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Raffi Hovasapian

Raffi Hovasapian

Hybrid Orbitals

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Review
Naming Compounds

41m 24s

Intro
0:00
Periodic Table of Elements
0:15
Naming Compounds
3:13
Definition and Examples of Ions
3:14
Ionic (Symbol to Name): NaCl
5:23
Ionic (Name to Symbol): Calcium Oxide
7:58
Ionic - Polyatoms Anions: Examples
12:45
Ionic - Polyatoms Anions (Symbol to Name): KClO
14:50
Ionic - Polyatoms Anions (Name to Symbol): Potassium Phosphate
15:49
Ionic Compounds Involving Transition Metals (Symbol to Name): Co₂(CO₃)₃
20:48
Ionic Compounds Involving Transition Metals (Name to Symbol): Palladium 2 Acetate
22:44
Naming Covalent Compounds (Symbol to Name): CO
26:21
Naming Covalent Compounds (Name to Symbol): Nitrogen Trifluoride
27:34
Naming Covalent Compounds (Name to Symbol): Dichlorine Monoxide
27:57
Naming Acids Introduction
28:11
Naming Acids (Name to Symbol): Chlorous Acid
35:08
% Composition by Mass Example
37:38
Stoichiometry

37m 19s

Intro
0:00
Stoichiometry
0:25
Introduction to Stoichiometry
0:26
Example 1
5:03
Example 2
10:17
Example 3
15:09
Example 4
24:02
Example 5: Questions
28:11
Example 5: Part A - Limiting Reactant
30:30
Example 5: Part B
32:27
Example 5: Part C
35:00
II. Aqueous Reactions & Stoichiometry
Precipitation Reactions

31m 14s

Intro
0:00
Precipitation Reactions
0:53
Dissociation of ionic Compounds
0:54
Solubility Guidelines for ionic Compounds: Soluble Ionic Compounds
8:15
Solubility Guidelines for ionic Compounds: Insoluble ionic Compounds
12:56
Precipitation Reactions
14:08
Example 1: Mixing a Solution of BaCl₂ & K₂SO₄
21:21
Example 2: Mixing a Solution of Mg(NO₃)₂ & KI
26:10
Acid-Base Reactions

43m 21s

Intro
0:00
Acid-Base Reactions
1:00
Introduction to Acid: Monoprotic Acid and Polyprotic Acid
1:01
Introduction to Base
8:28
Neutralization
11:45
Example 1
16:17
Example 2
21:55
Molarity
24:50
Example 3
26:50
Example 4
30:01
Example 4: Limiting Reactant
37:51
Example 4: Reaction Part
40:01
Oxidation Reduction Reactions

47m 58s

Intro
0:00
Oxidation Reduction Reactions
0:26
Oxidation and Reduction Overview
0:27
How Can One Tell Whether Oxidation-Reduction has Taken Place?
7:13
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 1
11:22
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 2
12:46
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 3
13:25
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 4
14:50
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 5
15:41
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 6
17:00
Example 1: Determine the Oxidation State of Sulfur in the Following Compounds
18:20
Activity Series and Reduction Properties
25:32
Activity Series and Reduction Properties
25:33
Example 2: Write the Balance Molecular, Total Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations for Al + HCl
31:37
Example 3
34:25
Example 4
37:55
Stoichiometry Examples

31m 50s

Intro
0:00
Stoichiometry Example 1
0:36
Example 1: Question and Answer
0:37
Stoichiometry Example 2
6:57
Example 2: Questions
6:58
Example 2: Part A Solution
12:16
Example 2: Part B Solution
13:05
Example 2: Part C Solution
14:00
Example 2: Part D Solution
14:38
Stoichiometry Example 3
17:56
Example 3: Questions
17:57
Example 3: Part A Solution
19:51
Example 3: Part B Solution
21:43
Example 3: Part C Solution
26:46
III. Gases
Pressure, Gas Laws, & The Ideal Gas Equation

49m 40s

Intro
0:00
Pressure
0:22
Pressure Overview
0:23
Torricelli: Barometer
4:35
Measuring Gas Pressure in a Container
7:49
Boyle's Law
12:40
Example 1
16:56
Gas Laws
21:18
Gas Laws
21:19
Avogadro's Law
26:16
Example 2
31:47
Ideal Gas Equation
38:20
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
38:21
Example 3
40:43
Partial Pressure, Mol Fraction, & Vapor Pressure

32m

Intro
0:00
Gases
0:27
Gases
0:28
Mole Fractions
5:52
Vapor Pressure
8:22
Example 1
13:25
Example 2
22:45
Kinetic Molecular Theory and Real Gases

31m 58s

Intro
0:00
Kinetic Molecular Theory and Real Gases
0:45
Kinetic Molecular Theory 1
0:46
Kinetic Molecular Theory 2
4:23
Kinetic Molecular Theory 3
5:42
Kinetic Molecular Theory 4
6:27
Equations
7:52
Effusion
11:15
Diffusion
13:30
Example 1
19:54
Example 2
23:23
Example 3
26:45
AP Practice for Gases

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Example 1
0:34
Example 1
0:35
Example 2
6:15
Example 2: Part A
6:16
Example 2: Part B
8:46
Example 2: Part C
10:30
Example 2: Part D
11:15
Example 2: Part E
12:20
Example 2: Part F
13:22
Example 3
14:45
Example 3
14:46
Example 4
18:16
Example 4
18:17
Example 5
21:04
Example 5
21:05
IV. Thermochemistry
Energy, Heat, and Work

37m 32s

Intro
0:00
Thermochemistry
0:25
Temperature and Heat
0:26
Work
3:07
System, Surroundings, Exothermic Process, and Endothermic Process
8:19
Work & Gas: Expansion and Compression
16:30
Example 1
24:41
Example 2
27:47
Example 3
31:58
Enthalpy & Hess's Law

32m 34s

Intro
0:00
Thermochemistry
1:43
Defining Enthalpy & Hess's Law
1:44
Example 1
6:48
State Function
13:11
Example 2
17:15
Example 3
24:09
Standard Enthalpies of Formation

23m 9s

Intro
0:00
Thermochemistry
1:04
Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Definition & Equation
1:05
∆H of Formation
10:00
Example 1
11:22
Example 2
19:00
Calorimetry

39m 28s

Intro
0:00
Thermochemistry
0:21
Heat Capacity
0:22
Molar Heat Capacity
4:44
Constant Pressure Calorimetry
5:50
Example 1
12:24
Constant Volume Calorimetry
21:54
Example 2
24:40
Example 3
31:03
V. Kinetics
Reaction Rates and Rate Laws

36m 24s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
2:18
Rate: 2 NO₂ (g) → 2NO (g) + O₂ (g)
2:19
Reaction Rates Graph
7:25
Time Interval & Average Rate
13:13
Instantaneous Rate
15:13
Rate of Reaction is Proportional to Some Power of the Reactant Concentrations
23:49
Example 1
27:19
Method of Initial Rates

30m 48s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:33
Rate
0:34
Idea
2:24
Example 1: NH₄⁺ + NO₂⁻ → NO₂ (g) + 2 H₂O
5:36
Example 2: BrO₃⁻ + 5 Br⁻ + 6 H⁺ → 3 Br₂ + 3 H₂O
19:29
Integrated Rate Law & Reaction Half-Life

32m 17s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:52
Integrated Rate Law
0:53
Example 1
6:26
Example 2
15:19
Half-life of a Reaction
20:40
Example 3: Part A
25:41
Example 3: Part B
28:01
Second Order & Zero-Order Rate Laws

26m 40s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:22
Second Order
0:23
Example 1
6:08
Zero-Order
16:36
Summary for the Kinetics Associated with the Reaction
21:27
Activation Energy & Arrhenius Equation

40m 59s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:53
Rate Constant
0:54
Collision Model
2:45
Activation Energy
5:11
Arrhenius Proposed
9:54
2 Requirements for a Successful Reaction
15:39
Rate Constant
17:53
Arrhenius Equation
19:51
Example 1
25:00
Activation Energy & the Values of K
32:12
Example 2
36:46
AP Practice for Kinetics

29m 8s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:43
Example 1
0:44
Example 2
6:53
Example 3
8:58
Example 4
11:36
Example 5
16:36
Example 6: Part A
21:00
Example 6: Part B
25:09
VI. Equilibrium
Equilibrium, Part 1

46m

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium
1:32
Introduction to Equilibrium
1:33
Equilibrium Rules
14:00
Example 1: Part A
16:46
Example 1: Part B
18:48
Example 1: Part C
22:13
Example 1: Part D
24:55
Example 2: Part A
27:46
Example 2: Part B
31:22
Example 2: Part C
33:00
Reverse a Reaction
36:04
Example 3
37:24
Equilibrium, Part 2

40m 53s

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium
1:31
Equilibriums Involving Gases
1:32
General Equation
10:11
Example 1: Question
11:55
Example 1: Answer
13:43
Example 2: Question
19:08
Example 2: Answer
21:37
Example 3: Question
33:40
Example 3: Answer
35:24
Equilibrium: Reaction Quotient

45m 53s

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium
0:57
Reaction Quotient
0:58
If Q > K
5:37
If Q < K
6:52
If Q = K
7:45
Example 1: Part A
8:24
Example 1: Part B
13:11
Example 2: Question
20:04
Example 2: Answer
22:15
Example 3: Question
30:54
Example 3: Answer
32:52
Steps in Solving Equilibrium Problems
42:40
Equilibrium: Examples

31m 51s

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium
1:09
Example 1: Question
1:10
Example 1: Answer
4:15
Example 2: Question
13:04
Example 2: Answer
15:20
Example 3: Question
25:03
Example 3: Answer
26:32
Le Chatelier's principle & Equilibrium

40m 52s

Intro
0:00
Le Chatelier
1:05
Le Chatelier Principle
1:06
Concentration: Add 'x'
5:25
Concentration: Subtract 'x'
7:50
Example 1
9:44
Change in Pressure
12:53
Example 2
20:40
Temperature: Exothermic and Endothermic
24:33
Example 3
29:55
Example 4
35:30
VII. Acids & Bases
Acids and Bases

50m 11s

Intro
0:00
Acids and Bases
1:14
Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model
1:28
Reaction of an Acid with Water
4:36
Acid Dissociation
10:51
Acid Strength
13:48
Example 1
21:22
Water as an Acid & a Base
25:25
Example 2: Part A
32:30
Example 2: Part B
34:47
Example 3: Part A
35:58
Example 3: Part B
39:33
pH Scale
41:12
Example 4
43:56
pH of Weak Acid Solutions

43m 52s

Intro
0:00
pH of Weak Acid Solutions
1:12
pH of Weak Acid Solutions
1:13
Example 1
6:26
Example 2
14:25
Example 3
24:23
Example 4
30:38
Percent Dissociation: Strong & Weak Bases

43m 4s

Intro
0:00
Bases
0:33
Percent Dissociation: Strong & Weak Bases
0:45
Example 1
6:23
Strong Base Dissociation
11:24
Example 2
13:02
Weak Acid and General Reaction
17:38
Example: NaOH → Na⁺ + OH⁻
20:30
Strong Base and Weak Base
23:49
Example 4
24:54
Example 5
33:51
Polyprotic Acids

35m 34s

Intro
0:00
Polyprotic Acids
1:04
Acids Dissociation
1:05
Example 1
4:51
Example 2
17:30
Example 3
31:11
Salts and Their Acid-Base Properties

41m 14s

Intro
0:00
Salts and Their Acid-Base Properties
0:11
Salts and Their Acid-Base Properties
0:15
Example 1
7:58
Example 2
14:00
Metal Ion and Acidic Solution
22:00
Example 3
28:35
NH₄F → NH₄⁺ + F⁻
34:05
Example 4
38:03
Common Ion Effect & Buffers

41m 58s

Intro
0:00
Common Ion Effect & Buffers
1:16
Covalent Oxides Produce Acidic Solutions in Water
1:36
Ionic Oxides Produce Basic Solutions in Water
4:15
Practice Example 1
6:10
Practice Example 2
9:00
Definition
12:27
Example 1: Part A
16:49
Example 1: Part B
19:54
Buffer Solution
25:10
Example of Some Buffers: HF and NaF
30:02
Example of Some Buffers: Acetic Acid & Potassium Acetate
31:34
Example of Some Buffers: CH₃NH₂ & CH₃NH₃Cl
33:54
Example 2: Buffer Solution
36:36
Buffer

32m 24s

Intro
0:00
Buffers
1:20
Buffer Solution
1:21
Adding Base
5:03
Adding Acid
7:14
Example 1: Question
9:48
Example 1: Recall
12:08
Example 1: Major Species Upon Addition of NaOH
16:10
Example 1: Equilibrium, ICE Chart, and Final Calculation
24:33
Example 1: Comparison
29:19
Buffers, Part II

40m 6s

Intro
0:00
Buffers
1:27
Example 1: Question
1:32
Example 1: ICE Chart
3:15
Example 1: Major Species Upon Addition of OH⁻, But Before Rxn
7:23
Example 1: Equilibrium, ICE Chart, and Final Calculation
12:51
Summary
17:21
Another Look at Buffering & the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
19:00
Example 2
27:08
Example 3
32:01
Buffers, Part III

38m 43s

Intro
0:00
Buffers
0:25
Buffer Capacity Part 1
0:26
Example 1
4:10
Buffer Capacity Part 2
19:29
Example 2
25:12
Example 3
32:02
Titrations: Strong Acid and Strong Base

42m 42s

Intro
0:00
Titrations: Strong Acid and Strong Base
1:11
Definition of Titration
1:12
Sample Problem
3:33
Definition of Titration Curve or pH Curve
9:46
Scenario 1: Strong Acid- Strong Base Titration
11:00
Question
11:01
Part 1: No NaOH is Added
14:00
Part 2: 10.0 mL of NaOH is Added
15:50
Part 3: Another 10.0 mL of NaOH & 20.0 mL of NaOH are Added
22:19
Part 4: 50.0 mL of NaOH is Added
26:46
Part 5: 100.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
27:26
Part 6: 150.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
32:06
Part 7: 200.0 mL of NaOH is Added
35:07
Titrations Curve for Strong Acid and Strong Base
35:43
Titrations: Weak Acid and Strong Base

42m 3s

Intro
0:00
Titrations: Weak Acid and Strong Base
0:43
Question
0:44
Part 1: No NaOH is Added
1:54
Part 2: 10.0 mL of NaOH is Added
5:17
Part 3: 25.0 mL of NaOH is Added
14:01
Part 4: 40.0 mL of NaOH is Added
21:55
Part 5: 50.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
22:25
Part 6: 60.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
31:36
Part 7: 75.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
35:44
Titration Curve
36:09
Titration Examples & Acid-Base Indicators

52m 3s

Intro
0:00
Examples and Indicators
0:25
Example 1: Question
0:26
Example 1: Solution
2:03
Example 2: Question
12:33
Example 2: Solution
14:52
Example 3: Question
23:45
Example 3: Solution
25:09
Acid/Base Indicator Overview
34:45
Acid/Base Indicator Example
37:40
Acid/Base Indicator General Result
47:11
Choosing Acid/Base Indicator
49:12
VIII. Solubility
Solubility Equilibria

36m 25s

Intro
0:00
Solubility Equilibria
0:48
Solubility Equilibria Overview
0:49
Solubility Product Constant
4:24
Definition of Solubility
9:10
Definition of Solubility Product
11:28
Example 1
14:09
Example 2
20:19
Example 3
27:30
Relative Solubilities
31:04
Solubility Equilibria, Part II

42m 6s

Intro
0:00
Solubility Equilibria
0:46
Common Ion Effect
0:47
Example 1
3:14
pH & Solubility
13:00
Example of pH & Solubility
15:25
Example 2
23:06
Precipitation & Definition of the Ion Product
26:48
If Q > Ksp
29:31
If Q < Ksp
30:27
Example 3
32:58
Solubility Equilibria, Part III

43m 9s

Intro
0:00
Solubility Equilibria
0:55
Example 1: Question
0:56
Example 1: Step 1 - Check to See if Anything Precipitates
2:52
Example 1: Step 2 - Stoichiometry
10:47
Example 1: Step 3 - Equilibrium
16:34
Example 2: Selective Precipitation (Question)
21:02
Example 2: Solution
23:41
Classical Qualitative Analysis
29:44
Groups: 1-5
38:44
IX. Complex Ions
Complex Ion Equilibria

43m 38s

Intro
0:00
Complex Ion Equilibria
0:32
Complex Ion
0:34
Ligan Examples
1:51
Ligand Definition
3:12
Coordination
6:28
Example 1
8:08
Example 2
19:13
Complex Ions & Solubility

31m 30s

Intro
0:00
Complex Ions and Solubility
0:23
Recall: Classical Qualitative Analysis
0:24
Example 1
6:10
Example 2
16:16
Dissolving a Water-Insoluble Ionic Compound: Method 1
23:38
Dissolving a Water-Insoluble Ionic Compound: Method 2
28:13
X. Chemical Thermodynamics
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part I

56m 28s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
2:25
Energy Overview
2:26
Equation: ∆E = q + w
4:30
State Function/ State Property
8:35
Equation: w = -P∆V
12:00
Enthalpy: H = E + PV
14:50
Enthalpy is a State Property
17:33
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
19:20
First Law of Thermodynamic
22:28
Entropy
25:48
Spontaneous Process
33:53
Second Law of Thermodynamic
36:51
More on Entropy
42:23
Example
43:55
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part II

39m 55s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
1:30
∆S of Universe = ∆S of System + ∆S of Surrounding
1:31
Convention
3:32
Examining a System
5:36
Thermodynamic Property: Sign of ∆S
16:52
Thermodynamic Property: Magnitude of ∆S
18:45
Deriving Equation: ∆S of Surrounding = -∆H / T
20:25
Example 1
25:51
Free Energy Equations
29:22
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part III

30m 10s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
0:11
Example 1
2:38
Key Concept of Example 1
14:06
Example 2
15:56
Units for ∆H, ∆G, and S
20:56
∆S of Surrounding & ∆S of System
22:00
Reaction Example
24:17
Example 3
26:52
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part IV

30m 7s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
0:29
Standard Free Energy of Formation
0:58
Example 1
4:34
Reaction Under Non-standard Conditions
13:23
Example 2
16:26
∆G = Negative
22:12
∆G = 0
24:38
Diagram Example of ∆G
26:43
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part V

44m 56s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
0:56
Equations: ∆G of Reaction, ∆G°, and K
0:57
Example 1: Question
6:50
Example 1: Part A
9:49
Example 1: Part B
15:28
Example 2
17:33
Example 3
23:31
lnK = (- ∆H° ÷ R) ( 1 ÷ T) + ( ∆S° ÷ R)
31:36
Maximum Work
35:57
XI. Electrochemistry
Oxidation-Reduction & Balancing

39m 23s

Intro
0:00
Oxidation-Reduction and Balancing
2:06
Definition of Electrochemistry
2:07
Oxidation and Reduction Review
3:05
Example 1: Assigning Oxidation State
10:15
Example 2: Is the Following a Redox Reaction?
18:06
Example 3: Step 1 - Write the Oxidation & Reduction Half Reactions
22:46
Example 3: Step 2 - Balance the Reaction
26:44
Example 3: Step 3 - Multiply
30:11
Example 3: Step 4 - Add
32:07
Example 3: Step 5 - Check
33:29
Galvanic Cells

43m 9s

Intro
0:00
Galvanic Cells
0:39
Example 1: Balance the Following Under Basic Conditions
0:40
Example 1: Steps to Balance Reaction Under Basic Conditions
3:25
Example 1: Solution
5:23
Example 2: Balance the Following Reaction
13:56
Galvanic Cells
18:15
Example 3: Galvanic Cells
28:19
Example 4: Galvanic Cells
35:12
Cell Potential

48m 41s

Intro
0:00
Cell Potential
2:08
Definition of Cell Potential
2:17
Symbol and Unit
5:50
Standard Reduction Potential
10:16
Example Figure 1
13:08
Example Figure 2
19:00
All Reduction Potentials are Written as Reduction
23:10
Cell Potential: Important Fact 1
26:49
Cell Potential: Important Fact 2
27:32
Cell Potential: Important Fact 3
28:54
Cell Potential: Important Fact 4
30:05
Example Problem 1
32:29
Example Problem 2
38:38
Potential, Work, & Free Energy

41m 23s

Intro
0:00
Potential, Work, Free Energy
0:42
Descriptions of Galvanic Cell
0:43
Line Notation
5:33
Example 1
6:26
Example 2
11:15
Example 3
15:18
Equation: Volt
22:20
Equations: Cell Potential, Work, and Charge
28:30
Maximum Cell Potential is Related to the Free Energy of the Cell Reaction
35:09
Example 4
37:42
Cell Potential & Concentration

34m 19s

Intro
0:00
Cell Potential & Concentration
0:29
Example 1: Question
0:30
Example 1: Nernst Equation
4:43
Example 1: Solution
7:01
Cell Potential & Concentration
11:27
Example 2
16:38
Manipulating the Nernst Equation
25:15
Example 3
28:43
Electrolysis

33m 21s

Intro
0:00
Electrolysis
3:16
Electrolysis: Part 1
3:17
Electrolysis: Part 2
5:25
Galvanic Cell Example
7:13
Nickel Cadmium Battery
12:18
Ampere
16:00
Example 1
20:47
Example 2
25:47
XII. Light
Light

44m 45s

Intro
0:00
Light
2:14
Introduction to Light
2:15
Frequency, Speed, and Wavelength of Waves
3:58
Units and Equations
7:37
Electromagnetic Spectrum
12:13
Example 1: Calculate the Frequency
17:41
E = hν
21:30
Example 2: Increment of Energy
25:12
Photon Energy of Light
28:56
Wave and Particle
31:46
Example 3: Wavelength of an Electron
34:46
XIII. Quantum Mechanics
Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals

54m

Intro
0:00
Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals
0:51
Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals Overview
0:52
Electron Orbital and Energy Levels for the Hydrogen Atom
8:47
Example 1
13:41
Quantum Mechanics: Schrodinger Equation
19:19
Quantum Numbers Overview
31:10
Principal Quantum Numbers
33:28
Angular Momentum Numbers
34:55
Magnetic Quantum Numbers
36:35
Spin Quantum Numbers
37:46
Primary Level, Sublevels, and Sub-Sub-Levels
39:42
Example
42:17
Orbital & Quantum Numbers
49:32
Electron Configurations & Diagrams

34m 4s

Intro
0:00
Electron Configurations & Diagrams
1:08
Electronic Structure of Ground State Atom
1:09
Order of Electron Filling
3:50
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: H
8:41
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: He
9:12
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Li
9:47
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Be
11:17
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: B
12:05
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: C
13:03
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: N
14:55
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: O
15:24
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: F
16:25
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Ne
17:00
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: S
18:08
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Fe
20:08
Introduction to Valence Electrons
23:04
Valence Electrons of Oxygen
23:44
Valence Electrons of Iron
24:02
Valence Electrons of Arsenic
24:30
Valence Electrons: Exceptions
25:36
The Periodic Table
27:52
XIV. Intermolecular Forces
Vapor Pressure & Changes of State

52m 43s

Intro
0:00
Vapor Pressure and Changes of State
2:26
Intermolecular Forces Overview
2:27
Hydrogen Bonding
5:23
Heat of Vaporization
9:58
Vapor Pressure: Definition and Example
11:04
Vapor Pressures is Mostly a Function of Intermolecular Forces
17:41
Vapor Pressure Increases with Temperature
20:52
Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature: Graph and Equation
22:55
Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
31:55
Example 1
32:13
Heating Curve
35:40
Heat of Fusion
41:31
Example 2
43:45
Phase Diagrams & Solutions

31m 17s

Intro
0:00
Phase Diagrams and Solutions
0:22
Definition of a Phase Diagram
0:50
Phase Diagram Part 1: H₂O
1:54
Phase Diagram Part 2: CO₂
9:59
Solutions: Solute & Solvent
16:12
Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Mass Percent or Weight Percent
18:46
Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Molarity
20:07
Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Mole Fraction
20:48
Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Molality
21:41
Example 1: Question
22:06
Example 1: Mass Percent
24:32
Example 1: Molarity
25:53
Example 1: Mole Fraction
28:09
Example 1: Molality
29:36
Vapor Pressure of Solutions

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Vapor Pressure of Solutions
2:07
Vapor Pressure & Raoult's Law
2:08
Example 1
5:21
When Ionic Compounds Dissolve
10:51
Example 2
12:38
Non-Ideal Solutions
17:42
Negative Deviation
24:23
Positive Deviation
29:19
Example 3
31:40
Colligatives Properties

34m 11s

Intro
0:00
Colligative Properties
1:07
Boiling Point Elevation
1:08
Example 1: Question
5:19
Example 1: Solution
6:52
Freezing Point Depression
12:01
Example 2: Question
14:46
Example 2: Solution
16:34
Osmotic Pressure
20:20
Example 3: Question
28:00
Example 3: Solution
30:16
XV. Bonding
Bonding & Lewis Structure

48m 39s

Intro
0:00
Bonding & Lewis Structure
2:23
Covalent Bond
2:24
Single Bond, Double Bond, and Triple Bond
4:11
Bond Length & Intermolecular Distance
5:51
Definition of Electronegativity
8:42
Bond Polarity
11:48
Bond Energy
20:04
Example 1
24:31
Definition of Lewis Structure
31:54
Steps in Forming a Lewis Structure
33:26
Lewis Structure Example: H₂
36:53
Lewis Structure Example: CH₄
37:33
Lewis Structure Example: NO⁺
38:43
Lewis Structure Example: PCl₅
41:12
Lewis Structure Example: ICl₄⁻
43:05
Lewis Structure Example: BeCl₂
45:07
Resonance & Formal Charge

36m 59s

Intro
0:00
Resonance and Formal Charge
0:09
Resonance Structures of NO₃⁻
0:25
Resonance Structures of NO₂⁻
12:28
Resonance Structures of HCO₂⁻
16:28
Formal Charge
19:40
Formal Charge Example: SO₄²⁻
21:32
Formal Charge Example: CO₂
31:33
Formal Charge Example: HCN
32:44
Formal Charge Example: CN⁻
33:34
Formal Charge Example: 0₃
34:43
Shapes of Molecules

41m 21s

Intro
0:00
Shapes of Molecules
0:35
VSEPR
0:36
Steps in Determining Shapes of Molecules
6:18
Linear
11:38
Trigonal Planar
11:55
Tetrahedral
12:45
Trigonal Bipyramidal
13:23
Octahedral
14:29
Table: Shapes of Molecules
15:40
Example: CO₂
21:11
Example: NO₃⁻
24:01
Example: H₂O
27:00
Example: NH₃
29:48
Example: PCl₃⁻
32:18
Example: IF₄⁺
34:38
Example: KrF₄
37:57
Hybrid Orbitals

40m 17s

Intro
0:00
Hybrid Orbitals
0:13
Introduction to Hybrid Orbitals
0:14
Electron Orbitals for CH₄
5:02
sp³ Hybridization
10:52
Example: sp³ Hybridization
12:06
sp² Hybridization
14:21
Example: sp² Hybridization
16:11
σ Bond
19:10
π Bond
20:07
sp Hybridization & Example
22:00
dsp³ Hybridization & Example
27:36
d²sp³ Hybridization & Example
30:36
Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of CO
32:31
Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of BF₄⁻
35:17
Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of XeF₂
37:09
XVI. AP Practice Exam
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part I

52m 34s

Intro
0:00
Multiple Choice
1:21
Multiple Choice 1
1:22
Multiple Choice 2
2:23
Multiple Choice 3
3:38
Multiple Choice 4
4:34
Multiple Choice 5
5:16
Multiple Choice 6
5:41
Multiple Choice 7
6:20
Multiple Choice 8
7:03
Multiple Choice 9
7:31
Multiple Choice 10
9:03
Multiple Choice 11
11:52
Multiple Choice 12
13:16
Multiple Choice 13
13:56
Multiple Choice 14
14:52
Multiple Choice 15
15:43
Multiple Choice 16
16:20
Multiple Choice 17
16:55
Multiple Choice 18
17:22
Multiple Choice 19
18:59
Multiple Choice 20
20:24
Multiple Choice 21
22:20
Multiple Choice 22
23:29
Multiple Choice 23
24:30
Multiple Choice 24
25:24
Multiple Choice 25
26:21
Multiple Choice 26
29:06
Multiple Choice 27
30:42
Multiple Choice 28
33:28
Multiple Choice 29
34:38
Multiple Choice 30
35:37
Multiple Choice 31
37:31
Multiple Choice 32
38:28
Multiple Choice 33
39:50
Multiple Choice 34
42:57
Multiple Choice 35
44:18
Multiple Choice 36
45:52
Multiple Choice 37
48:02
Multiple Choice 38
49:25
Multiple Choice 39
49:43
Multiple Choice 40
50:16
Multiple Choice 41
50:49
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part II

32m 15s

Intro
0:00
Multiple Choice
0:12
Multiple Choice 42
0:13
Multiple Choice 43
0:33
Multiple Choice 44
1:16
Multiple Choice 45
2:36
Multiple Choice 46
5:22
Multiple Choice 47
6:35
Multiple Choice 48
8:02
Multiple Choice 49
10:05
Multiple Choice 50
10:26
Multiple Choice 51
11:07
Multiple Choice 52
12:01
Multiple Choice 53
12:55
Multiple Choice 54
16:12
Multiple Choice 55
18:11
Multiple Choice 56
19:45
Multiple Choice 57
20:15
Multiple Choice 58
23:28
Multiple Choice 59
24:27
Multiple Choice 60
26:45
Multiple Choice 61
29:15
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part III

32m 50s

Intro
0:00
Multiple Choice
0:16
Multiple Choice 62
0:17
Multiple Choice 63
1:57
Multiple Choice 64
6:16
Multiple Choice 65
8:05
Multiple Choice 66
9:18
Multiple Choice 67
10:38
Multiple Choice 68
12:51
Multiple Choice 69
14:32
Multiple Choice 70
17:35
Multiple Choice 71
22:44
Multiple Choice 72
24:27
Multiple Choice 73
27:46
Multiple Choice 74
29:39
Multiple Choice 75
30:23
AP Practice Exam: Free response Part I

47m 22s

Intro
0:00
Free Response
0:15
Free Response 1: Part A
0:16
Free Response 1: Part B
4:15
Free Response 1: Part C
5:47
Free Response 1: Part D
9:20
Free Response 1: Part E. i
10:58
Free Response 1: Part E. ii
16:45
Free Response 1: Part E. iii
26:03
Free Response 2: Part A. i
31:01
Free Response 2: Part A. ii
33:38
Free Response 2: Part A. iii
35:20
Free Response 2: Part B. i
37:38
Free Response 2: Part B. ii
39:30
Free Response 2: Part B. iii
44:44
AP Practice Exam: Free Response Part II

43m 5s

Intro
0:00
Free Response
0:12
Free Response 3: Part A
0:13
Free Response 3: Part B
6:25
Free Response 3: Part C. i
11:33
Free Response 3: Part C. ii
12:02
Free Response 3: Part D
14:30
Free Response 4: Part A
21:03
Free Response 4: Part B
22:59
Free Response 4: Part C
24:33
Free Response 4: Part D
27:22
Free Response 4: Part E
28:43
Free Response 4: Part F
29:35
Free Response 4: Part G
30:15
Free Response 4: Part H
30:48
Free Response 5: Diagram
32:00
Free Response 5: Part A
34:14
Free Response 5: Part B
36:07
Free Response 5: Part C
37:45
Free Response 5: Part D
39:00
Free Response 5: Part E
40:26
AP Practice Exam: Free Response Part III

28m 36s

Intro
0:00
Free Response
0:43
Free Response 6: Part A. i
0:44
Free Response 6: Part A. ii
3:08
Free Response 6: Part A. iii
5:02
Free Response 6: Part B. i
7:11
Free Response 6: Part B. ii
9:40
Free Response 7: Part A
11:14
Free Response 7: Part B
13:45
Free Response 7: Part C
15:43
Free Response 7: Part D
16:54
Free Response 8: Part A. i
19:15
Free Response 8: Part A. ii
21:16
Free Response 8: Part B. i
23:51
Free Response 8: Part B. ii
25:07
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Lecture Comments (23)

4 answers

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Fri Dec 8, 2017 11:09 PM

Post by Jinhai Zhang on January 11, 2016

Hi, Prof.
Do you have lecture about bonding and anti-bonding. And HOMO AND LUMO ?

2 answers

Last reply by: Jason Smith
Thu Dec 3, 2015 2:20 PM

Post by Jason Smith on November 30, 2015

Hi professor. I have a question:

In the first example with methane (CH4), why is hybridization necessary? For example, why can't the 4 1s orbitals (from hydrogen) simply fill up in this order: one in the 2p, one in the 2p, and the other two in the final 2p orbital?

Hope this question makes sense!

Thank you in advance professor.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Thu Dec 3, 2015 12:44 AM

Post by Sueda Cetinkaya on November 28, 2015

Prof. Hovasapian,
I hope you are doing well and Happy Thanksgiving!
In the CHO example (at min. 17:31)of the hybridization drawing showing the structure of the atoms, you drew the two hydrogens as going into the page, but shouldn't one of them come towards the viewer?
Thanks!

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Wed Oct 1, 2014 7:18 AM

Post by Richard Meador on October 1, 2014

Does the space occupied by electrons in a s orbital overlap the space occupied by electrons in a p orbital for an atom such as boron.  In other words, does the occupied space overlap or is the space exclusive to each orbital?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Mon Jun 23, 2014 5:04 PM

Post by Alice Rochette on June 22, 2014

Hi, so when you're explaining the first molecule CH4 and go through the s and p orbitals, why is the 1s orbital skipped?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Sat Nov 9, 2013 1:58 AM

Post by yaqub ali on November 7, 2013

whats up with this lesson. I'm totally confused; I don't see how the hybrid orbitals go...how the overall rules go??

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Sun Jan 27, 2013 1:54 AM

Post by kwasi agyeman on January 26, 2013

Hi, I'm not sure what going on with this lecture, I cannot proceed past the 22:00 minute mark, it reset back to the begining. Please if you can fix the problem. Thanks.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Sat Dec 29, 2012 5:09 PM

Post by Suresh Sundarraj on December 17, 2012

Thank you very much Prof. Hovasapian, I was really confused 3 hours ago and now I get everything!
-Niraj

0 answers

Post by kevin casimir on November 26, 2012

pi bonds were not explained fully. In the triple bond example. the two pi bonds should encompass the n atoms. prof. hovaspian forgot or ignored to point out that the other ends of the p orbitals bond

1 answer

Last reply by: Suresh Sundarraj
Wed Dec 26, 2012 1:41 PM

Post by Shadd Watson on May 24, 2012

Shouldn't CO be a double bond instead of a triple bond?

Related Articles:

Hybrid Orbitals

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Hybrid Orbitals 0:13
    • Introduction to Hybrid Orbitals
    • Electron Orbitals for CH₄
    • sp³ Hybridization
    • Example: sp³ Hybridization
    • sp² Hybridization
    • Example: sp² Hybridization
    • σ Bond
    • π Bond
    • sp Hybridization & Example
    • dsp³ Hybridization & Example
    • d²sp³ Hybridization & Example
    • Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of CO
    • Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of BF₄⁻
    • Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of XeF₂

Transcription: Hybrid Orbitals

Hello, and welcome back to Educator.com; welcome back to AP Chemistry.0000

Today, we are going to close out our discussion by talking about hybrid orbitals.0004

Well, let's just jump right on in.0011

OK, so Lewis structures--they showed shared electron pairs; so let me write this down: "Lewis structures showed shared electron pairs."0014

I shouldn't say "showed"--they actually show...OK, "show electron pairs."0035

Now, the VSEPR, the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion--that predicts geometry in space.0040

Now, we are going to discuss the structure of the atomic orbitals that actually do the sharing.0055

We are going to show where these orbitals actually come from, what it is that they actually look like, and why it is that they do what they do.0062

Now, a word of warning, a word of caution regarding this particular chapter and this particular topic: bonding is one of those things--I had mentioned earlier that there are certain things where you run the danger of actually saying too much about a topic.0075

Hybridization is one of those things that you actually do run the risk of saying too much.0095

What I'm going to do is: I'm just going to present it in its most basic form; and the reason I do that is because what I want to give you is the basic outline of how to look at hybrid orbitals.0101

Once you have that knowledge (which is actually only a handful of bits of information), you want to take that, and you definitely want to look at the chapter, the respective chapter, in your book.0113

Then, everything will make sense.0125

What I am going to do is tell you what is going on; once you know what is going on, all of the other little bits of information, you should be able to gather for yourself; it's very, very important, because there are little bits of information, but I myself can't really go through them in a list, because it would be just that--it would just be a list.0127

That is available in your book: but as long as you understand what is happening, which is what I am hoping to do with the presentation that I give, everything else should be as clear as day.0145

You should be able to just go to any page in your book and say, "Yes, that is what that means; that is what that means; that is what that means."0156

OK, I just wanted to make you aware of that; I'm not going to give you a whole bunch of detailed information--just a broad outline of what is actually happening.0161

OK, now, when atoms bond, they mix (literally mix) their s and p, and sometimes d (if they need to), orbitals, to produce an equal number of equivalent orbitals called hybrid orbitals.0169

And again, you know what hybrid means: hybrid just means a mixing.0231

Now, what that means is this: that, if I take one s orbital and three p orbitals, that consists of four orbitals altogether.0237

I mix them up; well, the number of orbitals that I started off with (4) should be the number that I end up with.0246

I end up with four hybrid orbitals, and I give them new names: I call them sp3.0253

That is the idea: the number of orbitals that I start with has to equal the number of orbitals that I end up with; that is actually the most important thing.0259

This is where most kids actually get messed up: they lose orbitals along the way, or they add some.0267

The mathematics (because orbitals are just functions: remember the wave equation? It's just trigonometric functions, really)...well, math is such that, when you add something, you have to end up with that same amount.0273

Things don't just disappear: if you start with 7 orbitals, you had better end with 7 hybrid orbitals.0287

They may look different--obviously, they are going to look different; they are going to look like hybrid orbitals; but the number has to match; so bear that in mind.0294

All right, so before we dive into that, let's just take a quick look at CH4.0302

Now, we said the bonding here...a carbon has the following in its valence shell (because again, valence shell is the one that is involved in bonding).0308

It has a 2s orbital, and it has three 2p's; so it is 2s2 and 2p2; so these three are available.0319

And hydrogen, well, hydrogen just has its 1s, with 1 electron in it.0333

OK, in order to come up with...so carbon brings these 4 electrons, and hydrogen brings this 1 electron, but since we have 4 of them, it's going to be 1 times 4, right?0342

We have 2, 4, 6, 8; we have done the Lewis structure bit; everything works out fine.0364

Well, here is what is kind of interesting: well, notice: if they just interacted orbital-to-orbital--one of these p orbitals with one s from one hydrogen; another p from another s from another hydrogen; there are going to be some problems.0371

The problems are a couple: one of them--this 2s orbital is already filled; well, we know that when a 2s orbital is filled (or when any orbital itself is actually filled), it's not going to want to interact; it already has the 2 electrons that it needs.0385

This might form a bond with a hydrogen s, and this might form one, but that is only 2 bonds.0397

Well, there is no electron in here; so if this one interacts with a hydrogen...you know what, let me actually draw out four different ones, because I have 1 carbon; let me draw out each 1s; that way, I think it will make more sense.0404

I have a 1s, a 1s, a 1s, a 1s, because I have 4 hydrogens, right?0420

There we go; so this and this might match, or this and this might go; this and this might go; but what about these two?--they are not going to interact with this.0424

How does this actually bond?0434

Well, one possibility is: one of these electrons can jump over to this p orbital, and then you will have a p and an s, a p and an s, a p and an s, and then a 2s and a 1s interaction, but a p and an s, a p and an s, and a p and an s--those are equivalent, but they are going to be different types of bonds from a 2s and a 1s.0437

But, as it turns out, all of these bonds are equivalent, so what is it that is going on?0457

Well, here is what is going on: we take the s orbital in carbon; we add the p, the p, and the p (this is just the carbon here now, OK?--this is just the carbon); we take the 2s orbital, and we take the 2p, the 2p, the 2p (right?--there are three 2p orbitals).0462

We mix them; we started off with 4 orbitals; we ended up with 4 hybrid orbitals.0487

We call them sp3, sp3, sp3, sp3; this is a symbol for an orbital.0495

Be very, very clear about that: when we say sp3, what that means is that we have taken an s orbital; we have taken three p orbitals; we have mixed them all together; and then, we divide that mixture into four equal parts: sp3, sp3, sp3, sp3.0505

These are all equivalent hybrid orbitals.0523

This is what we call the hybrid orbitals.0527

Now, we need to know where these hybrid orbitals came from.0530

Well, this hybrid orbital...75% of it is p character; 25% of it is s character.0535

This hybrid orbital: 75% p character, 25% s character--which is why we say sp3; we used one s orbital; we used 2 p orbitals to create 4 sp3 orbitals.0544

Four orbitals to start with that are atomic: these are hybrid orbitals that are atomic.0559

They are on the carbon atom; that is what they are.0565

Now, each sp3 orbital has 75% p character, because again, we used 3 p orbitals to actually come up with it--but only one s orbital, so it has 3 times as much p character as s character...75% p character and 25% s character.0568

But they are equivalent--the hybrid orbitals.0612

Here, these are not equivalent orbitals; I have three orbitals that are p; one is s; if these were to bond, just directly, with the s orbitals of the hydrogen, I would have three bonds that are the same, but one bond that wouldn't be the same.0614

However, experimentally, we know that all bonds in the methane molecule are the same: literally, what happens is that the orbitals rearrange themselves, they mix themselves up, and then they divide equally, and then they go to their respective places, as far away as possible from each other, because they are going to be involved in bonding, and the electrons are electron pairs in bonding, and they want to be as far away as possible from each other.0626

So, for molecules...now, when we...well, OK, that is fine.0651

For molecules containing 4 (I shouldn't say that) objects around a central atom, and single bonds only, only sp3 hybridization is active.0658

In other words, if I have a molecule where the central atom has 4 objects around it, and of those objects, the atoms--if the atoms are single-bonded to that central atom, that means that that central atom is sp3 hybridized--always.0709

For example, the CH4--we just did that one; well, what about NH3?0728

Well, we know that the NH3 molecule looks like this, right?--we know it has 4 objects around it.0733

Well, of those 4 objects, three of them are H's; one of them is a lone pair; but the objects that are atoms are single-bonded to the nitrogen, so that means the nitrogen itself is sp3 hybridized.0741

That means that the 2s orbital and the three p orbitals on nitrogen--they mix together, and then they separated; they separated out as four orbitals, each of those orbitals having 75%...each of those orbitals being sp3.0753

So now, I have four sp3 orbitals around a nitrogen; in other words, what it looks like is this.0771

Now, this sp3 orbital contains the lone pair; this sp3 orbital is interacting with an s orbital on hydrogen; this sp3 orbital is interacting with an s orbital on hydrogen; and this sp3 orbital is interacting with an s orbital on hydrogen.0782

All of these are equivalent: each has a pair of electrons.0801

This is a single bond; that is a single bond; that is a single bond; this is not a single bond, but it does have a lone pair in it--that lone pair is occupying an sp3 hybridized orbital.0806

All of these are actually equivalent; so any time you have a molecule that has 4 objects, and the atoms that constitute those objects are single-bonded, you have sp3 hybridization--always.0820

OK, so now, let's move on to the next possibility.0835

That is it: basically, what happens is that any time an atom comes together to bond with another atom, it is going to mix its orbitals the way it needs to mix its orbitals, in order to achieve what the Lewis structure says that it has achieved.0841

So, sp3 hybridization is one possibility; well, what if you have s and p and p, and we know we have three p's, but what if s decides to only mix with two p orbitals?0857

Well, what you end up having is: well, they do--they mix--but this time, s mixes with two p's.0877

You have three orbitals to start, so you are going to end up with three hybrid orbitals, and they are sp2, sp2, sp2, and then this p orbital that is off to the side.0886

You have four orbitals to start; you have four orbitals that ended; except this time, s only mixed with two of the p orbitals; the third p didn't involve in the mixing--it stayed separate.0900

You ended up with an sp2, an sp2, an sp2, and a p.0912

OK, any time you have three objects around a central atom, and one of the bonds is a double bond, you have sp2 hybridization.0919

That is it: at the end of this lesson, when we do some examples, that is what we are going to ask: we are going to give you a particular atom, a particular molecule to a species, and we are going to ask you what the hybridization is of the particular atoms that are involved.0957

This is how you decide.0970

An example of this would be something like CHO, formaldehyde.0972

This actually...the Lewis structure of this looks like this.0985

What you have is a carbon, double-bonded to an oxygen that has a couple of lone pairs on it; and you have the hydrogen here, and the hydrogen here; you have the central atom.0992

Now notice: this one--it has three objects around it, and so it is sp2 hybridized; this one has...well, actually, you know what, let's do it one at a time; so let's draw this out.1001

We have the C; we have the O; and we have H, H.1016

I'm going to draw the lone p orbital here; and then, this one has lone pair, lone pair, and another p orbital.1028

So here, we actually have 2 atoms that are going to be sp2 hybridized.1044

This carbon atom--three of the sp2 orbitals are involved in single bonds: single bond, single bond, single bond.1048

The p orbital on this carbon, the lone p orbital, is just there, as is.1057

Well, here, the oxygen itself is also...notice, it has three objects around it...actually...yes, it has three objects around it, except one of them is a double bond.1062

As it turns out, you have: this is one sp2 orbital; this is another sp2 orbital; this is another sp2 orbital.1074

As it turns out, let me draw this this way.1085

This sp2 orbital and this sp2 orbital form a single bond; this sp2 orbital on oxygen and this one carry the electron pairs; these sp2 orbitals over here end up being bonded to...they end up interacting with s orbitals on hydrogen.1088

Now, I have a p orbital, and I have a p orbital; as it turns out, the p orbitals themselves (the p orbital on carbon and the p orbital on oxygen)--they interact, and they form the second bond.1108

There we go: OK, now, we want to define something.1120

Any bond that is along the centers of two atoms, right down the middle--that is called a sigma bond.1126

Any bond that forms between the interaction of a pi orbital and another pi orbital is called a pi bond.1138

OK, let me actually write that down: OK, a sigma bond is a single bond that runs along the line joining the centers of the two atoms involved in the bonding.1148

A pi bond is a bond between the p orbitals of adjacent atoms.1209

So now, I'm going to draw this again: I have a C, which is sp2 hybridized; one sp2 orbital, one sp2 orbital, one sp2 orbital; and this is going to be a free p orbital.1230

Oxygen: oxygen has an sp2, an sp2, an sp2; and it has a free p orbital.1245

One of the sp2s on this carbon interacts with the sp2 on this oxygen, right along the line that joins them; this is a sigma bond.1256

Well, this p orbital here interacts with this p orbital, and it forms a pi bond.1268

So, a double bond actually consists of one sigma bond and one pi bond.1275

This sp2 orbital on the carbon interacts with the s orbital on hydrogen; this one interacts with another s on hydrogen, giving us that; this sp2 actually contains that lone pair; and this sp2 on oxygen contains that lone pair.1281

Each of these central atoms is actually sp2 hybridized; that means two of the p's have mixed with one of the s to create a situation where you end up with a double bond.1298

When you see a double bond in a molecule, those two atoms are going to be sp2 hybridized.1309

That is what you have to know; that is it.1315

OK, let's try another kind of hybridization.1319

What happens when...so I have s, and I have p, and I have p, and I have p...what happens when only one s interacts with one p?1327

We mix, and we end with an sp; we end up with an sp; we end up with a free p; and we end up with another free p.1337

Here is what it looks like: let's take nitrogen: sp3 hybridization--triple bond; any time you see a triple bond, you are dealing with atoms, adjacent atoms, that are sp hybridized.1346

Nitrogen is going to be sp hybridized; it has one sp orbital, another sp orbital; this is a p; this is a p; and then, perpendicular to that...nitrogen is here.1362

One sp hybrid orbital; one sp hybrid orbital; one p up here--that is this (right?--this is a p); and the other p is that way, that way: it's coming out and going back.1377

OK, in fact, I'm not even going to...well, that is fine.1393

And then, I'm going to draw another nitrogen; that is one sp; that is one sp; this whole thing is one p orbital.1398

That is a p orbital.1411

The first bond that they make, when one sp orbital reacts with an sp of the other, is a sigma bond.1413

One p orbital reacts with another p orbital on the adjacent nitrogen to form a pi bond.1422

This p orbital reacts with this p orbital to form a pi bond.1433

So, what you end up with is 1, 2, 3--you end up with a triple bond.1438

Then, the lone pair on this nitrogen is on that sp orbital; the lone pair on this nitrogen is on that sp orbital; what you end up with is a triple bond, N...1444

If I were to take this molecule, the N and the N, and if I were to turn it around this way or this way, so that you are looking at it (N in front, N in back), here is what it would look like.1456

N, and there is another N directly behind it (right?--let me make it a big N, so think about it that way; there is one N in front and one N in back); there is one bond that is right down the center of them: that is the sigma bond.1470

There is another bond out here, and there is another bond out here, going one end-one end.1489

There is a bond that is connecting them; that is the sigma bond--that is the bond that takes place between the two sp hybridized orbitals.1497

There is another bond up here; it is parallel to the sigma bond, but it is up above it.1506

This is the pi bond, formed from the free p on this nitrogen and the free p on this nitrogen.1511

And then, there is another bond here: it is parallel to the sigma.1519

It is formed from the free p on this nitrogen and the free p on this nitrogen; this is what the triple bond actually looks like in space--the electrons actually are above (there is an electron cloud above and an electron cloud over here, and there is an electron cloud in between).1524

So, any time you see a triple bond, think sp hybridization.1542

Any time you see a double bond, think sp2 hybridization.1546

Any time you see a single bond, 4 objects, think sp3 hybridization.1550

Let me do another example of an sp3 here.1556

Let's do this ethyne molecule...H, H...what you have is: carbon, carbon; you have an sp2 and an sp2, sp2, sp2; you have a p; you have a p here; and you have another p; you have another p here.1560

Now, don't get confused with what it is that I have drawn: this is one sp, and this is another one of the sp's, but these p orbitals that are free--I have drawn in both lobes.1585

It is true that the sp and the sp2 and the sp3--there is a second lobe on the other end; I haven't drawn it, because they are very tiny.1597

But the p orbitals...this whole thing is one p orbital, right here.1607

OK, one p orbital has 2 lobes; but an sp--the hybrid orbitals--I am only drawing them with single lobes; so this is one orbital; this is another orbital; this is another orbital; this is another orbital.1613

There is one bond between them; there is another pi bond that is interacting; and then, there is another pi bond here.1632

This is interacting with an H; this is interacting with an H; single bond, single bond; that gives us that.1642

When I see the triple bond, I know that I am looking at sp hybridization.1651

OK, now, let's do some mixes with the d's.1656

d plus s plus p plus p plus p: we know that third-row elements and beyond have d orbitals available to them, which is why sometimes phosphorus and sulfur have 5 things around it, or 6 things around it--because they can accommodate.1661

Well, how do we come up with 5 or 6 equivalent orbitals that bond?--well, here is how we do it.1678

They take the three p's; they take an s; in other words, these are the 3p orbitals; this is the 3s orbital; and this is one of the 3d orbitals.1685

They mix: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; and you get 5 hybrid orbitals.1697

dsp3; dsp3; dsp3; dsp3; dsp3.1702

20, 40...60% p character; 20% s character; 20% d character: that is the distribution.1714

This orbital is a mix; most of it will look like p, but 20% of it will look like an s; 20% of it will look like a d; 5 orbitals to start; 5 orbitals that way.1725

PCl5 is a molecule where the phosphorus is dsp3 hybridized.1740

OK, so it looks like this: P; one of the orbitals is here; one of the orbitals is here; one of the orbitals is here; one of the orbitals is behind the page; one of the orbitals is in front of the page.1754

Now, here is what is interesting: the chlorine...well, if we look at PCl5, one of the bonds, one of the P-Cls, is like this, right?1769

Well, look at the chlorine: the chlorine has 1, 2, 3, 4 objects around it, and it is single-bonded, so the chlorine itself is sp3 hybridized.1781

The chlorine has an sp3, an sp3, an sp3, and an sp3.1795

Lone pairs are in three of the sp3s; this sp3 interacts with this dsp3 to form a single bond; and the same thing with the other chlorines.1803

I'll just put chlorine here, chlorine here, chlorine here, and chlorine here; so in this case, the phosphorus is dsp3 hybridized; the chlorine is sp3 hybridized.1816

Each atom attains its own hybridization to make it do what it can do.1829

OK, I have one more: now, I have d, plus d, plus s, plus p, plus p, plus p: when I mix those, I get d2sp3.1836

I have 6 of these: d2sp3, d2sp3, d2sp3, d2sp3, and d2sp3.1856

When you see a central atom that has 6 things around it, whether it's lone pairs or 6 actual atoms (like SF6), the hybridization on sulfur is d2sp3, because all of the bonds are equivalent.1869

Let's actually take SF6: we know that it looks like this in terms of a Lewis structure, right?1884

We draw it like this; it looks like this: s; it has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; and I'll just take one of the fluorines: it is going to be 1, 2, 3, 4: this is--each of these orbitals is--a d2sp3 orbital.1894

It interacts with fluorine, which is sp3 hybridized.1923

It has lone pairs on three of the sp3 hybrid; this orbital interacts with this orbital to form a single bond; so we have an sp3 on fluorine single-bonded to a d2sp3 on sulfur; and then, of course, the other fluorines are the same.1927

OK, so let's do some examples.1952

Now, example: For each molecule or ion, predict the hybridization of each atom and describe the molecular geometry.1956

OK, A: we will take CO; well, we need to take a look at the Lewis structure for this--that is how we decide.2000

As it turns out, when you do the Lewis structure for CO (let me see...well, you know what, let's actually do it), carbon brings 4; oxygen brings 6, for a total of 10.2008

Let's do CO; that is 2, 4, 6, 8, 10; that is not going to do it, so let's do C...as it turns out, if I do three of those, that works out just fine; so my Lewis structure is O, this, and this.2019

This is my Lewis structure: what kind of hybridization does carbon have? what kind of hybridization does oxygen have?2039

Very simple: you have a carbon triple-bonded to an oxygen, and oxygen triple-bonded to a carbon; each of these is sp hybridized.2045

sp: oxygen is sp; remember, we said if you see a triple bond, it is immediately sp hybridized--both of the atoms.2056

OK, one of the bonds is sigma (the single bond); one of the bonds has 1 sigma bond, and then it has 2 pi bonds, right?2065

The sigma bond comes from the interaction of the sp and sp; the other ones are a p interacting with a p, a p interacting with a p; this is the arrangement of the bonds.2083

Two of the bonds are p-p interactions between the carbon and the oxygen; the single bond is the sigma bond; this is σ; this is π; this is π.2098

The sigma--the bond in the middle--that is the one that is an interaction between the sp orbital hybridization on carbon and the hybrid sp orbital on the oxygen.2107

OK, now, let's try BF4-: OK, when I do the Lewis structure for this, I end up with this thing.2116

BF4-...and then, of course, lone pairs on the fluorines; OK.2137

Well, look at boron: I have four objects around it, single-bonded; this is sp3 hybridized.2147

Fluorine: I have 1, 2, 3, 4 objects around it; fluorine--single bond--it is sp3 hybridized.2154

So, that is it: for the boron, I have an sp3 hybrid orbital interacting with one of the sp3s on fluorine to form a sigma bond.2162

On fluorine, the other three sp3s are filled with lone pairs; on boron, the other sp3s are involved in bonding.2172

I have four objects around a central atom; there are no lone pairs on the central atom; I have a tetrahedral geometry--hybridization and geometry; OK.2180

Now, let's actually...let me draw this out, so you can see the actual shape of it; we are going to use our notation.2197

This is going to be B, F, F...this is the shape of a tripod (I never do my wedges properly).2205

There you go: this is...I have a little triangle; it's a tripod and an F on top.2219

This is the three-dimensional structure: it looks like this, with another F right on top.2223

OK, and now, let us close it out with xenon F2, difluoride: we have 8 electrons from xenon; F brings 7, so 2 times 7 is 14; we have a total of 22 electrons.2230

Xenon is going to look like: F...it's going to be F, and then we are going to have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; and I think, if you do the electron count...2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22...yes; so what we have is a Lewis structure that is F, F...2248

We have 5 objects around xenon; 5 objects is sp...no; 5 objects is dsp3: 3, 4, 5: three p's, one s, one d, gives me that kind of hybridization.2273

My fluorine...well, the fluorine just has single bonds, and it is four objects, so my fluorines are sp3 hybridized.2296

One of the dsp3...let's look at this bond over here: a dsp3 hybrid orbital on xenon is interacting with an sp3 orbital on fluorine to form a sigma bond.2306

That is this single sigma bond; OK.2321

Another: this is the same thing on this side: a dsp3 on xenon is interacting with an sp3 on fluorine for this single bond.2329

The lone pairs on fluorine occupy the other sp3 hybrid orbitals on fluorine, and the three lone pairs on xenon occupy the last three dsp3 hybrid orbitals on the xenon atom.2340

That is it: it is just a question of how many objects you have around a central atom: the number of objects will actually tell you what kind of hybridization you have.2358

If you have four objects and single bonds, sp3; if you have a double bond anywhere, it's sp2 automatically; if you have a triple bond, it's sp hybridization.2370

If you have 5 objects, it's dsp3, and if you have 6 objects, it's d2sp3.2382

Everything else is just little, little bits of details that we definitely don't want to get into here, because I think it will complicate the matter; but I absolutely encourage you to take a look at this chapter to make sure you have those little bit of details.2388

What I have presented here is really all that you need to know about hybridization and atomic orbitals and molecular geometry.2401

Thank you for joining us here at Educator.com.2409

We'll see each other again, and we are going to start practicing for the AP exam; take care; goodbye.2412

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