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Franklin Ow

Franklin Ow

Nuclear Chemistry

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Basic Concepts & Measurement of Chemistry
Basic Concepts of Chemistry

16m 26s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:07
Introduction
0:56
What is Chemistry?
0:57
What is Matter?
1:16
Solids
1:43
General Characteristics
1:44
Particulate-level Drawing of Solids
2:34
Liquids
3:39
General Characteristics of Liquids
3:40
Particulate-level Drawing of Liquids
3:55
Gases
4:23
General Characteristics of Gases
4:24
Particulate-level Drawing Gases
5:05
Classification of Matter
5:27
Classification of Matter
5:26
Pure Substances
5:54
Pure Substances
5:55
Mixtures
7:06
Definition of Mixtures
7:07
Homogeneous Mixtures
7:11
Heterogeneous Mixtures
7:52
Physical and Chemical Changes/Properties
8:18
Physical Changes Retain Chemical Composition
8:19
Chemical Changes Alter Chemical Composition
9:32
Physical and Chemical Changes/Properties, cont'd
10:55
Physical Properties
10:56
Chemical Properties
11:42
Sample Problem 1: Chemical & Physical Change
12:22
Sample Problem 2: Element, Compound, or Mixture?
13:52
Sample Problem 3: Classify Each of the Following Properties as chemical or Physical
15:03
Tools in Quantitative Chemistry

29m 22s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:07
Units of Measurement
1:23
The International System of Units (SI): Mass, Length, and Volume
1:39
Percent Error
2:17
Percent Error
2:18
Example: Calculate the Percent Error
2:56
Standard Deviation
3:48
Standard Deviation Formula
3:49
Standard Deviation cont'd
4:42
Example: Calculate Your Standard Deviation
4:43
Precisions vs. Accuracy
6:25
Precision
6:26
Accuracy
7:01
Significant Figures and Uncertainty
7:50
Consider the Following (2) Rulers
7:51
Consider the Following Graduated Cylinder
11:30
Identifying Significant Figures
12:43
The Rules of Sig Figs Overview
12:44
The Rules for Sig Figs: All Nonzero Digits Are Significant
13:21
The Rules for Sig Figs: A Zero is Significant When It is In-Between Nonzero Digits
13:28
The Rules for Sig Figs: A Zero is Significant When at the End of a Decimal Number
14:02
The Rules for Sig Figs: A Zero is not significant When Starting a Decimal Number
14:27
Using Sig Figs in Calculations
15:03
Using Sig Figs for Multiplication and Division
15:04
Using Sig Figs for Addition and Subtraction
15:48
Using Sig Figs for Mixed Operations
16:11
Dimensional Analysis
16:20
Dimensional Analysis Overview
16:21
General Format for Dimensional Analysis
16:39
Example: How Many Miles are in 17 Laps?
17:17
Example: How Many Grams are in 1.22 Pounds?
18:40
Dimensional Analysis cont'd
19:43
Example: How Much is Spent on Diapers in One Week?
19:44
Dimensional Analysis cont'd
21:03
SI Prefixes
21:04
Dimensional Analysis cont'd
22:03
500 mg → ? kg
22:04
34.1 cm → ? um
24:03
Summary
25:11
Sample Problem 1: Dimensional Analysis
26:09
II. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

52m 18s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Introduction to Atomic Structure
1:03
Introduction to Atomic Structure
1:04
Plum Pudding Model
1:26
Introduction to Atomic Structure Cont'd
2:07
John Dalton's Atomic Theory: Number 1
2:22
John Dalton's Atomic Theory: Number 2
2:50
John Dalton's Atomic Theory: Number 3
3:07
John Dalton's Atomic Theory: Number 4
3:30
John Dalton's Atomic Theory: Number 5
3:58
Introduction to Atomic Structure Cont'd
5:21
Ernest Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment
5:22
Introduction to Atomic Structure Cont'd
7:42
Implications of the Gold Foil Experiment
7:43
Relative Masses and Charges
8:18
Isotopes
9:02
Isotopes
9:03
Introduction to The Periodic Table
12:17
The Periodic Table of the Elements
12:18
Periodic Table, cont'd
13:56
Metals
13:57
Nonmetals
14:25
Semimetals
14:51
Periodic Table, cont'd
15:57
Group I: The Alkali Metals
15:58
Group II: The Alkali Earth Metals
16:25
Group VII: The Halogens
16:40
Group VIII: The Noble Gases
17:08
Ionic Compounds: Formulas, Names, Props.
17:35
Common Polyatomic Ions
17:36
Predicting Ionic Charge for Main Group Elements
18:52
Ionic Compounds: Formulas, Names, Props.
20:36
Naming Ionic Compounds: Rule 1
20:51
Naming Ionic Compounds: Rule 2
21:22
Naming Ionic Compounds: Rule 3
21:50
Naming Ionic Compounds: Rule 4
22:22
Ionic Compounds: Formulas, Names, Props.
22:50
Naming Ionic Compounds Example: Al₂O₃
22:51
Naming Ionic Compounds Example: FeCl₃
23:21
Naming Ionic Compounds Example: CuI₂ 3H₂O
24:00
Naming Ionic Compounds Example: Barium Phosphide
24:40
Naming Ionic Compounds Example: Ammonium Phosphate
25:55
Molecular Compounds: Formulas and Names
26:42
Molecular Compounds: Formulas and Names
26:43
The Mole
28:10
The Mole is 'A Chemist's Dozen'
28:11
It is a Central Unit, Connecting the Following Quantities
30:01
The Mole, cont'd
32:07
Atomic Masses
32:08
Example: How Many Moles are in 25.7 Grams of Sodium?
32:28
Example: How Many Atoms are in 1.2 Moles of Carbon?
33:17
The Mole, cont'd
34:25
Example: What is the Molar Mass of Carbon Dioxide?
34:26
Example: How Many Grams are in 1.2 Moles of Carbon Dioxide?
25:46
Percentage Composition
36:43
Example: How Many Grams of Carbon Contained in 65.1 Grams of Carbon Dioxide?
36:44
Empirical and Molecular Formulas
39:19
Empirical Formulas
39:20
Empirical Formula & Elemental Analysis
40:21
Empirical and Molecular Formulas, cont'd
41:24
Example: Determine Both the Empirical and Molecular Formulas - Step 1
41:25
Example: Determine Both the Empirical and Molecular Formulas - Step 2
43:18
Summary
46:22
Sample Problem 1: Determine the Empirical Formula of Lithium Fluoride
47:10
Sample Problem 2: How Many Atoms of Carbon are Present in 2.67 kg of C₆H₆?
49:21
III. Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions

43m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:06
The Law of Conservation of Mass and Balancing Chemical Reactions
1:49
The Law of Conservation of Mass
1:50
Balancing Chemical Reactions
2:50
Balancing Chemical Reactions Cont'd
3:40
Balance: N₂ + H₂ → NH₃
3:41
Balance: CH₄ + O₂ → CO₂ + H₂O
7:20
Balancing Chemical Reactions Cont'd
9:49
Balance: C₂H₆ + O₂ → CO₂ + H₂O
9:50
Intro to Chemical Equilibrium
15:32
When an Ionic Compound Full Dissociates
15:33
When an Ionic Compound Incompletely Dissociates
16:14
Dynamic Equilibrium
17:12
Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
18:03
Electrolytes
18:04
Strong Electrolytes and Weak Electrolytes
18:55
Nonelectrolytes
19:23
Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction
20:02
Single-replacement
20:03
Example: Li (s) + CuCl₂ (aq) → 2 LiCl (aq) + Cu (s)
21:03
Example: Cu (s) + LiCl (aq) → NR
21:23
Example: Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) → ZnCl₂ (aq) + H₂ (g)
22:32
Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction
23:37
Double-replacement
23:38
Net-ionic Equation
25:29
Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction
26:12
Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds
26:13
Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction
28:10
Neutralization Reactions
28:11
Example: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → ?
28:37
Example: H₂SO₄ (aq) + KOH (aq) → ?
29:25
Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction
30:20
Certain Aqueous Reactions can Produce Unstable Compounds
30:21
Example 1
30:52
Example 2
32:16
Example 3
32:54
Summary
33:54
Sample Problem 1
34:55
ZnCO₃ (aq) + H₂SO₄ (aq) → ?
35:09
NH₄Br (aq) + Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ (aq) → ?
36:02
KNO₃ (aq) + CuCl₂ (aq) → ?
37:07
Li₂SO₄ (aq) + AgNO₃ (aq) → ?
37:52
Sample Problem 2
39:09
Question 1
39:10
Question 2
40:36
Question 3
41:47
Chemical Reactions II

55m 40s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Arrhenius Definition
1:15
Arrhenius Acids
1:16
Arrhenius Bases
3:20
The Bronsted-Lowry Definition
4:48
Acids Dissolve In Water and Donate a Proton to Water: Example 1
4:49
Acids Dissolve In Water and Donate a Proton to Water: Example 2
6:54
Monoprotic Acids & Polyprotic Acids
7:58
Strong Acids
11:30
Bases Dissolve In Water and Accept a Proton From Water
12:41
Strong Bases
16:36
The Autoionization of Water
17:42
Amphiprotic
17:43
Water Reacts With Itself
18:24
Oxides of Metals and Nonmetals
20:08
Oxides of Metals and Nonmetals Overview
20:09
Oxides of Nonmetals: Acidic Oxides
21:23
Oxides of Metals: Basic Oxides
24:08
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions
25:34
Redox Reaction Overview
25:35
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
27:02
Redox Reaction: Transfer of Electrons
27:54
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Cont'd
29:55
Oxidation Number Overview
29:56
Oxidation Number of Homonuclear Species
31:17
Oxidation Number of Monatomic Ions
32:58
Oxidation Number of Fluorine
33:27
Oxidation Number of Oxygen
34:00
Oxidation Number of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine
35:07
Oxidation Number of Hydrogen
35:30
Net Sum of All Oxidation Numbers In a Compound
36:21
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Cont'd
38:19
Let's Practice Assigning Oxidation Number
38:20
Now Let's Apply This to a Chemical Reaction
41:07
Summary
44:19
Sample Problems
45:29
Sample Problem 1
45:30
Sample Problem 2: Determine the Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
48:48
Sample Problem 3: Determine the Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
50:43
IV. Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry I

42m 10s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:23
Mole to Mole Ratios
1:32
Example 1: In 1 Mole of H₂O, How Many Moles Are There of Each Element?
1:53
Example 2: In 2.6 Moles of Water, How Many Moles Are There of Each Element?
2:24
Mole to Mole Ratios Cont'd
5:13
Balanced Chemical Reaction
5:14
Mole to Mole Ratios Cont'd
7:25
Example 3: How Many Moles of Ammonia Can Form If you Have 3.1 Moles of H₂?
7:26
Example 4: How Many Moles of Hydrogen Gas Are Required to React With 6.4 Moles of Nitrogen Gas?
9:08
Mass to mass Conversion
11:06
Mass to mass Conversion
11:07
Example 5: How Many Grams of Ammonia Can Form If You Have 3.1 Grams of H₂?
12:37
Example 6: How Many Grams of Hydrogen Gas Are Required to React With 6.4 Grams of Nitrogen Gas?
15:34
Example 7: How Man Milligrams of Ammonia Can Form If You Have 1.2 kg of H₂?
17:29
Limiting Reactants, Percent Yields
20:42
Limiting Reactants, Percent Yields
20:43
Example 8: How Many Grams of Ammonia Can Form If You Have 3.1 Grams of H₂ and 3.1 Grams of N₂
22:25
Percent Yield
25:30
Example 9: How Many Grams of The Excess Reactant Remains?
26:37
Summary
29:34
Sample Problem 1: How Many Grams of Carbon Are In 2.2 Kilograms of Carbon Dioxide?
30:47
Sample Problem 2: How Many Milligrams of Carbon Dioxide Can Form From 23.1 Kg of CH₄(g)?
33:06
Sample Problem 3: Part 1
36:10
Sample Problem 3: Part 2 - What Amount Of The Excess Reactant Will Remain?
40:53
Stoichiometry II

42m 38s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Molarity
1:14
Solute and Solvent
1:15
Molarity
2:01
Molarity Cont'd
2:59
Example 1: How Many Grams of KBr are Needed to Make 350 mL of a 0.67 M KBr Solution?
3:00
Example 2: How Many Moles of KBr are in 350 mL of a 0.67 M KBr Solution?
5:44
Example 3: What Volume of a 0.67 M KBr Solution Contains 250 mg of KBr?
7:46
Dilutions
10:01
Dilution: M₁V₂=M₁V₂
10:02
Example 5: Explain How to Make 250 mL of a 0.67 M KBr Solution Starting From a 1.2M Stock Solution
12:04
Stoichiometry and Double-Displacement Precipitation Reactions
14:41
Example 6: How Many grams of PbCl₂ Can Form From 250 mL of 0.32 M NaCl?
15:38
Stoichiometry and Double-Displacement Precipitation Reactions
18:05
Example 7: How Many grams of PbCl₂ Can Form When 250 mL of 0.32 M NaCl and 150 mL of 0.45 Pb(NO₃)₂ Mix?
18:06
Stoichiometry and Neutralization Reactions
21:01
Example 8: How Many Grams of NaOh are Required to Neutralize 4.5 Grams of HCl?
21:02
Stoichiometry and Neutralization Reactions
23:03
Example 9: How Many mL of 0.45 M NaOH are Required to Neutralize 250 mL of 0.89 M HCl?
23:04
Stoichiometry and Acid-Base Standardization
25:28
Introduction to Titration & Standardization
25:30
Acid-Base Titration
26:12
The Analyte & Titrant
26:24
The Experimental Setup
26:49
The Experimental Setup
26:50
Stoichiometry and Acid-Base Standardization
28:38
Example 9: Determine the Concentration of the Analyte
28:39
Summary
32:46
Sample Problem 1: Stoichiometry & Neutralization
35:24
Sample Problem 2: Stoichiometry
37:50
V. Thermochemistry
Energy & Chemical Reactions

55m 28s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:14
Introduction
1:22
Recall: Chemistry
1:23
Energy Can Be Expressed In Different Units
1:57
The First Law of Thermodynamics
2:43
Internal Energy
2:44
The First Law of Thermodynamics Cont'd
6:14
Ways to Transfer Internal Energy
6:15
Work Energy
8:13
Heat Energy
8:34
∆U = q + w
8:44
Calculating ∆U, Q, and W
8:58
Changes In Both Volume and Temperature of a System
8:59
Calculating ∆U, Q, and W Cont'd
11:01
The Work Equation
11:02
Example 1: Calculate ∆U For The Burning Fuel
11:45
Calculating ∆U, Q, and W Cont'd
14:09
The Heat Equation
14:10
Calculating ∆U, Q, and W Cont'd
16:03
Example 2: Calculate The Final Temperature
16:04
Constant-Volume Calorimetry
18:05
Bomb Calorimeter
18:06
The Effect of Constant Volume On The Equation For Internal Energy
22:11
Example 3: Calculate ∆U
23:12
Constant-Pressure Conditions
26:05
Constant-Pressure Conditions
26:06
Calculating Enthalpy: Phase Changes
27:29
Melting, Vaporization, and Sublimation
27:30
Freezing, Condensation and Deposition
28:25
Enthalpy Values For Phase Changes
28:40
Example 4: How Much Energy In The Form of heat is Required to Melt 1.36 Grams of Ice?
29:40
Calculating Enthalpy: Heats of Reaction
31:22
Example 5: Calculate The Heat In kJ Associated With The Complete Reaction of 155 g NH₃
31:23
Using Standard Enthalpies of Formation
33:53
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
33:54
Using Standard Enthalpies of Formation
36:12
Example 6: Calculate The Standard Enthalpies of Formation For The Following Reaction
36:13
Enthalpy From a Series of Reactions
39:58
Hess's Law
39:59
Coffee-Cup Calorimetry
42:43
Coffee-Cup Calorimetry
42:44
Example 7: Calculate ∆H° of Reaction
45:10
Summary
47:12
Sample Problem 1
48:58
Sample Problem 2
51:24
VI. Quantum Theory of Atoms
Structure of Atoms

42m 33s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:07
Introduction
1:01
Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment
1:02
Electromagnetic Radiation
2:31
Radiation
2:32
Three Parameters: Energy, Frequency, and Wavelength
2:52
Electromagnetic Radiation
5:18
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
5:19
Atomic Spectroscopy and The Bohr Model
7:46
Wavelengths of Light
7:47
Atomic Spectroscopy Cont'd
9:45
The Bohr Model
9:46
Atomic Spectroscopy Cont'd
12:21
The Balmer Series
12:22
Rydberg Equation For Predicting The Wavelengths of Light
13:04
The Wave Nature of Matter
15:11
The Wave Nature of Matter
15:12
The Wave Nature of Matter
19:10
New School of Thought
19:11
Einstein: Energy
19:49
Hertz and Planck: Photoelectric Effect
20:16
de Broglie: Wavelength of a Moving Particle
21:14
Quantum Mechanics and The Atom
22:15
Heisenberg: Uncertainty Principle
22:16
Schrodinger: Wavefunctions
23:08
Quantum Mechanics and The Atom
24:02
Principle Quantum Number
24:03
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
25:06
Magnetic Quantum Number
26:27
Spin Quantum Number
28:42
The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals
29:15
Radial Wave Function
29:16
Probability Distribution Function
32:08
The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals
34:02
3-Dimensional Space of Wavefunctions
34:03
Summary
35:57
Sample Problem 1
37:07
Sample Problem 2
40:23
VII. Electron Configurations and Periodicity
Periodic Trends

38m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Introduction
0:36
Electron Configuration of Atoms
1:33
Electron Configuration & Atom's Electrons
1:34
Electron Configuration Format
1:56
Electron Configuration of Atoms Cont'd
3:01
Aufbau Principle
3:02
Electron Configuration of Atoms Cont'd
6:53
Electron Configuration Format 1: Li, O, and Cl
6:56
Electron Configuration Format 2: Li, O, and Cl
9:11
Electron Configuration of Atoms Cont'd
12:48
Orbital Box Diagrams
12:49
Pauli Exclusion Principle
13:11
Hund's Rule
13:36
Electron Configuration of Atoms Cont'd
17:35
Exceptions to The Aufbau Principle: Cr
17:36
Exceptions to The Aufbau Principle: Cu
18:15
Electron Configuration of Atoms Cont'd
20:22
Electron Configuration of Monatomic Ions: Al
20:23
Electron Configuration of Monatomic Ions: Al³⁺
20:46
Electron Configuration of Monatomic Ions: Cl
21:57
Electron Configuration of Monatomic Ions: Cl¹⁻
22:09
Electron Configuration Cont'd
24:31
Paramagnetism
24:32
Diamagnetism
25:00
Atomic Radii
26:08
Atomic Radii
26:09
In a Column of the Periodic Table
26:25
In a Row of the Periodic Table
26:46
Ionic Radii
27:30
Ionic Radii
27:31
Anions
27:42
Cations
27:57
Isoelectronic Species
28:12
Ionization Energy
29:00
Ionization Energy
29:01
Electron Affinity
31:37
Electron Affinity
31:37
Summary
33:43
Sample Problem 1: Ground State Configuration and Orbital Box Diagram
34:21
Fe
34:48
P
35:32
Sample Problem 2
36:38
Which Has The Larger Ionization Energy: Na or Li?
36:39
Which Has The Larger Atomic Size: O or N ?
37:23
Which Has The Larger Atomic Size: O²⁻ or N³⁻ ?
38:00
VIII. Molecular Geometry & Bonding Theory
Bonding & Molecular Structure

52m 39s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Introduction
1:10
Types of Chemical Bonds
1:53
Ionic Bond
1:54
Molecular Bond
2:42
Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
3:26
Electronegativity (EN)
3:27
Periodic Trend
4:36
Electronegativity and Bond Polarity Cont'd
6:04
Bond Polarity: Polar Covalent Bond
6:05
Bond Polarity: Nonpolar Covalent Bond
8:53
Lewis Electron Dot Structure of Atoms
9:48
Lewis Electron Dot Structure of Atoms
9:49
Lewis Structures of Polyatomic Species
12:51
Single Bonds
12:52
Double Bonds
13:28
Nonbonding Electrons
13:59
Lewis Structures of Polyatomic Species Cont'd
14:45
Drawing Lewis Structures: Step 1
14:48
Drawing Lewis Structures: Step 2
15:16
Drawing Lewis Structures: Step 3
15:52
Drawing Lewis Structures: Step 4
17:31
Drawing Lewis Structures: Step 5
19:08
Drawing Lewis Structure Example: Carbonate
19:33
Resonance and Formal Charges (FC)
24:06
Resonance Structures
24:07
Formal Charge
25:20
Resonance and Formal Charges Cont'd
27:46
More On Formal Charge
27:47
Resonance and Formal Charges Cont'd
28:21
Good Resonance Structures
28:22
VSEPR Theory
31:08
VSEPR Theory Continue
31:09
VSEPR Theory Cont'd
32:53
VSEPR Geometries
32:54
Steric Number
33:04
Basic Geometry
33:50
Molecular Geometry
35:50
Molecular Polarity
37:51
Steps In Determining Molecular Polarity
37:52
Example 1: Polar
38:47
Example 2: Nonpolar
39:10
Example 3: Polar
39:36
Example 4: Polar
40:08
Bond Properties: Order, Length, and Energy
40:38
Bond Order
40:39
Bond Length
41:21
Bond Energy
41:55
Summary
43:09
Sample Problem 1
43:42
XeO₃
44:03
I₃⁻
47:02
SF₅
49:16
Advanced Bonding Theories

1h 11m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Introduction
0:38
Valence Bond Theory
3:07
Valence Bond Theory
3:08
spᶟ Hybridized Carbon Atom
4:19
Valence Bond Theory Cont'd
6:24
spᶟ Hybridized
6:25
Hybrid Orbitals For Water
7:26
Valence Bond Theory Cont'd (spᶟ)
11:53
Example 1: NH₃
11:54
Valence Bond Theory Cont'd (sp²)
14:48
sp² Hybridization
14:49
Example 2: BF₃
16:44
Valence Bond Theory Cont'd (sp)
22:44
sp Hybridization
22:46
Example 3: HCN
23:38
Valence Bond Theory Cont'd (sp³d and sp³d²)
27:36
Valence Bond Theory: sp³d and sp³d²
27:37
Molecular Orbital Theory
29:10
Valence Bond Theory Doesn't Always Account For a Molecule's Magnetic Behavior
29:11
Molecular Orbital Theory Cont'd
30:37
Molecular Orbital Theory
30:38
Wavefunctions
31:04
How s-orbitals Can Interact
32:23
Bonding Nature of p-orbitals: Head-on
35:34
Bonding Nature of p-orbitals: Parallel
39:04
Interaction Between s and p-orbital
40:45
Molecular Orbital Diagram For Homonuclear Diatomics: H₂
42:21
Molecular Orbital Diagram For Homonuclear Diatomics: He₂
45:23
Molecular Orbital Diagram For Homonuclear Diatomic: Li₂
46:39
Molecular Orbital Diagram For Homonuclear Diatomic: Li₂⁺
47:42
Molecular Orbital Diagram For Homonuclear Diatomic: B₂
48:57
Molecular Orbital Diagram For Homonuclear Diatomic: N₂
54:04
Molecular Orbital Diagram: Molecular Oxygen
55:57
Molecular Orbital Diagram For Heteronuclear Diatomics: Hydrochloric Acid
1:02:16
Sample Problem 1: Determine the Atomic Hybridization
1:07:20
XeO₃
1:07:21
SF₆
1:07:49
I₃⁻
1:08:20
Sample Problem 2
1:09:04
IX. Gases, Solids, & Liquids
Gases

35m 6s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:07
The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
1:23
The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
1:24
Parameters To Characterize Gases
3:35
Parameters To Characterize Gases: Pressure
3:37
Interpreting Pressure On a Particulate Level
4:43
Parameters Cont'd
6:08
Units For Expressing Pressure: Psi, Pascal
6:19
Units For Expressing Pressure: mm Hg
6:42
Units For Expressing Pressure: atm
6:58
Units For Expressing Pressure: torr
7:24
Parameters Cont'd
8:09
Parameters To Characterize Gases: Volume
8:10
Common Units of Volume
9:00
Parameters Cont'd
9:11
Parameters To Characterize Gases: Temperature
9:12
Particulate Level
9:36
Parameters To Characterize Gases: Moles
10:24
The Simple Gas Laws
10:43
Gas Laws Are Only Valid For…
10:44
Charles' Law
11:24
The Simple Gas Laws
13:13
Boyle's Law
13:14
The Simple Gas Laws
15:28
Gay-Lussac's Law
15:29
The Simple Gas Laws
17:11
Avogadro's Law
17:12
The Ideal Gas Law
18:43
The Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
18:44
Applications of the Ideal Gas Law
20:12
Standard Temperature and Pressure for Gases
20:13
Applications of the Ideal Gas Law
21:43
Ideal Gas Law & Gas Density
21:44
Gas Pressures and Partial Pressures
23:18
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
23:19
Gas Stoichiometry
24:15
Stoichiometry Problems Involving Gases
24:16
Using The Ideal Gas Law to Get to Moles
25:16
Using Molar Volume to Get to Moles
25:39
Gas Stoichiometry Cont'd
26:03
Example 1: How Many Liters of O₂ at STP are Needed to Form 10.5 g of Water Vapor?
26:04
Summary
28:33
Sample Problem 1: Calculate the Molar Mass of the Gas
29:28
Sample Problem 2: What Mass of Ag₂O is Required to Form 3888 mL of O₂ Gas When Measured at 734 mm Hg and 25°C?
31:59
Intermolecular Forces & Liquids

33m 47s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Introduction
0:46
Intermolecular Forces (IMF)
0:47
Intermolecular Forces of Polar Molecules
1:32
Ion-dipole Forces
1:33
Example: Salt Dissolved in Water
1:50
Coulomb's Law & the Force of Attraction Between Ions and/or Dipoles
3:06
IMF of Polar Molecules cont'd
4:36
Enthalpy of Solvation or Enthalpy of Hydration
4:37
IMF of Polar Molecules cont'd
6:01
Dipole-dipole Forces
6:02
IMF of Polar Molecules cont'd
7:22
Hydrogen Bonding
7:23
Example: Hydrogen Bonding of Water
8:06
IMF of Nonpolar Molecules
9:37
Dipole-induced Dipole Attraction
9:38
IMF of Nonpolar Molecules cont'd
11:34
Induced Dipole Attraction, London Dispersion Forces, or Vand der Waals Forces
11:35
Polarizability
13:46
IMF of Nonpolar Molecules cont'd
14:26
Intermolecular Forces (IMF) and Polarizability
14:31
Properties of Liquids
16:48
Standard Molar Enthalpy of Vaporization
16:49
Trends in Boiling Points of Representative Liquids: H₂O vs. H₂S
17:43
Properties of Liquids cont'd
18:36
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
18:37
Branched Hydrocarbons
20:52
Properties of Liquids cont'd
22:10
Vapor Pressure
22:11
The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
24:30
Properties of Liquids cont'd
25:52
Boiling Point
25:53
Properties of Liquids cont'd
27:07
Surface Tension
27:08
Viscosity
28:06
Summary
29:04
Sample Problem 1: Determine Which of the Following Liquids Will Have the Lower Vapor Pressure
30:21
Sample Problem 2: Determine Which of the Following Liquids Will Have the Largest Standard Molar Enthalpy of Vaporization
31:37
The Chemistry of Solids

25m 13s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:07
Introduction
0:46
General Characteristics
0:47
Particulate-level Drawing
1:09
The Basic Structure of Solids: Crystal Lattices
1:37
The Unit Cell Defined
1:38
Primitive Cubic
2:50
Crystal Lattices cont'd
3:58
Body-centered Cubic
3:59
Face-centered Cubic
5:02
Lattice Enthalpy and Trends
6:27
Introduction to Lattice Enthalpy
6:28
Equation to Calculate Lattice Enthalpy
7:21
Different Types of Crystalline Solids
9:35
Molecular Solids
9:36
Network Solids
10:25
Phase Changes Involving Solids
11:03
Melting & Thermodynamic Value
11:04
Freezing & Thermodynamic Value
11:49
Phase Changes cont'd
12:40
Sublimation & Thermodynamic Value
12:41
Depositions & Thermodynamic Value
13:13
Phase Diagrams
13:40
Introduction to Phase Diagrams
13:41
Phase Diagram of H₂O: Melting Point
14:12
Phase Diagram of H₂O: Normal Boiling Point
14:50
Phase Diagram of H₂O: Sublimation Point
15:02
Phase Diagram of H₂O: Point C ( Supercritical Point)
15:32
Phase Diagrams cont'd
16:31
Phase Diagram of Dry Ice
16:32
Summary
18:15
Sample Problem 1, Part A: Of the Group I Fluorides, Which Should Have the Highest Lattice Enthalpy?
19:01
Sample Problem 1, Part B: Of the Lithium Halides, Which Should Have the Lowest Lattice Enthalpy?
19:54
Sample Problem 2: How Many Joules of Energy is Required to Melt 546 mg of Ice at Standard Pressure?
20:55
Sample Problem 3: Phase Diagram of Helium
22:42
X. Solutions, Rates of Reaction, & Equilibrium
Solutions & Their Behavior

38m 6s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Units of Concentration
1:40
Molarity
1:41
Molality
3:30
Weight Percent
4:26
ppm
5:16
Like Dissolves Like
6:28
Like Dissolves Like
6:29
Factors Affecting Solubility
9:35
The Effect of Pressure: Henry's Law
9:36
The Effect of Temperature on Gas Solubility
12:16
The Effect of Temperature on Solid Solubility
14:28
Colligative Properties
16:48
Colligative Properties
16:49
Changes in Vapor Pressure: Raoult's Law
17:19
Colligative Properties cont'd
19:53
Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression
19:54
Colligative Properties cont'd
26:13
Definition of Osmosis
26:14
Osmotic Pressure Example
27:11
Summary
31:11
Sample Problem 1: Calculating Vapor Pressure
32:53
Sample Problem 2: Calculating Molality
36:29
Chemical Kinetics

37m 45s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:06
Introduction
1:09
Chemical Kinetics and the Rate of a Reaction
1:10
Factors Influencing Rate
1:19
Introduction cont'd
2:27
How a Reaction Progresses Through Time
2:28
Rate of Change Equation
6:02
Rate Laws
7:06
Definition of Rate Laws
7:07
General Form of Rate Laws
7:37
Rate Laws cont'd
11:07
Rate Orders With Respect to Reactant and Concentration
11:08
Methods of Initial Rates
13:38
Methods of Initial Rates
13:39
Integrated Rate Laws
17:57
Integrated Rate Laws
17:58
Graphically Determine the Rate Constant k
18:52
Reaction Mechanisms
21:05
Step 1: Reversible
21:18
Step 2: Rate-limiting Step
21:44
Rate Law for the Reaction
23:28
Reaction Rates and Temperatures
26:16
Reaction Rates and Temperatures
26:17
The Arrhenius Equation
29:06
Catalysis
30:31
Catalyst
30:32
Summary
32:02
Sample Problem 1: Calculate the Rate Constant and the Time Required for the Reaction to be Completed
32:54
Sample Problem 2: Calculate the Energy of Activation and the Order of the Reaction
35:24
Principles of Chemical Equilibrium

34m 9s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Introduction
1:02
The Equilibrium Constant
3:08
The Equilibrium Constant
3:09
The Equilibrium Constant cont'd
5:50
The Equilibrium Concentration and Constant for Solutions
5:51
The Equilibrium Partial Pressure and Constant for Gases
7:01
Relationship of Kc and Kp
7:30
Heterogeneous Equilibria
8:23
Heterogeneous Equilibria
8:24
Manipulating K
9:57
First Way of Manipulating K
9:58
Second Way of Manipulating K
11:48
Manipulating K cont'd
12:31
Third Way of Manipulating K
12:32
The Reaction Quotient Q
14:42
The Reaction Quotient Q
14:43
Q > K
16:16
Q < K
16:30
Q = K
16:43
Le Chatlier's Principle
17:32
Restoring Equilibrium When It is Disturbed
17:33
Disturbing a Chemical System at Equilibrium
18:35
Problem-Solving with ICE Tables
19:05
Determining a Reaction's Equilibrium Constant With ICE Table
19:06
Problem-Solving with ICE Tables cont'd
21:03
Example 1: Calculate O₂(g) at Equilibrium
21:04
Problem-Solving with ICE Tables cont'd
22:53
Example 2: Calculate the Equilibrium Constant
22:54
Summary
25:24
Sample Problem 1: Calculate the Equilibrium Constant
27:59
Sample Problem 2: Calculate The Equilibrium Concentration
30:30
XI. Acids & Bases Chemistry
Acid-Base Chemistry

43m 44s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:06
Introduction
0:55
Bronsted-Lowry Acid & Bronsted -Lowry Base
0:56
Water is an Amphiprotic Molecule
2:40
Water Reacting With Itself
2:58
Introduction cont'd
4:04
Strong Acids
4:05
Strong Bases
5:18
Introduction cont'd
6:16
Weak Acids and Bases
6:17
Quantifying Acid-Base Strength
7:35
The pH Scale
7:36
Quantifying Acid-Base Strength cont'd
9:55
The Acid-ionization Constant Ka and pKa
9:56
Quantifying Acid-Base Strength cont'd
12:13
Example: Calculate the pH of a 1.2M Solution of Acetic Acid
12:14
Quantifying Acid-Base Strength
15:06
Calculating the pH of Weak Base Solutions
15:07
Writing Out Acid-Base Equilibria
17:45
Writing Out Acid-Base Equilibria
17:46
Writing Out Acid-Base Equilibria cont'd
19:47
Consider the Following Equilibrium
19:48
Conjugate Base and Conjugate Acid
21:18
Salts Solutions
22:00
Salts That Produce Acidic Aqueous Solutions
22:01
Salts That Produce Basic Aqueous Solutions
23:15
Neutral Salt Solutions
24:05
Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids
24:44
Example: Calculate the pH of a 1.2 M Solution of H₂SO₃
24:43
Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids cont'd
27:18
Calculate the pH of a 1.2 M Solution of Na₂SO₃
27:19
Lewis Acids and Bases
29:13
Lewis Acids
29:14
Lewis Bases
30:10
Example: Lewis Acids and Bases
31:04
Molecular Structure and Acidity
32:03
The Effect of Charge
32:04
Within a Period/Row
33:07
Molecular Structure and Acidity cont'd
34:17
Within a Group/Column
34:18
Oxoacids
35:58
Molecular Structure and Acidity cont'd
37:54
Carboxylic Acids
37:55
Hydrated Metal Cations
39:23
Summary
40:39
Sample Problem 1: Calculate the pH of a 1.2 M Solution of NH₃
41:20
Sample Problem 2: Predict If The Following Slat Solutions are Acidic, Basic, or Neutral
42:37
Applications of Aqueous Equilibria

55m 26s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:07
Calculating pH of an Acid-Base Mixture
0:53
Equilibria Involving Direct Reaction With Water
0:54
When a Bronsted-Lowry Acid and Base React
1:12
After Neutralization Occurs
2:05
Calculating pH of an Acid-Base Mixture cont'd
2:51
Example: Calculating pH of an Acid-Base Mixture, Step 1 - Neutralization
2:52
Example: Calculating pH of an Acid-Base Mixture, Step 2 - React With H₂O
5:24
Buffers
7:45
Introduction to Buffers
7:46
When Acid is Added to a Buffer
8:50
When Base is Added to a Buffer
9:54
Buffers cont'd
10:41
Calculating the pH
10:42
Calculating the pH When 0.010 mol NaOH is Added to 1.0 L of the Buffer
14:03
Buffers cont'd
14:10
Calculating the pH When 0.010 mol NaOH is Added to 1.0 L of the Buffer: Step 1 -Neutralization
14:11
Calculating the pH When 0.010 mol NaOH is Added to 1.0 L of the Buffer: Step 2- ICE Table
15:22
Buffer Preparation and Capacity
16:38
Example: Calculating the pH of a Buffer Solution
16:42
Effective Buffer
18:40
Acid-Base Titrations
19:33
Acid-Base Titrations: Basic Setup
19:34
Acid-Base Titrations cont'd
22:12
Example: Calculate the pH at the Equivalence Point When 0.250 L of 0.0350 M HClO is Titrated With 1.00 M KOH
22:13
Acid-Base Titrations cont'd
25:38
Titration Curve
25:39
Solubility Equilibria
33:07
Solubility of Salts
33:08
Solubility Product Constant: Ksp
34:14
Solubility Equilibria cont'd
34:58
Q < Ksp
34:59
Q > Ksp
35:34
Solubility Equilibria cont'd
36:03
Common-ion Effect
36:04
Example: Calculate the Solubility of PbCl₂ in 0.55 M NaCl
36:30
Solubility Equilibria cont'd
39:02
When a Solid Salt Contains the Conjugate of a Weak Acid
39:03
Temperature and Solubility
40:41
Complexation Equilibria
41:10
Complex Ion
41:11
Complex Ion Formation Constant: Kf
42:26
Summary
43:35
Sample Problem 1: Question
44:23
Sample Problem 1: Part a) Calculate the pH at the Beginning of the Titration
45:48
Sample Problem 1: Part b) Calculate the pH at the Midpoint or Half-way Point
48:04
Sample Problem 1: Part c) Calculate the pH at the Equivalence Point
48:32
Sample Problem 1: Part d) Calculate the pH After 27.50 mL of the Acid was Added
53:00
XII. Thermodynamics & Electrochemistry
Entropy & Free Energy

36m 13s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Introduction
0:53
Introduction to Entropy
1:37
Introduction to Entropy
1:38
Entropy and Heat Flow
6:31
Recall Thermodynamics
6:32
Entropy is a State Function
6:54
∆S and Heat Flow
7:28
Entropy and Heat Flow cont'd
8:18
Entropy and Heat Flow: Equations
8:19
Endothermic Processes: ∆S > 0
8:44
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
10:04
Total ∆S = ∆S of System + ∆S of Surrounding
10:05
Nature Favors Processes Where The Amount of Entropy Increases
10:22
The Third Law of Thermodynamics
11:55
The Third Law of Thermodynamics & Zero Entropy
11:56
Problem-Solving involving Entropy
12:36
Endothermic Process and ∆S
12:37
Exothermic Process and ∆S
13:19
Problem-Solving cont'd
13:46
Change in Physical States: From Solid to Liquid to Gas
13:47
Change in Physical States: All Gases
15:02
Problem-Solving cont'd
15:56
Calculating the ∆S for the System, Surrounding, and Total
15:57
Example: Calculating the Total ∆S
16:17
Problem-Solving cont'd
18:36
Problems Involving Standard Molar Entropies of Formation
18:37
Introduction to Gibb's Free Energy
20:09
Definition of Free Energy ∆G
20:10
Spontaneous Process and ∆G
20:19
Gibb's Free Energy cont'd
22:28
Standard Molar Free Energies of Formation
22:29
The Free Energies of Formation are Zero for All Compounds in the Standard State
22:42
Gibb's Free Energy cont'd
23:31
∆G° of the System = ∆H° of the System - T∆S° of the System
23:32
Predicting Spontaneous Reaction Based on the Sign of ∆G° of the System
24:24
Gibb's Free Energy cont'd
26:32
Effect of reactant and Product Concentration on the Sign of Free Energy
26:33
∆G° of Reaction = -RT ln K
27:18
Summary
28:12
Sample Problem 1: Calculate ∆S° of Reaction
28:48
Sample Problem 2: Calculate the Temperature at Which the Reaction Becomes Spontaneous
31:18
Sample Problem 3: Calculate Kp
33:47
Electrochemistry

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Introduction
0:53
Redox Reactions
1:42
Oxidation-Reduction Reaction Overview
1:43
Redox Reactions cont'd
2:37
Which Reactant is Being Oxidized and Which is Being Reduced?
2:38
Redox Reactions cont'd
6:34
Balance Redox Reaction In Neutral Solutions
6:35
Redox Reactions cont'd
10:37
Balance Redox Reaction In Acidic and Basic Solutions: Step 1
10:38
Balance Redox Reaction In Acidic and Basic Solutions: Step 2 - Balance Each Half-Reaction
11:22
Redox Reactions cont'd
12:19
Balance Redox Reaction In Acidic and Basic Solutions: Step 2 - Balance Hydrogen
12:20
Redox Reactions cont'd
14:30
Balance Redox Reaction In Acidic and Basic Solutions: Step 3
14:34
Balance Redox Reaction In Acidic and Basic Solutions: Step 4
15:38
Voltaic Cells
17:01
Voltaic Cell or Galvanic Cell
17:02
Cell Notation
22:03
Electrochemical Potentials
25:22
Electrochemical Potentials
25:23
Electrochemical Potentials cont'd
26:07
Table of Standard Reduction Potentials
26:08
The Nernst Equation
30:41
The Nernst Equation
30:42
It Can Be Shown That At Equilibrium E =0.00
32:15
Gibb's Free Energy and Electrochemistry
32:46
Gibbs Free Energy is Relatively Small if the Potential is Relatively High
32:47
When E° is Very Large
33:39
Charge, Current and Time
33:56
A Battery Has Three Main Parameters
33:57
A Simple Equation Relates All of These Parameters
34:09
Summary
34:50
Sample Problem 1: Redox Reaction
35:26
Sample Problem 2: Battery
38:00
XIII. Transition Elements & Coordination Compounds
The Chemistry of The Transition Metals

39m 3s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Coordination Compounds
1:20
Coordination Compounds
1:21
Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
2:48
Rule 1
3:01
Rule 2
3:12
Rule 3
4:07
Nomenclature cont'd
4:58
Rule 4
4:59
Rule 5
5:13
Rule 6
5:35
Rule 7
6:19
Rule 8
6:46
Nomenclature cont'd
7:39
Rule 9
7:40
Rule 10
7:45
Rule 11
8:00
Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds: NH₄[PtCl₃NH₃]
8:11
Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds: [Cr(NH₃)₄(OH)₂]Br
9:31
Structures of Coordination Compounds
10:54
Coordination Number or Steric Number
10:55
Commonly Observed Coordination Numbers and Geometries: 4
11:14
Commonly Observed Coordination Numbers and Geometries: 6
12:00
Isomers of Coordination Compounds
13:13
Isomers of Coordination Compounds
13:14
Geometrical Isomers of CN = 6 Include: ML₄L₂'
13:30
Geometrical Isomers of CN = 6 Include: ML₃L₃'
15:07
Isomers cont'd
17:00
Structural Isomers Overview
17:01
Structural Isomers: Ionization
18:06
Structural Isomers: Hydrate
19:25
Structural Isomers: Linkage
20:11
Structural Isomers: Coordination Isomers
21:05
Electronic Structure
22:25
Crystal Field Theory
22:26
Octahedral and Tetrahedral Field
22:54
Electronic Structure cont'd
25:43
Vanadium (II) Ion in an Octahedral Field
25:44
Chromium(III) Ion in an Octahedral Field
26:37
Electronic Structure cont'd
28:47
Strong-Field Ligands and Weak-Field Ligands
28:48
Implications of Electronic Structure
30:08
Compare the Magnetic Properties of: [Fe(OH₂)₆]²⁺ vs. [Fe(CN)₆]⁴⁻
30:09
Discussion on Color
31:57
Summary
34:41
Sample Problem 1: Name the Following Compound [Fe(OH)(OH₂)₅]Cl₂
35:08
Sample Problem 1: Name the Following Compound [Co(NH₃)₃(OH₂)₃]₂(SO₄)₃
36:24
Sample Problem 2: Change in Magnetic Properties
37:30
XIV. Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Chemistry

16m 39s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:06
Introduction
0:40
Introduction to Nuclear Reactions
0:41
Types of Radioactive Decay
2:10
Alpha Decay
2:11
Beta Decay
3:27
Gamma Decay
4:40
Other Types of Particles of Varying Energy
5:40
Nuclear Equations
6:47
Nuclear Equations
6:48
Nuclear Decay
9:28
Nuclear Decay and the First-Order Kinetics
9:29
Summary
11:31
Sample Problem 1: Complete the Following Nuclear Equations
12:13
Sample Problem 2: How Old is the Rock?
14:21
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Lecture Comments (3)

0 answers

Post by Torrey Poon on July 26, 2014

Thank you sir!

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Fri Jul 25, 2014 2:43 PM

Post by Torrey Poon on July 24, 2014

Hi Dr. Ow

I was assigned this problem from my instructor: "If you begin with a 7.52g sample of Uranium-238 and it decays for 8 half-lifes, how much of the original sample will remain?"  If you could tell me how to get this problem started I'd greatly appreciate it.

Nuclear Chemistry

  • Nuclear reactions involve a change of chemical composition and can be accompanied by substantial amounts of energy.
  • The energy released can be in the form of alpha, beta, and gamma rays, with gamma rays being the most harmful and penetrating.
  • Writing and balancing a nuclear equation follows the law of conservation of mass and charge.
  • Radioactive decay processes follow first-order kinetics.

Nuclear Chemistry

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lesson Overview 0:06
  • Introduction 0:40
    • Introduction to Nuclear Reactions
  • Types of Radioactive Decay 2:10
    • Alpha Decay
    • Beta Decay
    • Gamma Decay
    • Other Types of Particles of Varying Energy
  • Nuclear Equations 6:47
    • Nuclear Equations
  • Nuclear Decay 9:28
    • Nuclear Decay and the First-Order Kinetics
  • Summary 11:31
  • Sample Problem 1: Complete the Following Nuclear Equations 12:13
  • Sample Problem 2: How Old is the Rock? 14:21

Transcription: Nuclear Chemistry

Hi, welcome back to Educator.com.0000

Today's lesson from general chemistry is on nuclear chemistry. Here is the lesson overview.0002

We are going to start off with a brief introduction as to exactly what we mean by nuclear reaction.0010

Then after that, we are going to go into the types of nuclear reactions, basically the different types of what we call radioactive decay.0015

We are going to learn how to write and balance nuclear equations followed by studying how fast a nuclear reaction can occur.0022

We are going to go ahead and wrap up the lesson with a summary as always followed by some sample problems.0033

Nuclear reactions are different than what we have been referring to all this whole time as a chemical reaction.0042

In a chemical reaction, chemical identity never changes.0051

Carbon remains carbon; oxygen remains oxygen.0055

But in nuclear reactions, the chemical identity of the reactant actually changes.0058

We actually change one element to something totally different.0063

In other words, we are changing the chemical composition.0067

We are changing the number of protons of the original starting material during the reaction.0072

In general, a nuclear reaction involves starting with an isotope that is relatively unstable.0078

The isotope can then undergo successive decay reactions or successive decompositions forming additional unstable isotopes or nuclei of different chemical identity.0086

We also call these daughter nuclei.0103

Because this is nuclear chemistry after all, you think of some type of energy associated with it.0109

Each decay is often associated with the release of energy in the form of what you and I commonly refer to as radiation.0119

Let's now discuss the different types of radioactive decay that can occur.0132

The first one is called alpha decay.0137

Alpha decay is the weakest type of radioactive decay.0139

In alpha decay, energy is released in the form of what we call an alpha particle.0144

An example will be the decomposition of this isotope here going to 222-86-Rn plus 4-2-He.0151

Let's go ahead and do a brief review.0177

The top number is equal to Z... excuse me, the top number is equal to A.0179

We talked about this a long time ago.0185

That is going to be the atomic mass.0187

The bottom number is of course what we call Z.0192

That is just basically your atomic number.0195

An alpha particle is essentially a helium atom.0199

Sometimes you see people write it also like that.0204

An alpha decay is the weakest type of radioactive decay.0209

You can essentially stop alpha particles in its path with simple paper.0212

A stronger type of decay, and therefore a little more dangerous, is called beta decay0221

where energy is released in the form of a beta particle.0226

A beta particle is essentially an electron.0229

Let's go ahead and look at this isotope of hydrogen which is what is called tritium.0233

That is going to decay to a helium isotope releasing also an electron.0241

An electron has 0 mass but an overall charge of -1.0247

That is how it represents an electron or also a beta particle.0252

0-(-1)-beta is sometime how it is also represented.0257

Because a beta particle is more dangerous, you require something a little tougher to stop it.0264

Something like a piece of aluminum metal is sufficient to stop a beta particle in its path.0273

However the strongest type of decay of course is going to be what we call gamma decay.0280

Gamma rays are pure energy; there is no mass.0285

All of the energy that is released is pure energy.0289

Nothing is transferred to another atom as mass.0294

The example would be an excited cobalt isotope going to a lower state cobalt isotope and releasing just a ridiculous amount of energy.0298

A gamma ray is often referred to as 0-0-γ or just γ for short.0312

Again this is pure energy.0321

Of course you need something a lot more dense to stop gamma radiation.0322

This is what is coming out of nuclear facilities after all.0327

Something like concrete or something like lead is going to be the only suitable objects.0331

There are other types of particles of varying energy that can also be released.0341

One type of decay is what we call positron emission.0347

A positron is essentially the positive equivalent of an electron.0353

That is going to be represented as Β1+ or as 0-1-e.0357

You can also have nuclear decay that releases a proton; proton emission.0366

Of course proton emission is basically just your hydrogen.0376

That is going to be 1-1-p.0380

Finally you can also have the release of neutrons which is going to be represented as 1-0-n.0385

Have a mass of 1 and a relative charge of 0.0396

Now that we know the different types of radioactive decay, let's go ahead and learn how to express nuclear reactions.0401

Just how we have seen this entire session on general chemistry, a chemical equation expresses a chemical reaction.0408

Similarly we are going to have what is called a nuclear equation to express a nuclear reaction.0417

The same principles hold though, especially the conservation of mass and the conservation of charge.0422

Basically the sum of the superscripts must equal each other on both sides of the equation.0433

The sum of the subscripts must equal also each other on both sides of the equation.0453

It is essentially we are balancing the equation essentially.0463

Let's just go ahead and take a look at three examples here.0467

We can have polonium-84 going to an alpha particle plus blank.0471

Let's go ahead and fill in what we can.0483

This subscript here has to be 82; subscript here has to be 207.0485

When you look up element 82 on the periodic table, you get lead.0491

Let's go ahead and do another one.0496

We can have sodium-11 undergoing decay to form magnesium-12 plus blank.0498

The subscript here has to be -1; superscript here is going to be 0.0509

That is going to be therefore an electron.0519

Excuse me... this is a typo here; let's make this 22; there we go.0522

Finally we can have calcium-20 combining this time with an electron.0529

When that happens, we are going to get 41 on top on the0540

right side and 19 on the bottom on the right side too.0543

That is element 19 which is potassium; it is relatively straightforward.0547

Nothing too difficult really when writing and balancing a nuclear equation.0552

Let's now go ahead and examine how fast a nuclear reaction can occur, basically the rate of nuclear decay.0559

The rate at which an unstable isotope decays is a matter of kinetics.0569

If you recall, kinetics as we saw was either zero, first, or second order which are the common ones.0574

It turns out that all radioactive decay processes follow first order kinetics.0582

Let's go ahead and refresh our memories and exactly what we mean by first order.0589

The integrated rate law for first order kinetics was the following.0594

The natural log of the concentration of A at some time t divided by the initial concentration of A is equal to -kt.0599

The half-life is equal to natural log of 2 over k.0612

If you all can recall what we mean by half-life, let's plot the amount on the y-axis.0620

On the x-axis, let's plot time.0630

Let's say this dot represents the initial concentration of A right here.0632

As it gets consumed, it is going to follow the following profile.0640

At some point, we are going to reach half of this initial amount.0652

The time that is required to reach half the initial amount, that is what we call the half-life.0658

We can come up with a nice equation in terms of mass where the mass0666

at time t is equal to the initial mass times e raised to the ?kt.0672

That is an equation we are going to be using when we do some sample problems.0680

Once again radioactive decay processes follow first order kinetics.0686

To summarize this very short session, nuclear reactions involve a change of chemical0693

composition and can be accompanied by substantial amounts of energy which is why0698

when nuclear reactors melt down, that is why they are so tragic.0704

Number two, the energy release can be in the form of what we call alpha, beta, and gamma rays,0709

with gamma rays of course being the most harmful and penetrating.0715

Writing and balancing a nuclear equation follows our most fundamental laws of conservation of mass and charge.0719

Finally radioactive decay processes follow first order kinetics.0727

Let's go ahead and tackle some sample problems.0734

Complete the following nuclear equations.0737

14-7-n plus something is going to go on to form oxygen-8 and a proton.0740

Let's go ahead and look at this.0752

Here my subscript is going to be 2; my superscript is 4.0754

That essentially is going to be my alpha particle.0758

Let's go ahead and do a second example.0763

Here we can have something plus a neutron going on to form Bk-97 plus an electron.0765

My subscript here is 96; my superscript is 248.0780

This is going to be a curium, Cm.0785

Another one can be something plus a neutron going on to form 244-96-Cm plus a gamma ray plus blank.0790

This should be americium-95... excuse me about that.0812

Now on the right side here, this is going to be 0 on top, -1 on bottom, and an electron.0816

Finally the last example is going to be carbon-6 reacting with a neutron.0823

That is going to go on to form something plus a gamma ray plus carbon-6.0835

I'm sorry, excuse me... the question mark is the carbon-6 to balance out everything.0851

That is just some straightforward examples on balancing nuclear equations.0856

Now finally onto sample problem two.0862

Potassium-40 can be used to date materials because it is presumed to have existed at the formation of the earth.0865

If three-fifths of the original K-40 exists in a rock, how old is the rock?0872

Three-fifths is the fraction remaining.0878

Once again three-fifths is the fraction remaining of K-40 in the rock.0887

We can look up the half-life of potassium-40.0900

The half-life of potassium-40 is 1.26 times 109 years.0905

The rate constant is going to be equal to natural log of 2 over the half-life.0915

We are going to get 5.50 times 10-10 reciprocal years.0922

We can set up and use the equation M at some time t is equal to M0 times e raised to the ?kt.0932

Three-fifths is equal to the M0... which is what we call 1 because at the initial point,0941

we have 1 if we are dealing with fractions... times e raised to the ?kt.0953

Solving for t, we are going to get 9.29 times 108 years.0959

Once again when using fractions, don't forget, when using fractions,0967

the initial amount can always be represented as simply 1; 1.0.0976

That is our lecture on nuclear chemistry.0993

I will see you next time on Educator.com.0997

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