28:32
Example I: Find the Critical Values of f(x) x + sinx
29:51
Example II: What are the Absolute Max & Absolute Minimum of f(x) = x + 4 sinx on [0,2π]
35:31
Example Problems for Max & Min

40m 44s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Identify Absolute and Local Max & Min on the Following Graph
0:11
Example II: Sketch the Graph of a Continuous Function
3:11
Example III: Sketch the Following Graphs
4:40
Example IV: Find the Critical Values of f (x) = 3x⁴ - 7x³ + 4x²
6:13
Example V: Find the Critical Values of f(x) = |2x - 5|
8:42
Example VI: Find the Critical Values
11:42
Example VII: Find the Critical Values f(x) = cos²(2x) on [0,2π]
16:57
Example VIII: Find the Absolute Max & Min f(x) = 2sinx + 2cos x on [0,(π/3)]
20:08
Example IX: Find the Absolute Max & Min f(x) = (ln(2x)) / x on [1,3]
24:39
The Mean Value Theorem

25m 54s

Intro
0:00
Rolle's Theorem
0:08
Rolle's Theorem: If & Then
0:09
Rolle's Theorem: Geometrically
2:06
There May Be More than 1 c Such That f'( c ) = 0
3:30
Example I: Rolle's Theorem
4:58
The Mean Value Theorem
9:12
The Mean Value Theorem: If & Then
9:13
The Mean Value Theorem: Geometrically
11:07
Example II: Mean Value Theorem
13:43
Example III: Mean Value Theorem
21:19
Using Derivatives to Graph Functions, Part I

25m 54s

Intro
0:00
Using Derivatives to Graph Functions, Part I
0:12
Increasing/ Decreasing Test
0:13
Example I: Find the Intervals Over Which the Function is Increasing & Decreasing
3:26
Example II: Find the Local Maxima & Minima of the Function
19:18
Example III: Find the Local Maxima & Minima of the Function
31:39
Using Derivatives to Graph Functions, Part II

44m 58s

Intro
0:00
Using Derivatives to Graph Functions, Part II
0:13
Concave Up & Concave Down
0:14
What Does This Mean in Terms of the Derivative?
6:14
Point of Inflection
8:52
Example I: Graph the Function
13:18
Example II: Function x⁴ - 5x²
19:03
Intervals of Increase & Decrease
19:04
Local Maxes and Mins
25:01
Intervals of Concavity & X-Values for the Points of Inflection
29:18
Intervals of Concavity & Y-Values for the Points of Inflection
34:18
Graphing the Function
40:52
Example Problems I

49m 19s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins
0:26
Example II: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins
5:05
Example III: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, and Inflection Points
13:40
Example IV: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, and Intervals of Concavity
23:02
Example V: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, and Intervals of Concavity
34:36
Example Problems III

59m 1s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, Intervals of Concavity, and Asymptotes
0:11
Example II: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, Intervals of Concavity, and Asymptotes
21:24
Example III: Cubic Equation f(x) = Ax³ + Bx² + Cx + D
37:56
Example IV: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, Intervals of Concavity, and Asymptotes
46:19
L'Hospital's Rule

30m 9s

Intro
0:00
L'Hospital's Rule
0:19
Indeterminate Forms
0:20
L'Hospital's Rule
3:38
Example I: Evaluate the Following Limit Using L'Hospital's Rule
8:50
Example II: Evaluate the Following Limit Using L'Hospital's Rule
10:30
Indeterminate Products
11:54
Indeterminate Products
11:55
Example III: L'Hospital's Rule & Indeterminate Products
13:57
Indeterminate Differences
17:00
Indeterminate Differences
17:01
Example IV: L'Hospital's Rule & Indeterminate Differences
18:57
Indeterminate Powers
22:20
Indeterminate Powers
22:21
Example V: L'Hospital's Rule & Indeterminate Powers
25:13
Example Problems for L'Hospital's Rule

38m 14s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Evaluate the Following Limit
0:17
Example II: Evaluate the Following Limit
2:45
Example III: Evaluate the Following Limit
6:54
Example IV: Evaluate the Following Limit
8:43
Example V: Evaluate the Following Limit
11:01
Example VI: Evaluate the Following Limit
14:48
Example VII: Evaluate the Following Limit
17:49
Example VIII: Evaluate the Following Limit
20:37
Example IX: Evaluate the Following Limit
25:16
Example X: Evaluate the Following Limit
32:44
Optimization Problems I

49m 59s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Find the Dimensions of the Box that Gives the Greatest Volume
1:23
Fundamentals of Optimization Problems
18:08
Fundamental #1
18:33
Fundamental #2
19:09
Fundamental #3
19:19
Fundamental #4
20:59
Fundamental #5
21:55
Fundamental #6
23:44
Example II: Demonstrate that of All Rectangles with a Given Perimeter, the One with the Largest Area is a Square
24:36
Example III: Find the Points on the Ellipse 9x² + y² = 9 Farthest Away from the Point (1,0)
35:13
Example IV: Find the Dimensions of the Rectangle of Largest Area that can be Inscribed in a Circle of Given Radius R
43:10
Optimization Problems II

55m 10s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Optimization Problem
0:13
Example II: Optimization Problem
17:34
Example III: Optimization Problem
35:06
Example IV: Revenue, Cost, and Profit
43:22
Newton's Method

30m 22s

Intro
0:00
Newton's Method
0:45
Newton's Method
0:46
Example I: Find x2 and x3
13:18
Example II: Use Newton's Method to Approximate
15:48
Example III: Find the Root of the Following Equation to 6 Decimal Places
19:57
Example IV: Use Newton's Method to Find the Coordinates of the Inflection Point
23:11
IV. Integrals
Antiderivatives

55m 26s

Intro
0:00
Antiderivatives
0:23
Definition of an Antiderivative
0:24
Antiderivative Theorem
7:58
Function & Antiderivative
12:10
x^n
12:30
1/x
13:00
e^x
13:08
cos x
13:18
sin x
14:01
sec² x
14:11
secxtanx
14:18
1/√(1-x²)
14:26
1/(1+x²)
14:36
-1/√(1-x²)
14:45
Example I: Find the Most General Antiderivative for the Following Functions
15:07
Function 1: f(x) = x³ -6x² + 11x - 9
15:42
Function 2: f(x) = 14√(x) - 27 4√x
19:12
Function 3: (fx) = cos x - 14 sinx
20:53
Function 4: f(x) = (x⁵+2√x )/( x^(4/3) )
22:10
Function 5: f(x) = (3e^x) - 2/(1+x²)
25:42
Example II: Given the Following, Find the Original Function f(x)
26:37
Function 1: f'(x) = 5x³ - 14x + 24, f(2) = 40
27:55
Function 2: f'(x) 3 sinx + sec²x, f(π/6) = 5
30:34
Function 3: f''(x) = 8x - cos x, f(1.5) = 12.7, f'(1.5) = 4.2
32:54
Function 4: f''(x) = 5/(√x), f(2) 15, f'(2) = 7
37:54
Example III: Falling Object
41:58
Problem 1: Find an Equation for the Height of the Ball after t Seconds
42:48
Problem 2: How Long Will It Take for the Ball to Strike the Ground?
48:30
Problem 3: What is the Velocity of the Ball as it Hits the Ground?
49:52
Problem 4: Initial Velocity of 6 m/s, How Long Does It Take to Reach the Ground?
50:46
The Area Under a Curve

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
The Area Under a Curve
0:13
Approximate Using Rectangles
0:14
Let's Do This Again, Using 4 Different Rectangles
9:40
Approximate with Rectangles
16:10
Left Endpoint
18:08
Right Endpoint
25:34
Left Endpoint vs. Right Endpoint
30:58
Number of Rectangles
34:08
True Area
37:36
True Area
37:37
Sigma Notation & Limits
43:32
When You Have to Explicitly Solve Something
47:56
Example Problems for Area Under a Curve

33m 7s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Using Left Endpoint & Right Endpoint to Approximate Area Under a Curve
0:10
Example II: Using 5 Rectangles, Approximate the Area Under the Curve
11:32
Example III: Find the True Area by Evaluating the Limit Expression
16:07
Example IV: Find the True Area by Evaluating the Limit Expression
24:52
The Definite Integral

43m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Definite Integral
0:08
Definition to Find the Area of a Curve
0:09
Definition of the Definite Integral
4:08
Symbol for Definite Integral
8:45
Regions Below the x-axis
15:18
Associating Definite Integral to a Function
19:38
Integrable Function
27:20
Evaluating the Definite Integral
29:26
Evaluating the Definite Integral
29:27
Properties of the Definite Integral
35:24
Properties of the Definite Integral
35:25
Example Problems for The Definite Integral

32m 14s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Approximate the Following Definite Integral Using Midpoints & Sub-intervals
0:11
Example II: Express the Following Limit as a Definite Integral
5:28
Example III: Evaluate the Following Definite Integral Using the Definition
6:28
Example IV: Evaluate the Following Integral Using the Definition
17:06
Example V: Evaluate the Following Definite Integral by Using Areas
25:41
Example VI: Definite Integral
30:36
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

24m 17s

Intro
0:00
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
0:17
Evaluating an Integral
0:18
Lim as x → ∞
12:19
Taking the Derivative
14:06
Differentiation & Integration are Inverse Processes
15:04
1st Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
20:08
1st Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
20:09
2nd Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
22:30
2nd Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
22:31
Example Problems for the Fundamental Theorem

25m 21s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Find the Derivative of the Following Function
0:17
Example II: Find the Derivative of the Following Function
1:40
Example III: Find the Derivative of the Following Function
2:32
Example IV: Find the Derivative of the Following Function
5:55
Example V: Evaluate the Following Integral
7:13
Example VI: Evaluate the Following Integral
9:46
Example VII: Evaluate the Following Integral
12:49
Example VIII: Evaluate the Following Integral
13:53
Example IX: Evaluate the Following Graph
15:24
Local Maxs and Mins for g(x)
15:25
Where Does g(x) Achieve Its Absolute Max on [0,8]
20:54
On What Intervals is g(x) Concave Up/Down?
22:20
Sketch a Graph of g(x)
24:34
More Example Problems, Including Net Change Applications

34m 22s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
0:10
Example II: Evaluate the Following Definite Integral
0:59
Example III: Evaluate the Following Integral
2:59
Example IV: Velocity Function
7:46
Part A: Net Displacement
7:47
Part B: Total Distance Travelled
13:15
Example V: Linear Density Function
20:56
Example VI: Acceleration Function
25:10
Part A: Velocity Function at Time t
25:11
Part B: Total Distance Travelled During the Time Interval
28:38
Solving Integrals by Substitution

27m 20s

Intro
0:00
Table of Integrals
0:35
Example I: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
2:02
Example II: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
7:27
Example IIII: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
10:57
Example IV: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
12:33
Example V: Evaluate the Following
14:28
Example VI: Evaluate the Following
16:00
Example VII: Evaluate the Following
19:01
Example VIII: Evaluate the Following
21:49
Example IX: Evaluate the Following
24:34
V. Applications of Integration
Areas Between Curves

34m 56s

Intro
0:00
Areas Between Two Curves: Function of x
0:08
Graph 1: Area Between f(x) & g(x)
0:09
Graph 2: Area Between f(x) & g(x)
4:07
Is It Possible to Write as a Single Integral?
8:20
Area Between the Curves on [a,b]
9:24
Absolute Value
10:32
Formula for Areas Between Two Curves: Top Function - Bottom Function
17:03
Areas Between Curves: Function of y
17:49
What if We are Given Functions of y?
17:50
Formula for Areas Between Two Curves: Right Function - Left Function
21:48
Finding a & b
22:32
Example Problems for Areas Between Curves

42m 55s

Intro
0:00
Instructions for the Example Problems
0:10
Example I: y = 7x - x² and y=x
0:37
Example II: x=y²-3, x=e^((1/2)y), y=-1, and y=2
6:25
Example III: y=(1/x), y=(1/x³), and x=4
12:25
Example IV: 15-2x² and y=x²-5
15:52
Example V: x=(1/8)y³ and x=6-y²
20:20
Example VI: y=cos x, y=sin(2x), [0,π/2]
24:34
Example VII: y=2x², y=10x², 7x+2y=10
29:51
Example VIII: Velocity vs. Time
33:23
Part A: At 2.187 Minutes, Which care is Further Ahead?
33:24
Part B: If We Shaded the Region between the Graphs from t=0 to t=2.187, What Would This Shaded Area Represent?
36:32
Part C: At 4 Minutes Which Car is Ahead?
37:11
Part D: At What Time Will the Cars be Side by Side?
37:50
Volumes I: Slices

34m 15s

Intro
0:00
Volumes I: Slices
0:18
Rotate the Graph of y=√x about the x-axis
0:19
How can I use Integration to Find the Volume?
3:16
Slice the Solid Like a Loaf of Bread
5:06
Volumes Definition
8:56
Example I: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Given Functions about the Given Line of Rotation
12:18
Example II: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Given Functions about the Given Line of Rotation
19:05
Example III: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Given Functions about the Given Line of Rotation
25:28
Volumes II: Volumes by Washers

51m 43s

Intro
0:00
Volumes II: Volumes by Washers
0:11
Rotating Region Bounded by y=x³ & y=x around the x-axis
0:12
Equation for Volumes by Washer
11:14
Process for Solving Volumes by Washer
13:40
Example I: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Following Functions around the Given Axis
15:58
Example II: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Following Functions around the Given Axis
25:07
Example III: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Following Functions around the Given Axis
34:20
Example IV: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Following Functions around the Given Axis
44:05
Volumes III: Solids That Are Not Solids-of-Revolution

49m 36s

Intro
0:00
Solids That Are Not Solids-of-Revolution
0:11
Cross-Section Area Review
0:12
Cross-Sections That Are Not Solids-of-Revolution
7:36
Example I: Find the Volume of a Pyramid Whose Base is a Square of Side-length S, and Whose Height is H
10:54
Example II: Find the Volume of a Solid Whose Cross-sectional Areas Perpendicular to the Base are Equilateral Triangles
20:39
Example III: Find the Volume of a Pyramid Whose Base is an Equilateral Triangle of Side-Length A, and Whose Height is H
29:27
Example IV: Find the Volume of a Solid Whose Base is Given by the Equation 16x² + 4y² = 64
36:47
Example V: Find the Volume of a Solid Whose Base is the Region Bounded by the Functions y=3-x² and the x-axis
46:13
Volumes IV: Volumes By Cylindrical Shells

50m 2s

Intro
0:00
Volumes by Cylindrical Shells
0:11
Find the Volume of the Following Region
0:12
Volumes by Cylindrical Shells: Integrating Along x
14:12
Volumes by Cylindrical Shells: Integrating Along y
14:40
Volumes by Cylindrical Shells Formulas
16:22
Example I: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
18:33
Example II: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
25:57
Example III: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
31:38
Example IV: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
38:44
Example V: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
44:03
The Average Value of a Function

32m 13s

Intro
0:00
The Average Value of a Function
0:07
Average Value of f(x)
0:08
What if The Domain of f(x) is Not Finite?
2:23
Let's Calculate Average Value for f(x) = x² [2,5]
4:46
Mean Value Theorem for Integrate
9:25
Example I: Find the Average Value of the Given Function Over the Given Interval
14:06
Example II: Find the Average Value of the Given Function Over the Given Interval
18:25
Example III: Find the Number A Such that the Average Value of the Function f(x) = -4x² + 8x + 4 Equals 2 Over the Interval [-1,A]
24:04
Example IV: Find the Average Density of a Rod
27:47
VI. Techniques of Integration
Integration by Parts

50m 32s

Intro
0:00
Integration by Parts
0:08
The Product Rule for Differentiation
0:09
Integrating Both Sides Retains the Equality
0:52
Differential Notation
2:24
Example I: ∫ x cos x dx
5:41
Example II: ∫ x² sin(2x)dx
12:01
Example III: ∫ (e^x) cos x dx
18:19
Example IV: ∫ (sin^-1) (x) dx
23:42
Example V: ∫₁⁵ (lnx)² dx
28:25
Summary
32:31
Tabular Integration
35:08
Case 1
35:52
Example: ∫x³sinx dx
36:39
Case 2
40:28
Example: ∫e^(2x) sin 3x
41:14
Trigonometric Integrals I

24m 50s

Intro
0:00
Example I: ∫ sin³ (x) dx
1:36
Example II: ∫ cos⁵(x)sin²(x)dx
4:36
Example III: ∫ sin⁴(x)dx
9:23
Summary for Evaluating Trigonometric Integrals of the Following Type: ∫ (sin^m) (x) (cos^p) (x) dx
15:59
#1: Power of sin is Odd
16:00
#2: Power of cos is Odd
16:41
#3: Powers of Both sin and cos are Odd
16:55
#4: Powers of Both sin and cos are Even
17:10
Example IV: ∫ tan⁴ (x) sec⁴ (x) dx
17:34
Example V: ∫ sec⁹(x) tan³(x) dx
20:55
Summary for Evaluating Trigonometric Integrals of the Following Type: ∫ (sec^m) (x) (tan^p) (x) dx
23:31
#1: Power of sec is Odd
23:32
#2: Power of tan is Odd
24:04
#3: Powers of sec is Odd and/or Power of tan is Even
24:18
Trigonometric Integrals II

22m 12s

Intro
0:00
Trigonometric Integrals II
0:09
Recall: ∫tanx dx
0:10
Let's Find ∫secx dx
3:23
Example I: ∫ tan⁵ (x) dx
6:23
Example II: ∫ sec⁵ (x) dx
11:41
Summary: How to Deal with Integrals of Different Types
19:04
Identities to Deal with Integrals of Different Types
19:05
Example III: ∫cos(5x)sin(9x)dx
19:57
More Example Problems for Trigonometric Integrals

17m 22s

Intro
0:00
Example I: ∫sin²(x)cos⁷(x)dx
0:14
Example II: ∫x sin²(x) dx
3:56
Example III: ∫csc⁴ (x/5)dx
8:39
Example IV: ∫( (1-tan²x)/(sec²x) ) dx
11:17
Example V: ∫ 1 / (sinx-1) dx
13:19
Integration by Partial Fractions I

55m 12s

Intro
0:00
Integration by Partial Fractions I
0:11
Recall the Idea of Finding a Common Denominator
0:12
Decomposing a Rational Function to Its Partial Fractions
4:10
2 Types of Rational Function: Improper & Proper
5:16
Improper Rational Function
7:26
Improper Rational Function
7:27
Proper Rational Function
11:16
Proper Rational Function & Partial Fractions
11:17
Linear Factors
14:04
Irreducible Quadratic Factors
15:02
Case 1: G(x) is a Product of Distinct Linear Factors
17:10
Example I: Integration by Partial Fractions
20:33
Case 2: D(x) is a Product of Linear Factors
40:58
Example II: Integration by Partial Fractions
44:41
Integration by Partial Fractions II

42m 57s

Intro
0:00
Case 3: D(x) Contains Irreducible Factors
0:09
Example I: Integration by Partial Fractions
5:19
Example II: Integration by Partial Fractions
16:22
Case 4: D(x) has Repeated Irreducible Quadratic Factors
27:30
Example III: Integration by Partial Fractions
30:19
VII. Differential Equations
Introduction to Differential Equations

46m 37s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Differential Equations
0:09
Overview
0:10
Differential Equations Involving Derivatives of y(x)
2:08
Differential Equations Involving Derivatives of y(x) and Function of y(x)
3:23
Equations for an Unknown Number
6:28
What are These Differential Equations Saying?
10:30
Verifying that a Function is a Solution of the Differential Equation
13:00
Verifying that a Function is a Solution of the Differential Equation
13:01
Verify that y(x) = 4e^x + 3x² + 6x + e^π is a Solution of this Differential Equation
17:20
General Solution
22:00
Particular Solution
24:36
Initial Value Problem
27:42
Example I: Verify that a Family of Functions is a Solution of the Differential Equation
32:24
Example II: For What Values of K Does the Function Satisfy the Differential Equation
36:07
Example III: Verify the Solution and Solve the Initial Value Problem
39:47
Separation of Variables

28m 8s

Intro
0:00
Separation of Variables
0:28
Separation of Variables
0:29
Example I: Solve the Following g Initial Value Problem
8:29
Example II: Solve the Following g Initial Value Problem
13:46
Example III: Find an Equation of the Curve
18:48
Population Growth: The Standard & Logistic Equations

51m 7s

Intro
0:00
Standard Growth Model
0:30
Definition of the Standard/Natural Growth Model
0:31
Initial Conditions
8:00
The General Solution
9:16
Example I: Standard Growth Model
10:45
Logistic Growth Model
18:33
Logistic Growth Model
18:34
Solving the Initial Value Problem
25:21
What Happens When t → ∞
36:42
Example II: Solve the Following g Initial Value Problem
41:50
Relative Growth Rate
46:56
Relative Growth Rate
46:57
Relative Growth Rate Version for the Standard model
49:04
Slope Fields

24m 37s

Intro
0:00
Slope Fields
0:35
Slope Fields
0:36
Graphing the Slope Fields, Part 1
11:12
Graphing the Slope Fields, Part 2
15:37
Graphing the Slope Fields, Part 3
17:25
Steps to Solving Slope Field Problems
20:24
Example I: Draw or Generate the Slope Field of the Differential Equation y'=x cos y
22:38
VIII. AP Practic Exam
AP Practice Exam: Section 1, Part A No Calculator

45m 29s

Intro
0:00
Exam Link
0:10
Problem #1
1:26
Problem #2
2:52
Problem #3
4:42
Problem #4
7:03
Problem #5
10:01
Problem #6
13:49
Problem #7
15:16
Problem #8
19:06
Problem #9
23:10
Problem #10
28:10
Problem #11
31:30
Problem #12
33:53
Problem #13
37:45
Problem #14
41:17
AP Practice Exam: Section 1, Part A No Calculator, cont.

41m 55s

Intro
0:00
Problem #15
0:22
Problem #16
3:10
Problem #17
5:30
Problem #18
8:03
Problem #19
9:53
Problem #20
14:51
Problem #21
17:30
Problem #22
22:12
Problem #23
25:48
Problem #24
29:57
Problem #25
33:35
Problem #26
35:57
Problem #27
37:57
Problem #28
40:04
AP Practice Exam: Section I, Part B Calculator Allowed

58m 47s

Intro
0:00
Problem #1
1:22
Problem #2
4:55
Problem #3
10:49
Problem #4
13:05
Problem #5
14:54
Problem #6
17:25
Problem #7
18:39
Problem #8
20:27
Problem #9
26:48
Problem #10
28:23
Problem #11
34:03
Problem #12
36:25
Problem #13
39:52
Problem #14
43:12
Problem #15
47:18
Problem #16
50:41
Problem #17
56:38
AP Practice Exam: Section II, Part A Calculator Allowed

25m 40s

Intro
0:00
Problem #1: Part A
1:14
Problem #1: Part B
4:46
Problem #1: Part C
8:00
Problem #2: Part A
12:24
Problem #2: Part B
16:51
Problem #2: Part C
17:17
Problem #3: Part A
18:16
Problem #3: Part B
19:54
Problem #3: Part C
21:44
Problem #3: Part D
22:57
AP Practice Exam: Section II, Part B No Calculator

31m 20s

Intro
0:00
Problem #4: Part A
1:35
Problem #4: Part B
5:54
Problem #4: Part C
8:50
Problem #4: Part D
9:40
Problem #5: Part A
11:26
Problem #5: Part B
13:11
Problem #5: Part C
15:07
Problem #5: Part D
19:57
Problem #6: Part A
22:01
Problem #6: Part B
25:34
Problem #6: Part C
28:54
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Fri Feb 26, 2016 4:18 AM

Post by Jessica Lee on February 23, 2016

Hi! I just wanted to make sure. For example one, isn't 21.33 before multiplying by 2pi?

Volumes IV: Volumes By Cylindrical Shells

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Volumes by Cylindrical Shells 0:11
    • Find the Volume of the Following Region
    • Volumes by Cylindrical Shells: Integrating Along x
    • Volumes by Cylindrical Shells: Integrating Along y
    • Volumes by Cylindrical Shells Formulas
  • Example I: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid 18:33
  • Example II: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid 25:57
  • Example III: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid 31:38
  • Example IV: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid 38:44
  • Example V: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid 44:03

Transcription: Volumes IV: Volumes By Cylindrical Shells

Hello, welcome back to www.educator.com, and welcome back to AP Calculus.0000

Today, we are going be talking about finding volumes by the method of cylindrical shells.0004

Let us jump right on in.0010

How can we find the volume of the following region?0015

Let me work in blue, I think.0020

How to find the volume of the following region?0027

We can go ahead and say, we have the function y = -3x³ + 4x²0048

and we want x to be greater than or equal to 0.0059

We want y to be greater than or equal to 0.0063

We want to rotate this around the y axis.0066

Let us see what region we are actually looking at.0076

When we draw out this region, this function right here, when we draw it out,0079

it is going to look something like this.0089

It is going to end up hitting it at 1.33.0090

x greater than or equal to 0, everything over here, everything in here are.0095

We are looking at this region here.0100

We are going to take this region and we are going to rotate it around the y axis.0103

We are going to rotate this way.0108

The solid of revolution that we are going to generate is going to be something symmetrical.0110

This is -1.33.0116

We are looking for the volume of this region, how can we do that?0119

We have already dealt with washers, it is possible to do something like this.0124

It is possible to basically take a washer, we will take a slice perpendicular to the axis of rotation.0131

And then, we will add all the washers up along the y axis.0141

We are going to integrate along y.0145

Let us write this down.0149

We could use washers, we try washers, I should say.0150

We could try washers which mean we are going to integrate, in this case, along the y axis,0160

or I will just say along the y direction.0167

Since we are integrating along y, we need x equal to some function of y.0180

In other words, we need to express this function as a function of y.0192

For this particular function -3x³ + 4x², that is not going to be a very easy thing to do.0198

Solving this function for x, in terms of y explicitly, it is not going to be very easy to do at all.0204

If in fact if it is possible, I do not even know if it is, in this particular case.0213

Here is where we run into a little bit of problem.0218

It is doable, theoretically, but expressing this in terms of y is going to be hard.0222

Because it is going to be hard, we ask ourselves is there another way of doing this?0228

There is, let me actually write out.0234

We are going to integrate along y so we need x = f(y).0239

For this function, expressing x as a function of y is difficult.0245

Is there another way, the answer is yes, there is.0268

The answer is using things called cylindrical shells.0282

Let us go ahead and redraw our little thing here.0291

We have that, we have this, that is one region, that is another region.0296

Let me go ahead and make this.0309

Here we have 1.33, we have -1.33.0313

Here is what I'm going to do.0320

Instead of taking a washer which means slicing this solid horizontally0321

perpendicular to the axis of rotation which we said is the y axis,0326

that is the axis of rotation, I'm actually going to take a piece of it and go perpendicular to the axis of rotation.0330

I’m going to pick this little slice right here.0341

Not really a slice though, you will see why in a minute.0343

Now I'm going to come over here.0348

What I’m going to do, I have this solid.0352

Essentially what I'm going to do, I’m going to take this little region.0355

Now from your perspective, that region, I'm going to end up turning it towards you.0359

I’m going to take this solid and you are going to end up taking this little, and actually turn it this way.0366

When we rotate around the y axis, we are going to get a circular object.0373

I’m going to basically bore into the object from the top, I’m going to turnaround this way.0377

I’m going to get a cylindrical shell.0383

When I take this down, what I end up getting is something like this, this region right here.0385

What I actually done is I have taken this solid.0402

When I view the solid from the top, I have actually bore into it and pulled out a cylindrical shell.0406

All of this is the solid part, that is what this is, this is from the side.0414

It is going to be of some radius here.0425

Of course this is going to be some differential length dx.0428

What this actually looks like is the following.0434

This and this, when I turn it this way, it looks like this.0435

The perspective drawing is actually this.0440

This is h, this is h, it is the height of the cylindrical shell.0460

This is r, that is this right here, that is r.0472

The thickness is dx.0479

Instead of taking washers and adding them up along the y axis,0483

I'm going to take concentric circular cylindrical shells working my way out, from this point to this point.0487

Shell, shell, shell, these are all a bunch of concentric cylindrical shells.0502

Now I can integrate along the x axis.0507

My function was a function of x.0511

All I have done is instead of dealing with washers or disks, now I’m dealing with cylindrical shells.0514

We need the volume of this one cylindrical shell.0521

When I have the volume of this one cylindrical shell, I integrate all of the volumes.0525

We need an expression for the volume of the cylindrical shell.0531

What is that?0535

What is the volume of this shell?0540

Cut it and unroll it, in other words, slice it here and unroll it.0549

What you end up having is a rectangle, what you end up having is a slab.0564

That is what you are going to get.0570

When you unroll this shell, you cut it, you unroll it, you are going to get a slab.0580

This is c, that is going to be the circumference.0592

It is going to be the circumference of the shell.0597

This is h, that is the height.0601

This right here, this, that is the depth.0606

We know that the volume of this is equal to the circumference.0613

This is length × width × height, which is circumference × height × depth.0618

The circumference × the height × the depth.0623

The circumference is equal to, this is r, the circumference is 2π r, 2π × the radius.0630

The height is just the height of the shell and the depth is your dx.0639

Our volume is going to equal 2π r h dx, circumference × the height × the dx.0655

That is the volume of our one little shell.0669

Let me draw real quickly again, let draw out in red here.0673

We have this and we have this.0680

We have this little shell right there.0685

This is our shell right, that is our height, this is our radius.0689

The radius is just a function of x.0699

r is just the x value, the height is f(x).0706

Our volume element of our little shell is equal to volume element as a function of x is equal to 2π × x × f(x) × dx.0717

I just add up all the shells, as we are working out.0734

As we are looking for the top, add up all the shells, working out in concentric circles.0736

Now just add up all of the volumes of these individual shells, these differential shells.0744

Our integration is going to go from 0, we are adding from here to here.0777

We are adding up all of these shells, we are looking it sideways.0785

We are going out from the center.0789

Integrate from 0 to 1.33.0795

Looking at this from the top, that is the solid looked at from the top.0802

You are taking concentric cylindrical shells.0816

You are integrating, integrating, you are adding them all up.0820

Cylindrical shell from 0 to 1.33, that is all we are doing here.0827

In general, let us go back to blue.0838

Volumes by cylindrical shells, the volume = the integral from a to b of 2π x f(x) dx,0846

if we are integrating along the x axis.0870

This is for integrating along x and we have v = the integral from a to b of 2π f(y) dy.0877

This is if we are integrating along y.0900

Again, very important measure, the radius of the shell from the axis of rotation.0910

Now because we are measuring from the axis of rotation, it is not always going to be just x and f(x), y f(y).0934

This is not just, they give you an equation, plug it into the formula.0944

These come from the actual physical situation that we described.0949

Finding the shell, finding what the radius is from the axis of rotation.0955

There are better formulas than these, more general, that you should actually concentrate on.0960

These are just thrown out there because it is what you are going to see in your book.0965

You have to let the situation decide what the radius is going to be and what the function is going to be.0969

It is better if we write the following.0979

Let me do this in blue.0984

Better formulas are, volume = the integral from a to b of 2π × the radius of the shell × the height of the shell × dx.0987

Or the integral from a to b of 2π radius of the shell, the height of the shell × dy,1016

depending on whether we are integrating with respect to x or respect to y.1030

You have to find r as a function of x and h as a function of x.1035

r as a function of y, h as a function of y.1039

I will write where r and h are functions of x.1046

Here where r and h are functions of y.1059

Probably, we want to avoid those.1071

They are accurate for a given situation, when you are revolving around the x axis or y axis.1073

But we are always going to be revolving around those axis.1079

We might be revolving around any other line x = 5, y = -6.1082

These are the general equations.1087

Once you have decided based on the situation that you are going to be integrating along x,1089

your r and your h, that your going to get from the picture are going to be functions of x.1095

If you decided that you are going to integrate along y, then your r and your h,1100

the radius of the shell and the height of the shell have to be functions of y.1105

These are the equations that you want to use.1110

Let us do examples because I think that makes everything clear.1117

Use the method of cylindrical shells, specifically cylindrical shells.1119

Find the volumes of the solid generated by rotating the region bounded by the following expressions about the given line.1126

x² – 5x + 8, 0 to 4, we want to rotate this around the y axis.1132

We need to know what this thing looks like, that is the whole idea.1141

We need to see what that looks like.1145

I’m going to go ahead and complete the square, turn it into a form where I know where the vertex is,1150

and then find f(0), f(4), and then, we will rotate that region.1154

Let us start off by going, I have got y is equal to x² - 5x + 8.1160

I think I’m going to go over here.1173

I’m going to take y - 8 = x² - 5x.1175

I’m going to complete squaring this, I’m going to take half of the 5/2 and I’m going to square it and add it.1180

I'm going to add 25/4 over here which means I'm going to add 25/4 over on the left hand side to retain the equality.1187

I get y – 7/4 is equal to x – 5/2² which implies that my vertex is at 2.5 and 1.75.1197

When I do y(0), I'm going to get y(0) is equal to 8.1216

I'm going to get y(4) is equal to 4.1227

Now I have a picture that I can work with.1231

Now I got this, now my vertex is at 2.5, 1.75.1234

Let us go 1, 2, let us go 1, 2.1245

I will keep this as 1, 2, but I will make my 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.1268

I have different scales on my x and y axis.1276

My vertex is 2.5 and 1.75.1281

0 and 8, f(3) to 4.1290

I’m at 1, 2, 3, 4.1296

That is my region, this is the region that I’m talking about.1303

I need to be able to draw it.1309

Now I’m rotating this around the y axis.1310

It is going to look something like that.1315

This is my region.1322

Cylindrical shells, the axis of the shell, the axis of rotation is the center of the shell.1324

The little sliver that you draw is going to be parallel to the axis of rotation.1335

In this particular case, my shell is going to be like this.1340

I rotate that, this is going to be the other side of the shell.1346

When I take this and I turn it towards me, now I'm going to see my circle like that.1350

This thing rotated in perspective drawing, it is going to look like,1361

This is the height, that is this right there.1378

Let me work in black.1386

This is my radius, that is x, the x value.1392

This is my height, that is my f(x), that is what is going on here.1400

The radius is equal to x and the height is equal to y which is equal to x² - 5x + 8.1409

I have gotten the picture telling me what is going on, I’m not just putting it in.1426

I know my general formula is volume = the integral from a to b of 2π r h dx.1429

In this particular case, r is x, I put that in there.1440

h is y which is the x² – 5x + 8.1443

I put it in there and then I integrate but it is based on this.1447

Once again, the axis of rotation which in this case was the y axis, is the center of the shell.1450

It is the axis of the cylindrical shell.1458

Side view of the shell looks like that.1460

This is the top view of the shell, this is the perspective view of the shell.1463

I’m integrating from 0 to 4.1467

I’m taking shells concentrically out.1475

Let us write it all out, let us go back to blue.1481

I have got the volume = the integral from a to b 2π r h dx.1482

The integral from 0 to 4, 2π x x² - 5x + 8 dx, this is what is important.1496

The rest is just integration.1512

This is equal to 2π × the integral from 0 to 4, x³ - 5x² + 8x dx1514

= 2π × x⁴/ 4 - 5x³/ 3 + 8x²/ 2 from 0 to 4.1530

When I do this, I get 21.33, that is all.1544

Again, this is what is important, being able to form the integral.1551

The rest is just integration problem.1555

Let us do another example.1557

Using the method of cylindrical shells, find the volume of the solid generated by rotating the region1563

bounded by the following expressions about the given line.1567

Let us see what we have got.1571

We got y = 1/8 x³.1572

Let us see what we have got.1579

I have got this and we are going to rotate about the x axis this time.1581

Let me make this a little bit smaller, actually.1591

I will use a little bit more room.1594

Let me go here.1597

This is my y axis, this is my x axis, y = 1/8 x³.1606

Something like that.1613

y = 10, it is going to be up here.1615

Let us just say that is the line y = 10 and x = 0.1623

This is the region that I'm interested in.1630

I’m going to rotate this around the x axis this way.1632

This is going to be like this, then, I’m going to get a region like that.1638

This is my region.1642

They are saying specifically, use cylindrical shells.1645

The shells are going to be the length.1648

The sides of the shell are going to be parallel to the axis of rotation.1654

In other words, the axis of rotation is going to be the center of the shell.1657

The axis of rotation is the x axis.1660

Our shell is going to be parallel to that, that is this way.1663

If I were to take this and turn it that way, looking at it straight on, I will be looking at something like this.1672

I hope that make sense.1685

The radius of this shell is that value, it is y, that is the radius.1688

The height of the shell is that, that is x.1697

Let us see what we have got.1707

We are going to be integrating along the y axis.1709

We integrate along y.1718

Because we are integrating along y, we need our functions to be functions of y.1723

This is a function of x.1729

Let us go ahead and see what we can do, radius = y.1731

In this particular case, the radius we said is equal to our y value.1737

We have radius is equal to y.1741

We need our height, the height is x.1746

We need x, in terms of y.1750

We have got y = 1/8 x³.1753

We have 8y is equal to x³.1769

We have x is equal to 2y¹/3.1775

x is equal to h, it is the height.1781

Therefore, the height is equal to 2y¹/3.1788

Now that we have our radius and we have our height, we can go ahead and do this problem.1794

Volume = the integral from a to b, 2 × π × the radius × the height dy.1802

We are integrating from 0 to 10 shells.1814

Looking at it from the top, I see these concentric shells going outward from a radius of 0 all the way up to a radius of 10.1824

Shell, shell, shell, until I have covered all of them, that is what is happening.1837

We have got 2 × π × y × 2y¹/3 dy.1843

This is going to equal 4π × the integral from 0 to 10 of y.1856

y × y¹/3 is going to be y⁴/3 dy.1866

It is going to be y⁷/3 / 7/3 from 0 to 10.1876

Our final answer is going to be 3/7, 10⁷/3, that is all.1886

Example number 3, let us go back to blue here.1900

Cylindrical shells, we have y = √2x, we have y = 0, and we have a line x = 2.1903

Let us go ahead and draw this out.1912

Let us do x = 2, we want to rotate along x = -2.1916

Let us go ahead and draw this out this way.1927

We have got this.1930

This is our y axis.1935

I do not need to make it this big and this one I might need to.1938

This is our 0,0, this is our x, the y = √2x.1947

Some functions is going to look like that.1952

y = 0 that is this line, x = 2.1956

Let us go over here.1963

This is the region that we are interested in, that is our region.1969

We are going to rotate about the line x = -2.1973

Here is -1 and -2.1977

This is our axis of rotation.1979

When we rotate about that lines, that means we are going to go two more over here.1982

We are going to have that.1993

We are going to have this region right here.1996

This, this, this, this is our region, this is the y axis, this is the x axis.2004

We are going to take this region, we are rotating it around the line x = -2.2011

This is our solid of revolution, we are going to use cylindrical shells.2018

The axis of rotation is the center of the shell.2026

The sides, the walls of the shell are parallel to the axis of rotation.2031

It is going to be here and here.2038

Looking at it from the side, cylindrical shell is opening out.2045

Now we are integrating along the x and we are going to integrate from 0 to 2.2049

We have taken care of the lower and upper limit of integration.2070

Now we need to find the radius, we need to find the height.2072

We measure the radius from the axis of rotation.2077

The axis of rotation is over here.2081

It is at the point -2, distance is what we are worried about.2083

Let me work in black.2094

The radius from the center, from the axis of rotation which is the center of the shell to the wall of the shell,2096

that is going to be this distance which is 2 + this distance which is x.2106

Our radius is equal to 2 + x.2113

Notice, it is not just x, our axis of rotation has changed.2116

It is the radius, the length, that matters.2121

Our height that is going to equal this which is f(x).2125

Our height is equal to √2x, now we have everything that we need.2136

Let me go ahead and erase this.2144

This is our y = -2.2146

Notice, distance is what we want.2148

Even though this is -2, this is not negative, this is 2.2152

2 + the x, in order to take me from the center of rotation of the shell to the actual wall of the shell, that is the radius.2156

I think I will do it in red, I love changing the colors.2168

Volume = the integral from a to b of 2π r h dx, that is our general formula,2172

= the integral from 0 to 2 of 2 × π × 2 + x × h which is √2x × dx.2183

This is what we want, that is the integral.2198

The rest is just integration.2203

Let us go ahead and go over there.2209

We have got 4 √2π from 0 to 2 of x ^ ½.2218

I pulled out the √2 and I just left the √x in there.2227

dx + 2 √2π, the integral 0 to 2, x³/2.2231

I distributed and just separated the integral.2250

I get 4 √2 × π × x³/2 / 3/2, from 0 to 2 + 2 √2 × π x⁵/2 / 5/2 from 0 to 2.2261

When I work all of this out, I end up getting 64π/ 3 + 128π/ 5, that is my total volume.2288

Again, the rest is just arithmetic which I will leave to you.2305

Finding the integral was the important part.2308

Integration is important, it is actually where a lot of the problems happen2312

because you are dealing with arithmetic issues, +, -, √, this and that.2316

In any case, that is the nature of the game.2321

Let us take a look at example 4, let us see what we have got here.2325

Cylindrical shells, y = x⁴, x = y⁴, we want to rotate about x = 1.2331

Let us go back to blue here.2337

Let us draw this out.2341

y = x⁴ is going to look something like that.2352

x = y⁴ is going to look something like that.2354

They are going to meet at 1, rotate about the line x = 1 which is this line.2358

Now we have got that and we have got that.2366

This is our solid that we want to find the volume of, rotated about x = 1, that is the center of the shell.2371

The walls of our shell, our representative shell is going to be something like this.2383

We are going to be integrating along x.2392

We are going to be integrating from 0 to 1, lower and upper limits of integration.2400

Let us see, what do we want to do next?2412

We need to find r and h.2423

Our radius from the axis of rotation is going to be, my radius is going to be that.2427

This is my radius and my height is going to be this.2455

My radius is going to be this distance - that distance.2464

1 - the x value, our radius is 1 – x.2477

My height that is going to equal the top function of x - the bottom function of x, that is my height.2486

It is going to equal the top function of x which is x¹/4.2505

I need functions of x here because I’m integrating along x.2520

This one is fine, I need to convert that to a function of x.2523

x = y⁴, this is the same as y = x¹/4, that is my top function.2528

It is x¹/4 - my bottom which is x⁴.2537

Now that I have my r and my h, volume is simple.2546

Volume = the integral from a to b of 2π r h dx which = the integral from 0 to 1 2π 1 - x × x¹/4 – x⁴ dx.2552

That is what I want.2578

When we solve this, we end up with 2π, the integral from 0 to 1 of x¹/4 – x⁵/4 – x⁴ + x⁵ dx2581

= 2π x⁵/4 / 5/4 – x⁹/4 / 9/4 – x⁵/ 5 + x⁶/ 6, from 0 to 1.2608

When I work that out, I get 0.322 or whatever numbers you happen to put in there, when you put the 1 and 0 in.2631

Let us go ahead and try one more example here.2644

Cylindrical shells, we have the function y = x + 3/x, y = 10.2649

We want to rotate about the line x = 12.2657

Let us see what we have got here.2662

As far as the graphing is concerned, you can use your graphing calculator,2681

you can use any graphical tool that can find on the internet.2684

You can go ahead and express this as a rational function and use the techniques of differential calculus to graph it.2688

Suffice it to say that y = 10, we are looking at that.2693

The graph itself actually looks like this.2700

It goes down and it comes up like that, whatever technique that you need to use in order to graph it,2708

that is what the graph of this looks like.2715

y = 10, that is this line right here.2720

That is y = 10, this is the region that we are concerned about.2723

It is this region that we are going to be rotating.2727

They say rotate around the line x = 12.2729

It turns out that x = 12 is actually right about there.2733

This is 12, therefore, our region is going to be something like that.2738

I probably draw a little bit better than that.2744

It is going to come down to about right there.2750

Something like that.2756

This is a solid that we are dealing with.2758

Our axis of rotation is 12 which mean that the sides of the shell are going to be parallel.2761

When we measure r and h, r again, we are measuring from the axis of rotation to the original function, that is r, that is h.2773

r is equal to this length 12 - this length which is x.2790

It is 12 – x.2803

The height is 10 – f(x), it is this height - that height.2805

It is 10 – f(x) which = 10 - x - 3/x.2820

Now we need the a and b.2834

We have our r, we have our h which is this thing.2838

The question is what are a and b?2845

I'm going to integrate from where the two graphs meet, the x value.2851

This one and this one.2857

Where do the two graphs meet?2863

Just set them equal to each other, x + 3/x = 10, and solve.2872

Let us do x + 3/x + 10, x + 3/x = 10 which gives us x + 3/x -,2887

Let us get this right, 3/ x - 10 is equal to 0.2907

We are going to get x² + 3 - 10x = 0.2912

We have x² - 10x + 3 = 0, this is a quadratic.2920

When I solve this, I get x = 0.31 and I get x = 9.69.2925

I'm going to be integrating from 0.31 to 9.69.2933

My volume is equal to the integral from a to b 2π r h dx.2940

The integral from 0.31 to 9.69 2π, my radius we said was 12 – x.2948

Our function, our h, our height was 10 – x - 3/x.2961

We are integrating along dx.2971

Plug this into your calculator, this is going to be one of those situations where you definitely going to need a calculator.2973

My final answer for volume is going to be 2π × 301.29, that is all.2979

The important thing is coming up with this.2991

Thank you so much for joining us here at www.educator.com.2999

We will see you next time, bye.3001

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