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INSTRUCTORS Raffi Hovasapian John Zhu
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Raffi Hovasapian

Raffi Hovasapian

Example Problems for The Definite Integral

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Limits and Derivatives
Overview & Slopes of Curves

42m 8s

Intro
0:00
Overview & Slopes of Curves
0:21
Differential and Integral
0:22
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
6:36
Differentiation or Taking the Derivative
14:24
What Does the Derivative Mean and How do We Find it?
15:18
Example: f'(x)
19:24
Example: f(x) = sin (x)
29:16
General Procedure for Finding the Derivative of f(x)
37:33
More on Slopes of Curves

50m 53s

Intro
0:00
Slope of the Secant Line along a Curve
0:12
Slope of the Tangent Line to f(x) at a Particlar Point
0:13
Slope of the Secant Line along a Curve
2:59
Instantaneous Slope
6:51
Instantaneous Slope
6:52
Example: Distance, Time, Velocity
13:32
Instantaneous Slope and Average Slope
25:42
Slope & Rate of Change
29:55
Slope & Rate of Change
29:56
Example: Slope = 2
33:16
Example: Slope = 4/3
34:32
Example: Slope = 4 (m/s)
39:12
Example: Density = Mass / Volume
40:33
Average Slope, Average Rate of Change, Instantaneous Slope, and Instantaneous Rate of Change
47:46
Example Problems for Slopes of Curves

59m 12s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Water Tank
0:13
Part A: Which is the Independent Variable and Which is the Dependent?
2:00
Part B: Average Slope
3:18
Part C: Express These Slopes as Rates-of-Change
9:28
Part D: Instantaneous Slope
14:54
Example II: y = √(x-3)
28:26
Part A: Calculate the Slope of the Secant Line
30:39
Part B: Instantaneous Slope
41:26
Part C: Equation for the Tangent Line
43:59
Example III: Object in the Air
49:37
Part A: Average Velocity
50:37
Part B: Instantaneous Velocity
55:30
Desmos Tutorial

18m 43s

Intro
0:00
Desmos Tutorial
1:42
Desmos Tutorial
1:43
Things You Must Learn To Do on Your Particular Calculator
2:39
Things You Must Learn To Do on Your Particular Calculator
2:40
Example I: y=sin x
4:54
Example II: y=x³ and y = d/(dx) (x³)
9:22
Example III: y = x² {-5 <= x <= 0} and y = cos x {0 < x < 6}
13:15
The Limit of a Function

51m 53s

Intro
0:00
The Limit of a Function
0:14
The Limit of a Function
0:15
Graph: Limit of a Function
12:24
Table of Values
16:02
lim x→a f(x) Does not Say What Happens When x = a
20:05
Example I: f(x) = x²
24:34
Example II: f(x) = 7
27:05
Example III: f(x) = 4.5
30:33
Example IV: f(x) = 1/x
34:03
Example V: f(x) = 1/x²
36:43
The Limit of a Function, Cont.
38:16
Infinity and Negative Infinity
38:17
Does Not Exist
42:45
Summary
46:48
Example Problems for the Limit of a Function

24m 43s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Explain in Words What the Following Symbols Mean
0:10
Example II: Find the Following Limit
5:21
Example III: Use the Graph to Find the Following Limits
7:35
Example IV: Use the Graph to Find the Following Limits
11:48
Example V: Sketch the Graph of a Function that Satisfies the Following Properties
15:25
Example VI: Find the Following Limit
18:44
Example VII: Find the Following Limit
20:06
Calculating Limits Mathematically

53m 48s

Intro
0:00
Plug-in Procedure
0:09
Plug-in Procedure
0:10
Limit Laws
9:14
Limit Law 1
10:05
Limit Law 2
10:54
Limit Law 3
11:28
Limit Law 4
11:54
Limit Law 5
12:24
Limit Law 6
13:14
Limit Law 7
14:38
Plug-in Procedure, Cont.
16:35
Plug-in Procedure, Cont.
16:36
Example I: Calculating Limits Mathematically
20:50
Example II: Calculating Limits Mathematically
27:37
Example III: Calculating Limits Mathematically
31:42
Example IV: Calculating Limits Mathematically
35:36
Example V: Calculating Limits Mathematically
40:58
Limits Theorem
44:45
Limits Theorem 1
44:46
Limits Theorem 2: Squeeze Theorem
46:34
Example VI: Calculating Limits Mathematically
49:26
Example Problems for Calculating Limits Mathematically

21m 22s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Evaluate the Following Limit by Showing Each Application of a Limit Law
0:16
Example II: Evaluate the Following Limit
1:51
Example III: Evaluate the Following Limit
3:36
Example IV: Evaluate the Following Limit
8:56
Example V: Evaluate the Following Limit
11:19
Example VI: Calculating Limits Mathematically
13:19
Example VII: Calculating Limits Mathematically
14:59
Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity

50m 1s

Intro
0:00
Limit as x Goes to Infinity
0:14
Limit as x Goes to Infinity
0:15
Let's Look at f(x) = 1 / (x-3)
1:04
Summary
9:34
Example I: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
12:16
Example II: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
21:22
Example III: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
24:10
Example IV: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
36:00
Example Problems for Limits at Infinity

36m 31s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
0:14
Example II: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
3:27
Example III: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
8:11
Example IV: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
14:20
Example V: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
20:07
Example VI: Calculating Limits as x Goes to Infinity
23:36
Continuity

53m

Intro
0:00
Definition of Continuity
0:08
Definition of Continuity
0:09
Example: Not Continuous
3:52
Example: Continuous
4:58
Example: Not Continuous
5:52
Procedure for Finding Continuity
9:45
Law of Continuity
13:44
Law of Continuity
13:45
Example I: Determining Continuity on a Graph
15:55
Example II: Show Continuity & Determine the Interval Over Which the Function is Continuous
17:57
Example III: Is the Following Function Continuous at the Given Point?
22:42
Theorem for Composite Functions
25:28
Theorem for Composite Functions
25:29
Example IV: Is cos(x³ + ln x) Continuous at x=π/2?
27:00
Example V: What Value of A Will make the Following Function Continuous at Every Point of Its Domain?
34:04
Types of Discontinuity
39:18
Removable Discontinuity
39:33
Jump Discontinuity
40:06
Infinite Discontinuity
40:32
Intermediate Value Theorem
40:58
Intermediate Value Theorem: Hypothesis & Conclusion
40:59
Intermediate Value Theorem: Graphically
43:40
Example VI: Prove That the Following Function Has at Least One Real Root in the Interval [4,6]
47:46
Derivative I

40m 2s

Intro
0:00
Derivative
0:09
Derivative
0:10
Example I: Find the Derivative of f(x)=x³
2:20
Notations for the Derivative
7:32
Notations for the Derivative
7:33
Derivative & Rate of Change
11:14
Recall the Rate of Change
11:15
Instantaneous Rate of Change
17:04
Graphing f(x) and f'(x)
19:10
Example II: Find the Derivative of x⁴ - x²
24:00
Example III: Find the Derivative of f(x)=√x
30:51
Derivatives II

53m 45s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Find the Derivative of (2+x)/(3-x)
0:18
Derivatives II
9:02
f(x) is Differentiable if f'(x) Exists
9:03
Recall: For a Limit to Exist, Both Left Hand and Right Hand Limits Must Equal to Each Other
17:19
Geometrically: Differentiability Means the Graph is Smooth
18:44
Example II: Show Analytically that f(x) = |x| is Nor Differentiable at x=0
20:53
Example II: For x > 0
23:53
Example II: For x < 0
25:36
Example II: What is f(0) and What is the lim |x| as x→0?
30:46
Differentiability & Continuity
34:22
Differentiability & Continuity
34:23
How Can a Function Not be Differentiable at a Point?
39:38
How Can a Function Not be Differentiable at a Point?
39:39
Higher Derivatives
41:58
Higher Derivatives
41:59
Derivative Operator
45:12
Example III: Find (dy)/(dx) & (d²y)/(dx²) for y = x³
49:29
More Example Problems for The Derivative

31m 38s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Sketch f'(x)
0:10
Example II: Sketch f'(x)
2:14
Example III: Find the Derivative of the Following Function sing the Definition
3:49
Example IV: Determine f, f', and f'' on a Graph
12:43
Example V: Find an Equation for the Tangent Line to the Graph of the Following Function at the Given x-value
13:40
Example VI: Distance vs. Time
20:15
Example VII: Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration
23:56
Example VIII: Graph the Displacement Function
28:20
II. Differentiation
Differentiation of Polynomials & Exponential Functions

47m 35s

Intro
0:00
Differentiation of Polynomials & Exponential Functions
0:15
Derivative of a Function
0:16
Derivative of a Constant
2:35
Power Rule
3:08
If C is a Constant
4:19
Sum Rule
5:22
Exponential Functions
6:26
Example I: Differentiate
7:45
Example II: Differentiate
12:38
Example III: Differentiate
15:13
Example IV: Differentiate
16:20
Example V: Differentiate
19:19
Example VI: Find the Equation of the Tangent Line to a Function at a Given Point
12:18
Example VII: Find the First & Second Derivatives
25:59
Example VIII
27:47
Part A: Find the Velocity & Acceleration Functions as Functions of t
27:48
Part B: Find the Acceleration after 3 Seconds
30:12
Part C: Find the Acceleration when the Velocity is 0
30:53
Part D: Graph the Position, Velocity, & Acceleration Graphs
32:50
Example IX: Find a Cubic Function Whose Graph has Horizontal Tangents
34:53
Example X: Find a Point on a Graph
42:31
The Product, Power & Quotient Rules

47m 25s

Intro
0:00
The Product, Power and Quotient Rules
0:19
Differentiate Functions
0:20
Product Rule
5:30
Quotient Rule
9:15
Power Rule
10:00
Example I: Product Rule
13:48
Example II: Quotient Rule
16:13
Example III: Power Rule
18:28
Example IV: Find dy/dx
19:57
Example V: Find dy/dx
24:53
Example VI: Find dy/dx
28:38
Example VII: Find an Equation for the Tangent to the Curve
34:54
Example VIII: Find d²y/dx²
38:08
Derivatives of the Trigonometric Functions

41m 8s

Intro
0:00
Derivatives of the Trigonometric Functions
0:09
Let's Find the Derivative of f(x) = sin x
0:10
Important Limits to Know
4:59
d/dx (sin x)
6:06
d/dx (cos x)
6:38
d/dx (tan x)
6:50
d/dx (csc x)
7:02
d/dx (sec x)
7:15
d/dx (cot x)
7:27
Example I: Differentiate f(x) = x² - 4 cos x
7:56
Example II: Differentiate f(x) = x⁵ tan x
9:04
Example III: Differentiate f(x) = (cos x) / (3 + sin x)
10:56
Example IV: Differentiate f(x) = e^x / (tan x - sec x)
14:06
Example V: Differentiate f(x) = (csc x - 4) / (cot x)
15:37
Example VI: Find an Equation of the Tangent Line
21:48
Example VII: For What Values of x Does the Graph of the Function x + 3 cos x Have a Horizontal Tangent?
25:17
Example VIII: Ladder Problem
28:23
Example IX: Evaluate
33:22
Example X: Evaluate
36:38
The Chain Rule

24m 56s

Intro
0:00
The Chain Rule
0:13
Recall the Composite Functions
0:14
Derivatives of Composite Functions
1:34
Example I: Identify f(x) and g(x) and Differentiate
6:41
Example II: Identify f(x) and g(x) and Differentiate
9:47
Example III: Differentiate
11:03
Example IV: Differentiate f(x) = -5 / (x² + 3)³
12:15
Example V: Differentiate f(x) = cos(x² + c²)
14:35
Example VI: Differentiate f(x) = cos⁴x +c²
15:41
Example VII: Differentiate
17:03
Example VIII: Differentiate f(x) = sin(tan x²)
19:01
Example IX: Differentiate f(x) = sin(tan² x)
21:02
More Chain Rule Example Problems

25m 32s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Differentiate f(x) = sin(cos(tanx))
0:38
Example II: Find an Equation for the Line Tangent to the Given Curve at the Given Point
2:25
Example III: F(x) = f(g(x)), Find F' (6)
4:22
Example IV: Differentiate & Graph both the Function & the Derivative in the Same Window
5:35
Example V: Differentiate f(x) = ( (x-8)/(x+3) )⁴
10:18
Example VI: Differentiate f(x) = sec²(12x)
12:28
Example VII: Differentiate
14:41
Example VIII: Differentiate
19:25
Example IX: Find an Expression for the Rate of Change of the Volume of the Balloon with Respect to Time
21:13
Implicit Differentiation

52m 31s

Intro
0:00
Implicit Differentiation
0:09
Implicit Differentiation
0:10
Example I: Find (dy)/(dx) by both Implicit Differentiation and Solving Explicitly for y
12:15
Example II: Find (dy)/(dx) of x³ + x²y + 7y² = 14
19:18
Example III: Find (dy)/(dx) of x³y² + y³x² = 4x
21:43
Example IV: Find (dy)/(dx) of the Following Equation
24:13
Example V: Find (dy)/(dx) of 6sin x cos y = 1
29:00
Example VI: Find (dy)/(dx) of x² cos² y + y sin x = 2sin x cos y
31:02
Example VII: Find (dy)/(dx) of √(xy) = 7 + y²e^x
37:36
Example VIII: Find (dy)/(dx) of 4(x²+y²)² = 35(x²-y²)
41:03
Example IX: Find (d²y)/(dx²) of x² + y² = 25
44:05
Example X: Find (d²y)/(dx²) of sin x + cos y = sin(2x)
47:48
III. Applications of the Derivative
Linear Approximations & Differentials

47m 34s

Intro
0:00
Linear Approximations & Differentials
0:09
Linear Approximations & Differentials
0:10
Example I: Linear Approximations & Differentials
11:27
Example II: Linear Approximations & Differentials
20:19
Differentials
30:32
Differentials
30:33
Example III: Linear Approximations & Differentials
34:09
Example IV: Linear Approximations & Differentials
35:57
Example V: Relative Error
38:46
Related Rates

45m 33s

Intro
0:00
Related Rates
0:08
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #1
0:09
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #2
1:46
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #3
2:06
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #4
2:50
Strategy for Solving Related Rates Problems #5
3:38
Example I: Radius of a Balloon
5:15
Example II: Ladder
12:52
Example III: Water Tank
19:08
Example IV: Distance between Two Cars
29:27
Example V: Line-of-Sight
36:20
More Related Rates Examples

37m 17s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Shadow
0:14
Example II: Particle
4:45
Example III: Water Level
10:28
Example IV: Clock
20:47
Example V: Distance between a House and a Plane
29:11
Maximum & Minimum Values of a Function

40m 44s

Intro
0:00
Maximum & Minimum Values of a Function, Part 1
0:23
Absolute Maximum
2:20
Absolute Minimum
2:52
Local Maximum
3:38
Local Minimum
4:26
Maximum & Minimum Values of a Function, Part 2
6:11
Function with Absolute Minimum but No Absolute Max, Local Max, and Local Min
7:18
Function with Local Max & Min but No Absolute Max & Min
8:48
Formal Definitions
10:43
Absolute Maximum
11:18
Absolute Minimum
12:57
Local Maximum
14:37
Local Minimum
16:25
Extreme Value Theorem
18:08
Theorem: f'(c) = 0
24:40
Critical Number (Critical Value)
26:14
Procedure for Finding the Critical Values of f(x)
28:32
Example I: Find the Critical Values of f(x) x + sinx
29:51
Example II: What are the Absolute Max & Absolute Minimum of f(x) = x + 4 sinx on [0,2π]
35:31
Example Problems for Max & Min

40m 44s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Identify Absolute and Local Max & Min on the Following Graph
0:11
Example II: Sketch the Graph of a Continuous Function
3:11
Example III: Sketch the Following Graphs
4:40
Example IV: Find the Critical Values of f (x) = 3x⁴ - 7x³ + 4x²
6:13
Example V: Find the Critical Values of f(x) = |2x - 5|
8:42
Example VI: Find the Critical Values
11:42
Example VII: Find the Critical Values f(x) = cos²(2x) on [0,2π]
16:57
Example VIII: Find the Absolute Max & Min f(x) = 2sinx + 2cos x on [0,(π/3)]
20:08
Example IX: Find the Absolute Max & Min f(x) = (ln(2x)) / x on [1,3]
24:39
The Mean Value Theorem

25m 54s

Intro
0:00
Rolle's Theorem
0:08
Rolle's Theorem: If & Then
0:09
Rolle's Theorem: Geometrically
2:06
There May Be More than 1 c Such That f'( c ) = 0
3:30
Example I: Rolle's Theorem
4:58
The Mean Value Theorem
9:12
The Mean Value Theorem: If & Then
9:13
The Mean Value Theorem: Geometrically
11:07
Example II: Mean Value Theorem
13:43
Example III: Mean Value Theorem
21:19
Using Derivatives to Graph Functions, Part I

25m 54s

Intro
0:00
Using Derivatives to Graph Functions, Part I
0:12
Increasing/ Decreasing Test
0:13
Example I: Find the Intervals Over Which the Function is Increasing & Decreasing
3:26
Example II: Find the Local Maxima & Minima of the Function
19:18
Example III: Find the Local Maxima & Minima of the Function
31:39
Using Derivatives to Graph Functions, Part II

44m 58s

Intro
0:00
Using Derivatives to Graph Functions, Part II
0:13
Concave Up & Concave Down
0:14
What Does This Mean in Terms of the Derivative?
6:14
Point of Inflection
8:52
Example I: Graph the Function
13:18
Example II: Function x⁴ - 5x²
19:03
Intervals of Increase & Decrease
19:04
Local Maxes and Mins
25:01
Intervals of Concavity & X-Values for the Points of Inflection
29:18
Intervals of Concavity & Y-Values for the Points of Inflection
34:18
Graphing the Function
40:52
Example Problems I

49m 19s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins
0:26
Example II: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins
5:05
Example III: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, and Inflection Points
13:40
Example IV: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, and Intervals of Concavity
23:02
Example V: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, and Intervals of Concavity
34:36
Example Problems III

59m 1s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, Intervals of Concavity, and Asymptotes
0:11
Example II: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, Intervals of Concavity, and Asymptotes
21:24
Example III: Cubic Equation f(x) = Ax³ + Bx² + Cx + D
37:56
Example IV: Intervals, Local Maxes & Mins, Inflection Points, Intervals of Concavity, and Asymptotes
46:19
L'Hospital's Rule

30m 9s

Intro
0:00
L'Hospital's Rule
0:19
Indeterminate Forms
0:20
L'Hospital's Rule
3:38
Example I: Evaluate the Following Limit Using L'Hospital's Rule
8:50
Example II: Evaluate the Following Limit Using L'Hospital's Rule
10:30
Indeterminate Products
11:54
Indeterminate Products
11:55
Example III: L'Hospital's Rule & Indeterminate Products
13:57
Indeterminate Differences
17:00
Indeterminate Differences
17:01
Example IV: L'Hospital's Rule & Indeterminate Differences
18:57
Indeterminate Powers
22:20
Indeterminate Powers
22:21
Example V: L'Hospital's Rule & Indeterminate Powers
25:13
Example Problems for L'Hospital's Rule

38m 14s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Evaluate the Following Limit
0:17
Example II: Evaluate the Following Limit
2:45
Example III: Evaluate the Following Limit
6:54
Example IV: Evaluate the Following Limit
8:43
Example V: Evaluate the Following Limit
11:01
Example VI: Evaluate the Following Limit
14:48
Example VII: Evaluate the Following Limit
17:49
Example VIII: Evaluate the Following Limit
20:37
Example IX: Evaluate the Following Limit
25:16
Example X: Evaluate the Following Limit
32:44
Optimization Problems I

49m 59s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Find the Dimensions of the Box that Gives the Greatest Volume
1:23
Fundamentals of Optimization Problems
18:08
Fundamental #1
18:33
Fundamental #2
19:09
Fundamental #3
19:19
Fundamental #4
20:59
Fundamental #5
21:55
Fundamental #6
23:44
Example II: Demonstrate that of All Rectangles with a Given Perimeter, the One with the Largest Area is a Square
24:36
Example III: Find the Points on the Ellipse 9x² + y² = 9 Farthest Away from the Point (1,0)
35:13
Example IV: Find the Dimensions of the Rectangle of Largest Area that can be Inscribed in a Circle of Given Radius R
43:10
Optimization Problems II

55m 10s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Optimization Problem
0:13
Example II: Optimization Problem
17:34
Example III: Optimization Problem
35:06
Example IV: Revenue, Cost, and Profit
43:22
Newton's Method

30m 22s

Intro
0:00
Newton's Method
0:45
Newton's Method
0:46
Example I: Find x2 and x3
13:18
Example II: Use Newton's Method to Approximate
15:48
Example III: Find the Root of the Following Equation to 6 Decimal Places
19:57
Example IV: Use Newton's Method to Find the Coordinates of the Inflection Point
23:11
IV. Integrals
Antiderivatives

55m 26s

Intro
0:00
Antiderivatives
0:23
Definition of an Antiderivative
0:24
Antiderivative Theorem
7:58
Function & Antiderivative
12:10
x^n
12:30
1/x
13:00
e^x
13:08
cos x
13:18
sin x
14:01
sec² x
14:11
secxtanx
14:18
1/√(1-x²)
14:26
1/(1+x²)
14:36
-1/√(1-x²)
14:45
Example I: Find the Most General Antiderivative for the Following Functions
15:07
Function 1: f(x) = x³ -6x² + 11x - 9
15:42
Function 2: f(x) = 14√(x) - 27 4√x
19:12
Function 3: (fx) = cos x - 14 sinx
20:53
Function 4: f(x) = (x⁵+2√x )/( x^(4/3) )
22:10
Function 5: f(x) = (3e^x) - 2/(1+x²)
25:42
Example II: Given the Following, Find the Original Function f(x)
26:37
Function 1: f'(x) = 5x³ - 14x + 24, f(2) = 40
27:55
Function 2: f'(x) 3 sinx + sec²x, f(π/6) = 5
30:34
Function 3: f''(x) = 8x - cos x, f(1.5) = 12.7, f'(1.5) = 4.2
32:54
Function 4: f''(x) = 5/(√x), f(2) 15, f'(2) = 7
37:54
Example III: Falling Object
41:58
Problem 1: Find an Equation for the Height of the Ball after t Seconds
42:48
Problem 2: How Long Will It Take for the Ball to Strike the Ground?
48:30
Problem 3: What is the Velocity of the Ball as it Hits the Ground?
49:52
Problem 4: Initial Velocity of 6 m/s, How Long Does It Take to Reach the Ground?
50:46
The Area Under a Curve

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
The Area Under a Curve
0:13
Approximate Using Rectangles
0:14
Let's Do This Again, Using 4 Different Rectangles
9:40
Approximate with Rectangles
16:10
Left Endpoint
18:08
Right Endpoint
25:34
Left Endpoint vs. Right Endpoint
30:58
Number of Rectangles
34:08
True Area
37:36
True Area
37:37
Sigma Notation & Limits
43:32
When You Have to Explicitly Solve Something
47:56
Example Problems for Area Under a Curve

33m 7s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Using Left Endpoint & Right Endpoint to Approximate Area Under a Curve
0:10
Example II: Using 5 Rectangles, Approximate the Area Under the Curve
11:32
Example III: Find the True Area by Evaluating the Limit Expression
16:07
Example IV: Find the True Area by Evaluating the Limit Expression
24:52
The Definite Integral

43m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Definite Integral
0:08
Definition to Find the Area of a Curve
0:09
Definition of the Definite Integral
4:08
Symbol for Definite Integral
8:45
Regions Below the x-axis
15:18
Associating Definite Integral to a Function
19:38
Integrable Function
27:20
Evaluating the Definite Integral
29:26
Evaluating the Definite Integral
29:27
Properties of the Definite Integral
35:24
Properties of the Definite Integral
35:25
Example Problems for The Definite Integral

32m 14s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Approximate the Following Definite Integral Using Midpoints & Sub-intervals
0:11
Example II: Express the Following Limit as a Definite Integral
5:28
Example III: Evaluate the Following Definite Integral Using the Definition
6:28
Example IV: Evaluate the Following Integral Using the Definition
17:06
Example V: Evaluate the Following Definite Integral by Using Areas
25:41
Example VI: Definite Integral
30:36
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

24m 17s

Intro
0:00
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
0:17
Evaluating an Integral
0:18
Lim as x → ∞
12:19
Taking the Derivative
14:06
Differentiation & Integration are Inverse Processes
15:04
1st Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
20:08
1st Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
20:09
2nd Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
22:30
2nd Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
22:31
Example Problems for the Fundamental Theorem

25m 21s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Find the Derivative of the Following Function
0:17
Example II: Find the Derivative of the Following Function
1:40
Example III: Find the Derivative of the Following Function
2:32
Example IV: Find the Derivative of the Following Function
5:55
Example V: Evaluate the Following Integral
7:13
Example VI: Evaluate the Following Integral
9:46
Example VII: Evaluate the Following Integral
12:49
Example VIII: Evaluate the Following Integral
13:53
Example IX: Evaluate the Following Graph
15:24
Local Maxs and Mins for g(x)
15:25
Where Does g(x) Achieve Its Absolute Max on [0,8]
20:54
On What Intervals is g(x) Concave Up/Down?
22:20
Sketch a Graph of g(x)
24:34
More Example Problems, Including Net Change Applications

34m 22s

Intro
0:00
Example I: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
0:10
Example II: Evaluate the Following Definite Integral
0:59
Example III: Evaluate the Following Integral
2:59
Example IV: Velocity Function
7:46
Part A: Net Displacement
7:47
Part B: Total Distance Travelled
13:15
Example V: Linear Density Function
20:56
Example VI: Acceleration Function
25:10
Part A: Velocity Function at Time t
25:11
Part B: Total Distance Travelled During the Time Interval
28:38
Solving Integrals by Substitution

27m 20s

Intro
0:00
Table of Integrals
0:35
Example I: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
2:02
Example II: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
7:27
Example IIII: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
10:57
Example IV: Evaluate the Following Indefinite Integral
12:33
Example V: Evaluate the Following
14:28
Example VI: Evaluate the Following
16:00
Example VII: Evaluate the Following
19:01
Example VIII: Evaluate the Following
21:49
Example IX: Evaluate the Following
24:34
V. Applications of Integration
Areas Between Curves

34m 56s

Intro
0:00
Areas Between Two Curves: Function of x
0:08
Graph 1: Area Between f(x) & g(x)
0:09
Graph 2: Area Between f(x) & g(x)
4:07
Is It Possible to Write as a Single Integral?
8:20
Area Between the Curves on [a,b]
9:24
Absolute Value
10:32
Formula for Areas Between Two Curves: Top Function - Bottom Function
17:03
Areas Between Curves: Function of y
17:49
What if We are Given Functions of y?
17:50
Formula for Areas Between Two Curves: Right Function - Left Function
21:48
Finding a & b
22:32
Example Problems for Areas Between Curves

42m 55s

Intro
0:00
Instructions for the Example Problems
0:10
Example I: y = 7x - x² and y=x
0:37
Example II: x=y²-3, x=e^((1/2)y), y=-1, and y=2
6:25
Example III: y=(1/x), y=(1/x³), and x=4
12:25
Example IV: 15-2x² and y=x²-5
15:52
Example V: x=(1/8)y³ and x=6-y²
20:20
Example VI: y=cos x, y=sin(2x), [0,π/2]
24:34
Example VII: y=2x², y=10x², 7x+2y=10
29:51
Example VIII: Velocity vs. Time
33:23
Part A: At 2.187 Minutes, Which care is Further Ahead?
33:24
Part B: If We Shaded the Region between the Graphs from t=0 to t=2.187, What Would This Shaded Area Represent?
36:32
Part C: At 4 Minutes Which Car is Ahead?
37:11
Part D: At What Time Will the Cars be Side by Side?
37:50
Volumes I: Slices

34m 15s

Intro
0:00
Volumes I: Slices
0:18
Rotate the Graph of y=√x about the x-axis
0:19
How can I use Integration to Find the Volume?
3:16
Slice the Solid Like a Loaf of Bread
5:06
Volumes Definition
8:56
Example I: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Given Functions about the Given Line of Rotation
12:18
Example II: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Given Functions about the Given Line of Rotation
19:05
Example III: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Given Functions about the Given Line of Rotation
25:28
Volumes II: Volumes by Washers

51m 43s

Intro
0:00
Volumes II: Volumes by Washers
0:11
Rotating Region Bounded by y=x³ & y=x around the x-axis
0:12
Equation for Volumes by Washer
11:14
Process for Solving Volumes by Washer
13:40
Example I: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Following Functions around the Given Axis
15:58
Example II: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Following Functions around the Given Axis
25:07
Example III: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Following Functions around the Given Axis
34:20
Example IV: Find the Volume of the Solid Obtained by Rotating the Region Bounded by the Following Functions around the Given Axis
44:05
Volumes III: Solids That Are Not Solids-of-Revolution

49m 36s

Intro
0:00
Solids That Are Not Solids-of-Revolution
0:11
Cross-Section Area Review
0:12
Cross-Sections That Are Not Solids-of-Revolution
7:36
Example I: Find the Volume of a Pyramid Whose Base is a Square of Side-length S, and Whose Height is H
10:54
Example II: Find the Volume of a Solid Whose Cross-sectional Areas Perpendicular to the Base are Equilateral Triangles
20:39
Example III: Find the Volume of a Pyramid Whose Base is an Equilateral Triangle of Side-Length A, and Whose Height is H
29:27
Example IV: Find the Volume of a Solid Whose Base is Given by the Equation 16x² + 4y² = 64
36:47
Example V: Find the Volume of a Solid Whose Base is the Region Bounded by the Functions y=3-x² and the x-axis
46:13
Volumes IV: Volumes By Cylindrical Shells

50m 2s

Intro
0:00
Volumes by Cylindrical Shells
0:11
Find the Volume of the Following Region
0:12
Volumes by Cylindrical Shells: Integrating Along x
14:12
Volumes by Cylindrical Shells: Integrating Along y
14:40
Volumes by Cylindrical Shells Formulas
16:22
Example I: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
18:33
Example II: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
25:57
Example III: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
31:38
Example IV: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
38:44
Example V: Using the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Find the Volume of the Solid
44:03
The Average Value of a Function

32m 13s

Intro
0:00
The Average Value of a Function
0:07
Average Value of f(x)
0:08
What if The Domain of f(x) is Not Finite?
2:23
Let's Calculate Average Value for f(x) = x² [2,5]
4:46
Mean Value Theorem for Integrate
9:25
Example I: Find the Average Value of the Given Function Over the Given Interval
14:06
Example II: Find the Average Value of the Given Function Over the Given Interval
18:25
Example III: Find the Number A Such that the Average Value of the Function f(x) = -4x² + 8x + 4 Equals 2 Over the Interval [-1,A]
24:04
Example IV: Find the Average Density of a Rod
27:47
VI. Techniques of Integration
Integration by Parts

50m 32s

Intro
0:00
Integration by Parts
0:08
The Product Rule for Differentiation
0:09
Integrating Both Sides Retains the Equality
0:52
Differential Notation
2:24
Example I: ∫ x cos x dx
5:41
Example II: ∫ x² sin(2x)dx
12:01
Example III: ∫ (e^x) cos x dx
18:19
Example IV: ∫ (sin^-1) (x) dx
23:42
Example V: ∫₁⁵ (lnx)² dx
28:25
Summary
32:31
Tabular Integration
35:08
Case 1
35:52
Example: ∫x³sinx dx
36:39
Case 2
40:28
Example: ∫e^(2x) sin 3x
41:14
Trigonometric Integrals I

24m 50s

Intro
0:00
Example I: ∫ sin³ (x) dx
1:36
Example II: ∫ cos⁵(x)sin²(x)dx
4:36
Example III: ∫ sin⁴(x)dx
9:23
Summary for Evaluating Trigonometric Integrals of the Following Type: ∫ (sin^m) (x) (cos^p) (x) dx
15:59
#1: Power of sin is Odd
16:00
#2: Power of cos is Odd
16:41
#3: Powers of Both sin and cos are Odd
16:55
#4: Powers of Both sin and cos are Even
17:10
Example IV: ∫ tan⁴ (x) sec⁴ (x) dx
17:34
Example V: ∫ sec⁹(x) tan³(x) dx
20:55
Summary for Evaluating Trigonometric Integrals of the Following Type: ∫ (sec^m) (x) (tan^p) (x) dx
23:31
#1: Power of sec is Odd
23:32
#2: Power of tan is Odd
24:04
#3: Powers of sec is Odd and/or Power of tan is Even
24:18
Trigonometric Integrals II

22m 12s

Intro
0:00
Trigonometric Integrals II
0:09
Recall: ∫tanx dx
0:10
Let's Find ∫secx dx
3:23
Example I: ∫ tan⁵ (x) dx
6:23
Example II: ∫ sec⁵ (x) dx
11:41
Summary: How to Deal with Integrals of Different Types
19:04
Identities to Deal with Integrals of Different Types
19:05
Example III: ∫cos(5x)sin(9x)dx
19:57
More Example Problems for Trigonometric Integrals

17m 22s

Intro
0:00
Example I: ∫sin²(x)cos⁷(x)dx
0:14
Example II: ∫x sin²(x) dx
3:56
Example III: ∫csc⁴ (x/5)dx
8:39
Example IV: ∫( (1-tan²x)/(sec²x) ) dx
11:17
Example V: ∫ 1 / (sinx-1) dx
13:19
Integration by Partial Fractions I

55m 12s

Intro
0:00
Integration by Partial Fractions I
0:11
Recall the Idea of Finding a Common Denominator
0:12
Decomposing a Rational Function to Its Partial Fractions
4:10
2 Types of Rational Function: Improper & Proper
5:16
Improper Rational Function
7:26
Improper Rational Function
7:27
Proper Rational Function
11:16
Proper Rational Function & Partial Fractions
11:17
Linear Factors
14:04
Irreducible Quadratic Factors
15:02
Case 1: G(x) is a Product of Distinct Linear Factors
17:10
Example I: Integration by Partial Fractions
20:33
Case 2: D(x) is a Product of Linear Factors
40:58
Example II: Integration by Partial Fractions
44:41
Integration by Partial Fractions II

42m 57s

Intro
0:00
Case 3: D(x) Contains Irreducible Factors
0:09
Example I: Integration by Partial Fractions
5:19
Example II: Integration by Partial Fractions
16:22
Case 4: D(x) has Repeated Irreducible Quadratic Factors
27:30
Example III: Integration by Partial Fractions
30:19
VII. Differential Equations
Introduction to Differential Equations

46m 37s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Differential Equations
0:09
Overview
0:10
Differential Equations Involving Derivatives of y(x)
2:08
Differential Equations Involving Derivatives of y(x) and Function of y(x)
3:23
Equations for an Unknown Number
6:28
What are These Differential Equations Saying?
10:30
Verifying that a Function is a Solution of the Differential Equation
13:00
Verifying that a Function is a Solution of the Differential Equation
13:01
Verify that y(x) = 4e^x + 3x² + 6x + e^π is a Solution of this Differential Equation
17:20
General Solution
22:00
Particular Solution
24:36
Initial Value Problem
27:42
Example I: Verify that a Family of Functions is a Solution of the Differential Equation
32:24
Example II: For What Values of K Does the Function Satisfy the Differential Equation
36:07
Example III: Verify the Solution and Solve the Initial Value Problem
39:47
Separation of Variables

28m 8s

Intro
0:00
Separation of Variables
0:28
Separation of Variables
0:29
Example I: Solve the Following g Initial Value Problem
8:29
Example II: Solve the Following g Initial Value Problem
13:46
Example III: Find an Equation of the Curve
18:48
Population Growth: The Standard & Logistic Equations

51m 7s

Intro
0:00
Standard Growth Model
0:30
Definition of the Standard/Natural Growth Model
0:31
Initial Conditions
8:00
The General Solution
9:16
Example I: Standard Growth Model
10:45
Logistic Growth Model
18:33
Logistic Growth Model
18:34
Solving the Initial Value Problem
25:21
What Happens When t → ∞
36:42
Example II: Solve the Following g Initial Value Problem
41:50
Relative Growth Rate
46:56
Relative Growth Rate
46:57
Relative Growth Rate Version for the Standard model
49:04
Slope Fields

24m 37s

Intro
0:00
Slope Fields
0:35
Slope Fields
0:36
Graphing the Slope Fields, Part 1
11:12
Graphing the Slope Fields, Part 2
15:37
Graphing the Slope Fields, Part 3
17:25
Steps to Solving Slope Field Problems
20:24
Example I: Draw or Generate the Slope Field of the Differential Equation y'=x cos y
22:38
VIII. AP Practic Exam
AP Practice Exam: Section 1, Part A No Calculator

45m 29s

Intro
0:00
Exam Link
0:10
Problem #1
1:26
Problem #2
2:52
Problem #3
4:42
Problem #4
7:03
Problem #5
10:01
Problem #6
13:49
Problem #7
15:16
Problem #8
19:06
Problem #9
23:10
Problem #10
28:10
Problem #11
31:30
Problem #12
33:53
Problem #13
37:45
Problem #14
41:17
AP Practice Exam: Section 1, Part A No Calculator, cont.

41m 55s

Intro
0:00
Problem #15
0:22
Problem #16
3:10
Problem #17
5:30
Problem #18
8:03
Problem #19
9:53
Problem #20
14:51
Problem #21
17:30
Problem #22
22:12
Problem #23
25:48
Problem #24
29:57
Problem #25
33:35
Problem #26
35:57
Problem #27
37:57
Problem #28
40:04
AP Practice Exam: Section I, Part B Calculator Allowed

58m 47s

Intro
0:00
Problem #1
1:22
Problem #2
4:55
Problem #3
10:49
Problem #4
13:05
Problem #5
14:54
Problem #6
17:25
Problem #7
18:39
Problem #8
20:27
Problem #9
26:48
Problem #10
28:23
Problem #11
34:03
Problem #12
36:25
Problem #13
39:52
Problem #14
43:12
Problem #15
47:18
Problem #16
50:41
Problem #17
56:38
AP Practice Exam: Section II, Part A Calculator Allowed

25m 40s

Intro
0:00
Problem #1: Part A
1:14
Problem #1: Part B
4:46
Problem #1: Part C
8:00
Problem #2: Part A
12:24
Problem #2: Part B
16:51
Problem #2: Part C
17:17
Problem #3: Part A
18:16
Problem #3: Part B
19:54
Problem #3: Part C
21:44
Problem #3: Part D
22:57
AP Practice Exam: Section II, Part B No Calculator

31m 20s

Intro
0:00
Problem #4: Part A
1:35
Problem #4: Part B
5:54
Problem #4: Part C
8:50
Problem #4: Part D
9:40
Problem #5: Part A
11:26
Problem #5: Part B
13:11
Problem #5: Part C
15:07
Problem #5: Part D
19:57
Problem #6: Part A
22:01
Problem #6: Part B
25:34
Problem #6: Part C
28:54
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Lecture Comments (4)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Wed Apr 20, 2016 1:24 AM

Post by Acme Wang on April 19, 2016

Hi Professor, In example I, why you did not take the limit? I feel a little confused.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Thu Dec 17, 2015 1:05 AM

Post by Gautham Padmakumar on December 12, 2015

at 12:32 why did you not carry through the i while multiplying f(xi) * delta x

Example Problems for The Definite Integral

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Example I: Approximate the Following Definite Integral Using Midpoints & Sub-intervals 0:11
  • Example II: Express the Following Limit as a Definite Integral 5:28
  • Example III: Evaluate the Following Definite Integral Using the Definition 6:28
  • Example IV: Evaluate the Following Integral Using the Definition 17:06
  • Example V: Evaluate the Following Definite Integral by Using Areas 25:41
  • Example VI: Definite Integral 30:36

Transcription: Example Problems for The Definite Integral

Hello, welcome back to www.educator.com, and welcome back to AP Calculus.0000

Today, we are going to do some example problems for the different integral that we introduced in the last lesson.0004

Let us get started.0010

Approximate the following definite integral using mid points and the given number of sub intervals.0014

This is a lot like the problems that we had before, when we are dealing with area.0021

We want to just go ahead and start with approximation using midpoints.0025

I think I will work in blue here.0031

We have the integral from 1 to 6.0040

Δx is equal to, we want 5 sub intervals.0043

We have 6 - 1/5 which is equal to 1.0050

Our Δx is equal to 1.0056

We are going from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.0058

This is 1, this is 6, we are going to be looking at these endpoints.0069

These are going to be our x sub i.0074

This is going to be x sub 1, this is going to be x sub 2, x sub 3, x sub 4, and x sub 5.0077

1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, because we are approximating with midpoints.0086

Let us go ahead and set up a little table here.0099

Let me do it over here, actually.0104

I have got my x sub i and I have my f(x sub i).0106

I have got 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5.0115

When I put these numbers into this function to find out what the y value is, I get 0.753, 1.283, 1.295, 1.012, and 0.6799.0124

Therefore, the integral from 1 to 6 of x³ e ⁻x dx is going to be approximately equal to the sum as i goes from 1 to 5.0152

5 points of the f(x sub i) Δx.0174

That is just equal to Δx which is 1 × the sum,0181

I’m sorry, I will write all of this out.0193

This thing is nothing more than Δx × f(x sub 1) f(x sub 2) + f(x sub 3) + f(x sub 4) + f(x sub 5).0196

Let us go ahead and be as explicit as possible.0218

That is going to equal 1 × 0.753 + 1.283 + 1.295 + 1.012 + 0.6799.0220

When I do all of that, I end up with 5.0229, that is my approximate integral using midpoints.0238

We could have used right endpoints, we could have used left endpoints, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.0253

You are going to get numbers that are sort of similar.0260

We decided to use midpoints for this particular problem.0262

Just to show you what it actually looks like.0269

Here is my list of x values, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5.0272

These are the actual values of f(x) carried out to a greater degree of precision.0277

Our function happens to look like this.0283

We were going from 1 to 6 midpoints, numbers.0285

Midpoints give me all the numbers.0296

What we found was the definite integral.0297

In this particular case, between 1 and 6, the function happens to be positive, it is above the x axis.0299

Therefore, this number that we got, the 5.02 something, it happens to be the area under the curve.0304

It happens to be, it is the integral from 1 to 6 of this function using midpoints.0313

An approximation of the integral, it just happens to correspond with the area under the curve.0320

Express the following limit as a definite integral.0330

Little practice using the actual symbol, very simple.0333

The limit is an goes to infinity 1 to n, here is our function.0337

This is going to be our integrand, this we are going to turn into dx instead of Δx.0343

This is going to be our lower limit integration, this is going to be our upper limit of integration.0350

We write this as the integral from π/3 to π cos² x/ x² dx.0354

We are done, this is the definition, the limit of the sum.0369

The summation symbol becomes the integral symbol.0375

That is what is happening here.0379

For the real problem, evaluate the following definite integral using the definition.0390

This is going to be a bit of a process here.0395

One of the reasons why we want to come up with quick ways of doing the integral was because0398

we do not want to take this process that we are about to go through, for this problem in the next, every time we take an integral.0401

This is going to equal the limit as n goes to infinity of the sum from 1 to n of the x sub i Δx.0409

First, we find this, in other words we find an expression for that given the fact we have f(x) and we have -2 and 4.0436

First, we find that.0443

Second, once we find that, we form the sum.0445

Second, we are going to evaluate the sum.0453

When we evaluate the sum, you will end up with the function of n.0467

The function of n, there is going to be n in it.0478

The last thing, we evaluate the limit.0484

Third, evaluate the limit, in other words, take n in that function that we get.0488

This part, take n to infinity and see what you get.0497

Evaluate the limit as n goes to infinity.0503

That is what we are going to do, first, second, third, we will get our answer.0506

We have -2 to 4, that is where we are integrating in.0513

A is equal to -2.0517

We know that b is equal to 4.0520

We know that Δx = b - a/ n is equal to 4 - -2/ n is equal to 6/n.0523

That is our Δx.0536

That takes care of our Δx part, that is going to be the 6/n.0541

Let us see if we can come up with something for x sub i first, some expression for x sub i,0545

that we can put in to f(x), in order to get f(x sub i).0555

We are going to take that, multiply it by the 6/ n to get this thing.0559

That is all we are doing here.0565

We have taken care of the Δx, let us see if we can find x sub i.0568

Let us see if we can elucidate a pattern.0572

We have x sub 0, that is equal to -2.0575

x sub 1 is equal to -2 + Δx which is 6/n.0580

x sub 2 = -2 + 6/ Δ n + another Δx which is + 12/n.0587

x sub 3 = -2 + 12/n + another Δx which is 6/n, which is 18/n.0598

Notice, this number is 1 × 6, 1, 1.0609

This number is 2 × 6, 2 is here, 2 is here.0618

This number is 3 × 6, 3 is here, 3 is here.0622

We have our pattern, our x sub i is equal to -2 + i × 6/n.0629

Which I’m going to go ahead and write it as 6i/ n.0640

Great, now we found our x sub i.0645

Perfect, we found our x sub i, now we are going to stick our x sub i.0647

This -2 + 6i/ n into this function, to find f(x sub i).0652

F(x sub i) is equal to 2 + 2 × x sub i which is equal to 2 + 2 × -2 + 6i/ n,0670

that equals 2 - 4 + 12i/ n = -2 + 12i/ n, that is our f(x sub i).0690

F(x sub i) × Δx is going to be -2 + 12 sub i/ n, that is my f(x sub i).0712

My Δx was 6/n.0723

Therefore, this is going to equal -12/n + 72/ n².0728

This is my f(x sub i) Δx.0739

I’m going to evaluate the sum and I'm going to take the sum as i goes from 1 to n.0746

We have taken care of the first part, we are going to evaluate the sum of this.0754

The sum of the f(x sub i), -12/n + 72i/ n².0761

The summation symbol distributes over that.0776

I get the sum i from -1 to n -12/ n + the sum of i1/ n 72i/ n².0780

i is the index, i has to stay under the summation symbol.0798

Everything else can be taken out as a constant.0803

In other words, there is no i here.0805

Therefore, I can pull out the -12n.0808

Here I have to leave the i but I can pull out the 72/ n².0811

Therefore, this is going to equal -12/n × the sum of 1 to n of 1 + 72/ n² × the sum i = 1 to n of i.0815

Let us rewrite that so we have it on the page.0843

-12/n × the sum from 1 to n of 1 + 72/ n² × the sum i from 1 to n of i.0848

The sum from 1 to n of 1, we just add 1 n ×, it is just n + 72/ n².0864

We have a closed form expression for this, remember.0878

It is equal to n × n + 1/ 2.0880

It equals -12 + 72 divided by 236, 36 × n²/ n².0887

This is going to be n² + n.0898

72n²/ 2n², gives me 36n² + 36n/ n².0904

I just went ahead and divided the 2 into it , and then multiplied.0921

72 divided by 2 is 36, 36n² 36n/ n² - 12.0925

36n²/ n² is 36.0936

36n/ n² is 36/n which is equal to 24 + 36/n.0941

The sum of i = 1 to n of f(x sub i) dx is equal to 24 + 36/n.0957

Now we evaluated the sum, we have our function of n.0970

Now we take the limit as n goes to infinity.0975

The limit as n goes to infinity of 24 + 36/n, this one goes to 0.0980

As n goes to infinity, we are left with 24, that is our answer.0991

The integral from 1 to 6 of that function, going through the entire process.0996

Finding the Δx, finding the x sub i, forming f(x sub i).1002

Multiplying f(x sub i) × Δx, evaluating the sum, and then taking the limit, gives us a final answer of 24.1009

That is it, run through the process.1017

Tedious but reasonably straightforward, as long as you have the formulas that you need.1022

Evaluate the following integral using the definition, same thing.1029

We know that this is going to equal, let us go ahead and write the definition,1034

so that we know what we are dealing with here.1039

The definition, the integral from a to b of f(x) dx equals the limit as n goes to infinity.1041

I think it is a good idea to write down the definition of the equation over and over again, that way you remember it.1050

The limit to infinity, the sum as i go from 1 to n of f(x sub i) Δx.1058

We are going to run through the same process.1067

We are going to find Δx, we are going to find an expression for x sub i.1069

We are going to put x sub i into f.1073

We are going to form f(x sub i).1077

We are going to multiply by Δx.1078

We are going to evaluate the sum of that thing.1080

We are going to get a function of n and then we are going to take n into infinity to get our final answer.1082

That is what we do.1086

Let us go ahead and do a is equal to 1, b is equal to 6.1090

Therefore, the Δx = b - a/ n which is 6 - 1/ n which is 5/n.1097

That takes care of the Δx.1113

x sub 0 that is equal to 1, x sub 1 = 1 + Δx which is 5/n.1117

x sub 2 = 1 + 10/ n, x sub 3 = 1 + 15/n.1131

We see the pattern, x sub i = 1 + 5i/ n.1140

Therefore, our f(x sub i) is equal to, you put this into here, into there, f(x sub i).1152

Therefore, it is 1 + 5i/ n² + 4 × 1 + 5i/ n – 7.1168

It is going to equal 1 + 10i/ n + 25i²/ n² + 4 + 20i/ n - 71185

which is going to equal -2 + 30i/ n + 25i²/ n².1204

This is just our f(x sub i), you need to now multiply that by our Δx which is 5/n.1219

Our f(x sub i) × Δx is equal to -2 + 30i/ n + 25i²/ n² × 5/n.1228

This is going to equal -10/n + 150i/ n² + 125i²/ n³.1249

We have our expression, now we evaluate the sum.1272

The sum from 1 to n of the f(x sub i) × Δx = the sum of 1 to n of this expression.1277

-10/n + 150i/ n² + 125i²/ n³.1293

Distribute, separate, sum as i goes from 1 to n of -10/ n + the sum i from 1 to n of 150i/ n²1306

+ sum i from 1 to n of 125i²/ n³.1327

There is no i here, pull it all out.1339

I pull out the 150/ n², I pull out the 125/ n³ = -10/n × the sum i goes from 1 to n of 1 + 150/ n² ×1341

the sum as i goes from 1 to n of i + 125/ n³ × the sum as i goes from 1 to n of i².1359

This is going to equal -10/n × n + 150/ n² × n × n + 1/2, because that is this.1375

We also have an expression for this one.1393

This is going to be + 125/ n³ × n × n + 1 × 2n + 1/ 6.1395

It is just arithmetic, that is all it is.1410

We get -10 + 75n² + 75n/ n² + 125/ n³1415

× 2n³ + 3n² + n/ 6 = -10 + 75 + 75/n + 250/6.1435

I multiply everything, cancel everything.1457

+ 375/ 6n + 125/ 6n² = 640/6 + 825/ 6n + 125/ 6n².1462

This is our function of n, now we evaluate the limit, we take n to infinity.1489

The limit as n goes to infinity of this thing, 640/6 + 825/ 6n + 125/ 6n².1498

As n goes to infinity, this goes to 0, this goes to 0.1514

We are left with 640/6 or 106.67.1519

One painful process, we definitely need a quicker way to do this.1530

We have a quicker way to do this.1534

We actually done it with antiderivatives, we will do some more.1535

Evaluate the following definite integral by using areas.1543

6 to 30, 1/3x – 4, this is a line.1548

Let us go ahead and draw this out.1553

1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,1569

8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.1588

Actually, I meant this to be 20 not 30.1596

Therefore, I’m going to go ahead and change this to 20.1602

1/3x – 4, 4 up 1/3, up 1/3, that takes us to 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.1607

We are going to get that line.1629

We are integrating to 20.1636

We are looking for the integral of this function.1638

They want us to do it in terms of the areas.1641

Therefore, I’m going to find area number 1 and I’m going to find area 2.1643

I'm going to add them.1649

Area number 1 is going to be negative because it is below the x axis.1650

Area number 2 is going to be positive.1653

When I add them up, I’m going to get some net area that is equal to the integral.1655

Great, nice and simple.1660

Therefore, this integral, the integral from 6 to 20,1664

What is going on here?1677

I’m not integrating from 6, I got all my numbers mixed up here.1693

That is okay, very easy to fix, I’m sorry.1702

The integral here is actually not from 6 to 30, it is from 0 to 20.1704

I do not know where the 6 to 30 came from.1709

Fortunately, everything still stands, let us recap.1713

We have a function, we graph that function.1717

We are integrating from 0 to 20.1720

We graphed it from 0 to 20.1722

Yes, we are finding this area which is going to be negative.1723

We are going to be adding it to this area.1727

Everything else is just fine.1729

This is going to be 1/3x – 4 dx is going to be area number 1 + area number 2.1734

This is 12, from 0 to 12, f(x) is below the x axis.1744

Therefore, area 1 is going to be negative.1761

Area 1 is going to be negative, base × height/ 2, it is just a triangle.1764

Base is 12, height is 4/2.1771

That gives me -24.1779

Area 2 is going to be from 12 to 20, that is just going to be positive.1784

It is going to be base × height/ 2.1790

The base of this triangle is 8, the height is 20.1792

I just put it into here and I end up with a height of 2.667/2.1801

I get 10.668.1808

Therefore, I just add these two together.1813

a1 + a2, I get a -13.32.1818

The integral of the function is a negative number, the net area.1825

More area here than there is here.1830

If the integral from 7 to 14 of f(x) = 27 and if the interval from 10 to 14 = 9, find the integral from 7 to 10.1839

We have a nice property that takes care of this for us.1849

We want the integral from 7 to 10 of f(x) d(x).1853

That equals the integral from 7 to 14 of f(x) d(x) + the integral, as long as this and this are the same, the interval from 14 to 10.1860

This and this are that and that.1876

If these are the same, I can just add these integrals to give me this final one.1880

Here we are fine, the integral from 7 to 14 of f(x) dx.1889

Here, this is the integral from 14 to 10, what they gave us is 10 to 14, lower to upper 10 to 14.1896

Now it is 14 to 10, it is switched.1905

What I have to do is, when I switch the limits, I change the sign of the integral.1907

It is - this is equal to negative of the 10 to 14 of the f(x) dx.1912

Therefore, it is just equal to 27 - 9 = 18.1922

Thank you so much for joining us here at www.educator.com.1931

We will see you next time, bye.1933