# AP Chemistry Hybrid Orbitals

Section 15: Bonding: Lecture 4 | 40:17 min

Some atoms mix their s, p, and even d orbitals to produce an equal number of hybrid orbitals. If one s orbital mixes with three p orbitals, the resulting four hybrid orbitals have 75% p character and 25% s character and are called sp³ orbitals. If one s mixes with two p orbitals, it results in three sp² hybrid orbitals, which leaves one p orbital free to form a double bond. In situations with triple bonds, one s orbital mixes with one p orbital to form two sp orbitals, leaving two p orbitals free to form a triple bond. When s and p orbitals combine with d orbitals, it’s possible to form dsp³ orbitals as well as other variations. Examples in this lecture include CH₄, NH₃, CO, BF₄⁻, and XeF₂.

Table of Contents

41m 24s

- Intro0:00
- Periodic Table of Elements0:15
- Naming Compounds3:13
- Definition and Examples of Ions3:14
- Ionic (Symbol to Name): NaCl5:23
- Ionic (Name to Symbol): Calcium Oxide7:58
- Ionic - Polyatoms Anions: Examples12:45
- Ionic - Polyatoms Anions (Symbol to Name): KClO14:50
- Ionic - Polyatoms Anions (Name to Symbol): Potassium Phosphate15:49
- Ionic Compounds Involving Transition Metals (Symbol to Name): Co₂(CO₃)₃20:48
- Ionic Compounds Involving Transition Metals (Name to Symbol): Palladium 2 Acetate22:44
- Naming Covalent Compounds (Symbol to Name): CO26:21
- Naming Covalent Compounds (Name to Symbol): Nitrogen Trifluoride27:34
- Naming Covalent Compounds (Name to Symbol): Dichlorine Monoxide27:57
- Naming Acids Introduction28:11
- Naming Acids (Name to Symbol): Chlorous Acid35:08
- % Composition by Mass Example37:38

37m 19s

- Intro0:00
- Stoichiometry0:25
- Introduction to Stoichiometry0:26
- Example 15:03
- Example 210:17
- Example 315:09
- Example 424:02
- Example 5: Questions28:11
- Example 5: Part A - Limiting Reactant30:30
- Example 5: Part B32:27
- Example 5: Part C35:00

31m 14s

- Intro0:00
- Precipitation Reactions0:53
- Dissociation of ionic Compounds0:54
- Solubility Guidelines for ionic Compounds: Soluble Ionic Compounds8:15
- Solubility Guidelines for ionic Compounds: Insoluble ionic Compounds12:56
- Precipitation Reactions14:08
- Example 1: Mixing a Solution of BaCl₂ & K₂SO₄21:21
- Example 2: Mixing a Solution of Mg(NO₃)₂ & KI26:10

43m 21s

- Intro0:00
- Acid-Base Reactions1:00
- Introduction to Acid: Monoprotic Acid and Polyprotic Acid1:01
- Introduction to Base8:28
- Neutralization11:45
- Example 116:17
- Example 221:55
- Molarity24:50
- Example 326:50
- Example 430:01
- Example 4: Limiting Reactant37:51
- Example 4: Reaction Part40:01

47m 58s

- Intro0:00
- Oxidation Reduction Reactions0:26
- Oxidation and Reduction Overview0:27
- How Can One Tell Whether Oxidation-Reduction has Taken Place?7:13
- Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 111:22
- Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 212:46
- Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 313:25
- Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 414:50
- Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 515:41
- Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 617:00
- Example 1: Determine the Oxidation State of Sulfur in the Following Compounds18:20
- Activity Series and Reduction Properties25:32
- Activity Series and Reduction Properties25:33
- Example 2: Write the Balance Molecular, Total Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations for Al + HCl31:37
- Example 334:25
- Example 437:55

31m 50s

- Intro0:00
- Stoichiometry Example 10:36
- Example 1: Question and Answer0:37
- Stoichiometry Example 26:57
- Example 2: Questions6:58
- Example 2: Part A Solution12:16
- Example 2: Part B Solution13:05
- Example 2: Part C Solution14:00
- Example 2: Part D Solution14:38
- Stoichiometry Example 317:56
- Example 3: Questions17:57
- Example 3: Part A Solution19:51
- Example 3: Part B Solution21:43
- Example 3: Part C Solution26:46

49m 40s

- Intro0:00
- Pressure0:22
- Pressure Overview0:23
- Torricelli: Barometer4:35
- Measuring Gas Pressure in a Container7:49
- Boyle's Law12:40
- Example 116:56
- Gas Laws21:18
- Gas Laws21:19
- Avogadro's Law26:16
- Example 231:47
- Ideal Gas Equation38:20
- Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)38:21
- Example 340:43

32m

- Intro0:00
- Gases0:27
- Gases0:28
- Mole Fractions5:52
- Vapor Pressure8:22
- Example 113:25
- Example 222:45

31m 58s

- Intro0:00
- Kinetic Molecular Theory and Real Gases0:45
- Kinetic Molecular Theory 10:46
- Kinetic Molecular Theory 24:23
- Kinetic Molecular Theory 35:42
- Kinetic Molecular Theory 46:27
- Equations7:52
- Effusion11:15
- Diffusion13:30
- Example 119:54
- Example 223:23
- Example 326:45

25m 34s

- Intro0:00
- Example 10:34
- Example 10:35
- Example 26:15
- Example 2: Part A6:16
- Example 2: Part B8:46
- Example 2: Part C10:30
- Example 2: Part D11:15
- Example 2: Part E12:20
- Example 2: Part F13:22
- Example 314:45
- Example 314:46
- Example 418:16
- Example 418:17
- Example 521:04
- Example 521:05

37m 32s

- Intro0:00
- Thermochemistry0:25
- Temperature and Heat0:26
- Work3:07
- System, Surroundings, Exothermic Process, and Endothermic Process8:19
- Work & Gas: Expansion and Compression16:30
- Example 124:41
- Example 227:47
- Example 331:58

32m 34s

- Intro0:00
- Thermochemistry1:43
- Defining Enthalpy & Hess's Law1:44
- Example 16:48
- State Function13:11
- Example 217:15
- Example 324:09

23m 9s

- Intro0:00
- Thermochemistry1:04
- Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Definition & Equation1:05
- ∆H of Formation10:00
- Example 111:22
- Example 219:00

39m 28s

- Intro0:00
- Thermochemistry0:21
- Heat Capacity0:22
- Molar Heat Capacity4:44
- Constant Pressure Calorimetry5:50
- Example 112:24
- Constant Volume Calorimetry21:54
- Example 224:40
- Example 331:03

36m 24s

- Intro0:00
- Kinetics2:18
- Rate: 2 NO₂ (g) → 2NO (g) + O₂ (g)2:19
- Reaction Rates Graph7:25
- Time Interval & Average Rate13:13
- Instantaneous Rate15:13
- Rate of Reaction is Proportional to Some Power of the Reactant Concentrations23:49
- Example 127:19

30m 48s

- Intro0:00
- Kinetics0:33
- Rate0:34
- Idea2:24
- Example 1: NH₄⁺ + NO₂⁻ → NO₂ (g) + 2 H₂O5:36
- Example 2: BrO₃⁻ + 5 Br⁻ + 6 H⁺ → 3 Br₂ + 3 H₂O19:29

32m 17s

- Intro0:00
- Kinetics0:52
- Integrated Rate Law0:53
- Example 16:26
- Example 215:19
- Half-life of a Reaction20:40
- Example 3: Part A25:41
- Example 3: Part B28:01

26m 40s

- Intro0:00
- Kinetics0:22
- Second Order0:23
- Example 16:08
- Zero-Order16:36
- Summary for the Kinetics Associated with the Reaction21:27

40m 59s

- Intro0:00
- Kinetics0:53
- Rate Constant0:54
- Collision Model2:45
- Activation Energy5:11
- Arrhenius Proposed9:54
- 2 Requirements for a Successful Reaction15:39
- Rate Constant17:53
- Arrhenius Equation19:51
- Example 125:00
- Activation Energy & the Values of K32:12
- Example 236:46

29m 8s

- Intro0:00
- Kinetics0:43
- Example 10:44
- Example 26:53
- Example 38:58
- Example 411:36
- Example 516:36
- Example 6: Part A21:00
- Example 6: Part B25:09

46m

- Intro0:00
- Equilibrium1:32
- Introduction to Equilibrium1:33
- Equilibrium Rules14:00
- Example 1: Part A16:46
- Example 1: Part B18:48
- Example 1: Part C22:13
- Example 1: Part D24:55
- Example 2: Part A27:46
- Example 2: Part B31:22
- Example 2: Part C33:00
- Reverse a Reaction36:04
- Example 337:24

40m 53s

- Intro0:00
- Equilibrium1:31
- Equilibriums Involving Gases1:32
- General Equation10:11
- Example 1: Question11:55
- Example 1: Answer13:43
- Example 2: Question19:08
- Example 2: Answer21:37
- Example 3: Question33:40
- Example 3: Answer35:24

45m 53s

- Intro0:00
- Equilibrium0:57
- Reaction Quotient0:58
- If Q > K5:37
- If Q < K6:52
- If Q = K7:45
- Example 1: Part A8:24
- Example 1: Part B13:11
- Example 2: Question20:04
- Example 2: Answer22:15
- Example 3: Question30:54
- Example 3: Answer32:52
- Steps in Solving Equilibrium Problems42:40

31m 51s

- Intro0:00
- Equilibrium1:09
- Example 1: Question1:10
- Example 1: Answer4:15
- Example 2: Question13:04
- Example 2: Answer15:20
- Example 3: Question25:03
- Example 3: Answer26:32

40m 52s

- Intro0:00
- Le Chatelier1:05
- Le Chatelier Principle1:06
- Concentration: Add 'x'5:25
- Concentration: Subtract 'x'7:50
- Example 19:44
- Change in Pressure12:53
- Example 220:40
- Temperature: Exothermic and Endothermic24:33
- Example 329:55
- Example 435:30

50m 11s

- Intro0:00
- Acids and Bases1:14
- Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model1:28
- Reaction of an Acid with Water4:36
- Acid Dissociation10:51
- Acid Strength13:48
- Example 121:22
- Water as an Acid & a Base25:25
- Example 2: Part A32:30
- Example 2: Part B34:47
- Example 3: Part A35:58
- Example 3: Part B39:33
- pH Scale41:12
- Example 443:56

43m 52s

- Intro0:00
- pH of Weak Acid Solutions1:12
- pH of Weak Acid Solutions1:13
- Example 16:26
- Example 214:25
- Example 324:23
- Example 430:38

43m 4s

- Intro0:00
- Bases0:33
- Percent Dissociation: Strong & Weak Bases0:45
- Example 16:23
- Strong Base Dissociation11:24
- Example 213:02
- Weak Acid and General Reaction17:38
- Example: NaOH → Na⁺ + OH⁻20:30
- Strong Base and Weak Base23:49
- Example 424:54
- Example 533:51

35m 34s

- Intro0:00
- Polyprotic Acids1:04
- Acids Dissociation1:05
- Example 14:51
- Example 217:30
- Example 331:11

41m 14s

- Intro0:00
- Salts and Their Acid-Base Properties0:11
- Salts and Their Acid-Base Properties0:15
- Example 17:58
- Example 214:00
- Metal Ion and Acidic Solution22:00
- Example 328:35
- NH₄F → NH₄⁺ + F⁻34:05
- Example 438:03

41m 58s

- Intro0:00
- Common Ion Effect & Buffers1:16
- Covalent Oxides Produce Acidic Solutions in Water1:36
- Ionic Oxides Produce Basic Solutions in Water4:15
- Practice Example 16:10
- Practice Example 29:00
- Definition12:27
- Example 1: Part A16:49
- Example 1: Part B19:54
- Buffer Solution25:10
- Example of Some Buffers: HF and NaF30:02
- Example of Some Buffers: Acetic Acid & Potassium Acetate31:34
- Example of Some Buffers: CH₃NH₂ & CH₃NH₃Cl33:54
- Example 2: Buffer Solution36:36

32m 24s

- Intro0:00
- Buffers1:20
- Buffer Solution1:21
- Adding Base5:03
- Adding Acid7:14
- Example 1: Question9:48
- Example 1: Recall12:08
- Example 1: Major Species Upon Addition of NaOH16:10
- Example 1: Equilibrium, ICE Chart, and Final Calculation24:33
- Example 1: Comparison29:19

40m 6s

- Intro0:00
- Buffers1:27
- Example 1: Question1:32
- Example 1: ICE Chart3:15
- Example 1: Major Species Upon Addition of OH⁻, But Before Rxn7:23
- Example 1: Equilibrium, ICE Chart, and Final Calculation12:51
- Summary17:21
- Another Look at Buffering & the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation19:00
- Example 227:08
- Example 332:01

38m 43s

- Intro0:00
- Buffers0:25
- Buffer Capacity Part 10:26
- Example 14:10
- Buffer Capacity Part 219:29
- Example 225:12
- Example 332:02

42m 42s

- Intro0:00
- Titrations: Strong Acid and Strong Base1:11
- Definition of Titration1:12
- Sample Problem3:33
- Definition of Titration Curve or pH Curve9:46
- Scenario 1: Strong Acid- Strong Base Titration11:00
- Question11:01
- Part 1: No NaOH is Added14:00
- Part 2: 10.0 mL of NaOH is Added15:50
- Part 3: Another 10.0 mL of NaOH & 20.0 mL of NaOH are Added22:19
- Part 4: 50.0 mL of NaOH is Added26:46
- Part 5: 100.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added27:26
- Part 6: 150.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added32:06
- Part 7: 200.0 mL of NaOH is Added35:07
- Titrations Curve for Strong Acid and Strong Base35:43

42m 3s

- Intro0:00
- Titrations: Weak Acid and Strong Base0:43
- Question0:44
- Part 1: No NaOH is Added1:54
- Part 2: 10.0 mL of NaOH is Added5:17
- Part 3: 25.0 mL of NaOH is Added14:01
- Part 4: 40.0 mL of NaOH is Added21:55
- Part 5: 50.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added22:25
- Part 6: 60.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added31:36
- Part 7: 75.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added35:44
- Titration Curve36:09

52m 3s

- Intro0:00
- Examples and Indicators0:25
- Example 1: Question0:26
- Example 1: Solution2:03
- Example 2: Question12:33
- Example 2: Solution14:52
- Example 3: Question23:45
- Example 3: Solution25:09
- Acid/Base Indicator Overview34:45
- Acid/Base Indicator Example37:40
- Acid/Base Indicator General Result47:11
- Choosing Acid/Base Indicator49:12

36m 25s

- Intro0:00
- Solubility Equilibria0:48
- Solubility Equilibria Overview0:49
- Solubility Product Constant4:24
- Definition of Solubility9:10
- Definition of Solubility Product11:28
- Example 114:09
- Example 220:19
- Example 327:30
- Relative Solubilities31:04

42m 6s

- Intro0:00
- Solubility Equilibria0:46
- Common Ion Effect0:47
- Example 13:14
- pH & Solubility13:00
- Example of pH & Solubility15:25
- Example 223:06
- Precipitation & Definition of the Ion Product26:48
- If Q > Ksp29:31
- If Q < Ksp30:27
- Example 332:58

43m 9s

- Intro0:00
- Solubility Equilibria0:55
- Example 1: Question0:56
- Example 1: Step 1 - Check to See if Anything Precipitates2:52
- Example 1: Step 2 - Stoichiometry10:47
- Example 1: Step 3 - Equilibrium16:34
- Example 2: Selective Precipitation (Question)21:02
- Example 2: Solution23:41
- Classical Qualitative Analysis29:44
- Groups: 1-538:44

43m 38s

- Intro0:00
- Complex Ion Equilibria0:32
- Complex Ion0:34
- Ligan Examples1:51
- Ligand Definition3:12
- Coordination6:28
- Example 18:08
- Example 219:13

31m 30s

- Intro0:00
- Complex Ions and Solubility0:23
- Recall: Classical Qualitative Analysis0:24
- Example 16:10
- Example 216:16
- Dissolving a Water-Insoluble Ionic Compound: Method 123:38
- Dissolving a Water-Insoluble Ionic Compound: Method 228:13

56m 28s

- Intro0:00
- Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy2:25
- Energy Overview2:26
- Equation: ∆E = q + w4:30
- State Function/ State Property8:35
- Equation: w = -P∆V12:00
- Enthalpy: H = E + PV14:50
- Enthalpy is a State Property17:33
- Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions19:20
- First Law of Thermodynamic22:28
- Entropy25:48
- Spontaneous Process33:53
- Second Law of Thermodynamic36:51
- More on Entropy42:23
- Example43:55

39m 55s

- Intro0:00
- Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy1:30
- ∆S of Universe = ∆S of System + ∆S of Surrounding1:31
- Convention3:32
- Examining a System5:36
- Thermodynamic Property: Sign of ∆S16:52
- Thermodynamic Property: Magnitude of ∆S18:45
- Deriving Equation: ∆S of Surrounding = -∆H / T20:25
- Example 125:51
- Free Energy Equations29:22

30m 10s

- Intro0:00
- Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy0:11
- Example 12:38
- Key Concept of Example 114:06
- Example 215:56
- Units for ∆H, ∆G, and S20:56
- ∆S of Surrounding & ∆S of System22:00
- Reaction Example24:17
- Example 326:52

30m 7s

- Intro0:00
- Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy0:29
- Standard Free Energy of Formation0:58
- Example 14:34
- Reaction Under Non-standard Conditions13:23
- Example 216:26
- ∆G = Negative22:12
- ∆G = 024:38
- Diagram Example of ∆G26:43

44m 56s

- Intro0:00
- Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy0:56
- Equations: ∆G of Reaction, ∆G°, and K0:57
- Example 1: Question6:50
- Example 1: Part A9:49
- Example 1: Part B15:28
- Example 217:33
- Example 323:31
- lnK = (- ∆H° ÷ R) ( 1 ÷ T) + ( ∆S° ÷ R)31:36
- Maximum Work35:57

39m 23s

- Intro0:00
- Oxidation-Reduction and Balancing2:06
- Definition of Electrochemistry2:07
- Oxidation and Reduction Review3:05
- Example 1: Assigning Oxidation State10:15
- Example 2: Is the Following a Redox Reaction?18:06
- Example 3: Step 1 - Write the Oxidation & Reduction Half Reactions22:46
- Example 3: Step 2 - Balance the Reaction26:44
- Example 3: Step 3 - Multiply30:11
- Example 3: Step 4 - Add32:07
- Example 3: Step 5 - Check33:29

43m 9s

- Intro0:00
- Galvanic Cells0:39
- Example 1: Balance the Following Under Basic Conditions0:40
- Example 1: Steps to Balance Reaction Under Basic Conditions3:25
- Example 1: Solution5:23
- Example 2: Balance the Following Reaction13:56
- Galvanic Cells18:15
- Example 3: Galvanic Cells28:19
- Example 4: Galvanic Cells35:12

48m 41s

- Intro0:00
- Cell Potential2:08
- Definition of Cell Potential2:17
- Symbol and Unit5:50
- Standard Reduction Potential10:16
- Example Figure 113:08
- Example Figure 219:00
- All Reduction Potentials are Written as Reduction23:10
- Cell Potential: Important Fact 126:49
- Cell Potential: Important Fact 227:32
- Cell Potential: Important Fact 328:54
- Cell Potential: Important Fact 430:05
- Example Problem 132:29
- Example Problem 238:38

41m 23s

- Intro0:00
- Potential, Work, Free Energy0:42
- Descriptions of Galvanic Cell0:43
- Line Notation5:33
- Example 16:26
- Example 211:15
- Example 315:18
- Equation: Volt22:20
- Equations: Cell Potential, Work, and Charge28:30
- Maximum Cell Potential is Related to the Free Energy of the Cell Reaction35:09
- Example 437:42

34m 19s

- Intro0:00
- Cell Potential & Concentration0:29
- Example 1: Question0:30
- Example 1: Nernst Equation4:43
- Example 1: Solution7:01
- Cell Potential & Concentration11:27
- Example 216:38
- Manipulating the Nernst Equation25:15
- Example 328:43

33m 21s

- Intro0:00
- Electrolysis3:16
- Electrolysis: Part 13:17
- Electrolysis: Part 25:25
- Galvanic Cell Example7:13
- Nickel Cadmium Battery12:18
- Ampere16:00
- Example 120:47
- Example 225:47

44m 45s

- Intro0:00
- Light2:14
- Introduction to Light2:15
- Frequency, Speed, and Wavelength of Waves3:58
- Units and Equations7:37
- Electromagnetic Spectrum12:13
- Example 1: Calculate the Frequency17:41
- E = hν21:30
- Example 2: Increment of Energy25:12
- Photon Energy of Light28:56
- Wave and Particle31:46
- Example 3: Wavelength of an Electron34:46

54m

- Intro0:00
- Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals0:51
- Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals Overview0:52
- Electron Orbital and Energy Levels for the Hydrogen Atom8:47
- Example 113:41
- Quantum Mechanics: Schrodinger Equation19:19
- Quantum Numbers Overview31:10
- Principal Quantum Numbers33:28
- Angular Momentum Numbers34:55
- Magnetic Quantum Numbers36:35
- Spin Quantum Numbers37:46
- Primary Level, Sublevels, and Sub-Sub-Levels39:42
- Example42:17
- Orbital & Quantum Numbers49:32

34m 4s

- Intro0:00
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams1:08
- Electronic Structure of Ground State Atom1:09
- Order of Electron Filling3:50
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: H8:41
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: He9:12
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Li9:47
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Be11:17
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: B12:05
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: C13:03
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: N14:55
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: O15:24
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: F16:25
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Ne17:00
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: S18:08
- Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Fe20:08
- Introduction to Valence Electrons23:04
- Valence Electrons of Oxygen23:44
- Valence Electrons of Iron24:02
- Valence Electrons of Arsenic24:30
- Valence Electrons: Exceptions25:36
- The Periodic Table27:52

52m 43s

- Intro0:00
- Vapor Pressure and Changes of State2:26
- Intermolecular Forces Overview2:27
- Hydrogen Bonding5:23
- Heat of Vaporization9:58
- Vapor Pressure: Definition and Example11:04
- Vapor Pressures is Mostly a Function of Intermolecular Forces17:41
- Vapor Pressure Increases with Temperature20:52
- Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature: Graph and Equation22:55
- Clausius-Clapeyron Equation31:55
- Example 132:13
- Heating Curve35:40
- Heat of Fusion41:31
- Example 243:45

31m 17s

- Intro0:00
- Phase Diagrams and Solutions0:22
- Definition of a Phase Diagram0:50
- Phase Diagram Part 1: H₂O1:54
- Phase Diagram Part 2: CO₂9:59
- Solutions: Solute & Solvent16:12
- Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Mass Percent or Weight Percent18:46
- Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Molarity20:07
- Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Mole Fraction20:48
- Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Molality21:41
- Example 1: Question22:06
- Example 1: Mass Percent24:32
- Example 1: Molarity25:53
- Example 1: Mole Fraction28:09
- Example 1: Molality29:36

37m 23s

- Intro0:00
- Vapor Pressure of Solutions2:07
- Vapor Pressure & Raoult's Law2:08
- Example 15:21
- When Ionic Compounds Dissolve10:51
- Example 212:38
- Non-Ideal Solutions17:42
- Negative Deviation24:23
- Positive Deviation29:19
- Example 331:40

34m 11s

- Intro0:00
- Colligative Properties1:07
- Boiling Point Elevation1:08
- Example 1: Question5:19
- Example 1: Solution6:52
- Freezing Point Depression12:01
- Example 2: Question14:46
- Example 2: Solution16:34
- Osmotic Pressure20:20
- Example 3: Question28:00
- Example 3: Solution30:16

48m 39s

- Intro0:00
- Bonding & Lewis Structure2:23
- Covalent Bond2:24
- Single Bond, Double Bond, and Triple Bond4:11
- Bond Length & Intermolecular Distance5:51
- Definition of Electronegativity8:42
- Bond Polarity11:48
- Bond Energy20:04
- Example 124:31
- Definition of Lewis Structure31:54
- Steps in Forming a Lewis Structure33:26
- Lewis Structure Example: H₂36:53
- Lewis Structure Example: CH₄37:33
- Lewis Structure Example: NO⁺38:43
- Lewis Structure Example: PCl₅41:12
- Lewis Structure Example: ICl₄⁻43:05
- Lewis Structure Example: BeCl₂45:07

36m 59s

- Intro0:00
- Resonance and Formal Charge0:09
- Resonance Structures of NO₃⁻0:25
- Resonance Structures of NO₂⁻12:28
- Resonance Structures of HCO₂⁻16:28
- Formal Charge19:40
- Formal Charge Example: SO₄²⁻21:32
- Formal Charge Example: CO₂31:33
- Formal Charge Example: HCN32:44
- Formal Charge Example: CN⁻33:34
- Formal Charge Example: 0₃34:43

41m 21s

- Intro0:00
- Shapes of Molecules0:35
- VSEPR0:36
- Steps in Determining Shapes of Molecules6:18
- Linear11:38
- Trigonal Planar11:55
- Tetrahedral12:45
- Trigonal Bipyramidal13:23
- Octahedral14:29
- Table: Shapes of Molecules15:40
- Example: CO₂21:11
- Example: NO₃⁻24:01
- Example: H₂O27:00
- Example: NH₃29:48
- Example: PCl₃⁻32:18
- Example: IF₄⁺34:38
- Example: KrF₄37:57

40m 17s

- Intro0:00
- Hybrid Orbitals0:13
- Introduction to Hybrid Orbitals0:14
- Electron Orbitals for CH₄5:02
- sp³ Hybridization10:52
- Example: sp³ Hybridization12:06
- sp² Hybridization14:21
- Example: sp² Hybridization16:11
- σ Bond19:10
- π Bond20:07
- sp Hybridization & Example22:00
- dsp³ Hybridization & Example27:36
- d²sp³ Hybridization & Example30:36
- Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of CO32:31
- Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of BF₄⁻35:17
- Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of XeF₂37:09

52m 34s

- Intro0:00
- Multiple Choice1:21
- Multiple Choice 11:22
- Multiple Choice 22:23
- Multiple Choice 33:38
- Multiple Choice 44:34
- Multiple Choice 55:16
- Multiple Choice 65:41
- Multiple Choice 76:20
- Multiple Choice 87:03
- Multiple Choice 97:31
- Multiple Choice 109:03
- Multiple Choice 1111:52
- Multiple Choice 1213:16
- Multiple Choice 1313:56
- Multiple Choice 1414:52
- Multiple Choice 1515:43
- Multiple Choice 1616:20
- Multiple Choice 1716:55
- Multiple Choice 1817:22
- Multiple Choice 1918:59
- Multiple Choice 2020:24
- Multiple Choice 2122:20
- Multiple Choice 2223:29
- Multiple Choice 2324:30
- Multiple Choice 2425:24
- Multiple Choice 2526:21
- Multiple Choice 2629:06
- Multiple Choice 2730:42
- Multiple Choice 2833:28
- Multiple Choice 2934:38
- Multiple Choice 3035:37
- Multiple Choice 3137:31
- Multiple Choice 3238:28
- Multiple Choice 3339:50
- Multiple Choice 3442:57
- Multiple Choice 3544:18
- Multiple Choice 3645:52
- Multiple Choice 3748:02
- Multiple Choice 3849:25
- Multiple Choice 3949:43
- Multiple Choice 4050:16
- Multiple Choice 4150:49

32m 15s

- Intro0:00
- Multiple Choice0:12
- Multiple Choice 420:13
- Multiple Choice 430:33
- Multiple Choice 441:16
- Multiple Choice 452:36
- Multiple Choice 465:22
- Multiple Choice 476:35
- Multiple Choice 488:02
- Multiple Choice 4910:05
- Multiple Choice 5010:26
- Multiple Choice 5111:07
- Multiple Choice 5212:01
- Multiple Choice 5312:55
- Multiple Choice 5416:12
- Multiple Choice 5518:11
- Multiple Choice 5619:45
- Multiple Choice 5720:15
- Multiple Choice 5823:28
- Multiple Choice 5924:27
- Multiple Choice 6026:45
- Multiple Choice 6129:15

32m 50s

- Intro0:00
- Multiple Choice0:16
- Multiple Choice 620:17
- Multiple Choice 631:57
- Multiple Choice 646:16
- Multiple Choice 658:05
- Multiple Choice 669:18
- Multiple Choice 6710:38
- Multiple Choice 6812:51
- Multiple Choice 6914:32
- Multiple Choice 7017:35
- Multiple Choice 7122:44
- Multiple Choice 7224:27
- Multiple Choice 7327:46
- Multiple Choice 7429:39
- Multiple Choice 7530:23

47m 22s

- Intro0:00
- Free Response0:15
- Free Response 1: Part A0:16
- Free Response 1: Part B4:15
- Free Response 1: Part C5:47
- Free Response 1: Part D9:20
- Free Response 1: Part E. i10:58
- Free Response 1: Part E. ii16:45
- Free Response 1: Part E. iii26:03
- Free Response 2: Part A. i31:01
- Free Response 2: Part A. ii33:38
- Free Response 2: Part A. iii35:20
- Free Response 2: Part B. i37:38
- Free Response 2: Part B. ii39:30
- Free Response 2: Part B. iii44:44

43m 5s

- Intro0:00
- Free Response0:12
- Free Response 3: Part A0:13
- Free Response 3: Part B6:25
- Free Response 3: Part C. i11:33
- Free Response 3: Part C. ii12:02
- Free Response 3: Part D14:30
- Free Response 4: Part A21:03
- Free Response 4: Part B22:59
- Free Response 4: Part C24:33
- Free Response 4: Part D27:22
- Free Response 4: Part E28:43
- Free Response 4: Part F29:35
- Free Response 4: Part G30:15
- Free Response 4: Part H30:48
- Free Response 5: Diagram32:00
- Free Response 5: Part A34:14
- Free Response 5: Part B36:07
- Free Response 5: Part C37:45
- Free Response 5: Part D39:00
- Free Response 5: Part E40:26

28m 36s

- Intro0:00
- Free Response0:43
- Free Response 6: Part A. i0:44
- Free Response 6: Part A. ii3:08
- Free Response 6: Part A. iii5:02
- Free Response 6: Part B. i7:11
- Free Response 6: Part B. ii9:40
- Free Response 7: Part A11:14
- Free Response 7: Part B13:45
- Free Response 7: Part C15:43
- Free Response 7: Part D16:54
- Free Response 8: Part A. i19:15
- Free Response 8: Part A. ii21:16
- Free Response 8: Part B. i23:51
- Free Response 8: Part B. ii25:07

For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Chemistry

4 answers

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Fri Dec 8, 2017 11:09 PM

Post by Jinhai Zhang on January 11, 2016

Hi, Prof.

Do you have lecture about bonding and anti-bonding. And HOMO AND LUMO ?

2 answers

Last reply by: Jason Smith

Thu Dec 3, 2015 2:20 PM

Post by Jason Smith on November 30, 2015

Hi professor. I have a question:

In the first example with methane (CH4), why is hybridization necessary? For example, why can't the 4 1s orbitals (from hydrogen) simply fill up in this order: one in the 2p, one in the 2p, and the other two in the final 2p orbital?

Hope this question makes sense!

Thank you in advance professor.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Thu Dec 3, 2015 12:44 AM

Post by Sueda Cetinkaya on November 28, 2015

Prof. Hovasapian,

I hope you are doing well and Happy Thanksgiving!

In the CHO example (at min. 17:31)of the hybridization drawing showing the structure of the atoms, you drew the two hydrogens as going into the page, but shouldn't one of them come towards the viewer?

Thanks!

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Wed Oct 1, 2014 7:18 AM

Post by Richard Meador on October 1, 2014

Does the space occupied by electrons in a s orbital overlap the space occupied by electrons in a p orbital for an atom such as boron. In other words, does the occupied space overlap or is the space exclusive to each orbital?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Mon Jun 23, 2014 5:04 PM

Post by Alice Rochette on June 22, 2014

Hi, so when you're explaining the first molecule CH4 and go through the s and p orbitals, why is the 1s orbital skipped?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sat Nov 9, 2013 1:58 AM

Post by yaqub ali on November 7, 2013

whats up with this lesson. I'm totally confused; I don't see how the hybrid orbitals go...how the overall rules go??

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sun Jan 27, 2013 1:54 AM

Post by kwasi agyeman on January 26, 2013

Hi, I'm not sure what going on with this lecture, I cannot proceed past the 22:00 minute mark, it reset back to the begining. Please if you can fix the problem. Thanks.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sat Dec 29, 2012 5:09 PM

Post by Suresh Sundarraj on December 17, 2012

Thank you very much Prof. Hovasapian, I was really confused 3 hours ago and now I get everything!

-Niraj

0 answers

Post by kevin casimir on November 26, 2012

pi bonds were not explained fully. In the triple bond example. the two pi bonds should encompass the n atoms. prof. hovaspian forgot or ignored to point out that the other ends of the p orbitals bond

1 answer

Last reply by: Suresh Sundarraj

Wed Dec 26, 2012 1:41 PM

Post by Shadd Watson on May 24, 2012

Shouldn't CO be a double bond instead of a triple bond?