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Raffi Hovasapian

Raffi Hovasapian

AP Practice for Kinetics

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Review
Naming Compounds

41m 24s

Intro
0:00
Periodic Table of Elements
0:15
Naming Compounds
3:13
Definition and Examples of Ions
3:14
Ionic (Symbol to Name): NaCl
5:23
Ionic (Name to Symbol): Calcium Oxide
7:58
Ionic - Polyatoms Anions: Examples
12:45
Ionic - Polyatoms Anions (Symbol to Name): KClO
14:50
Ionic - Polyatoms Anions (Name to Symbol): Potassium Phosphate
15:49
Ionic Compounds Involving Transition Metals (Symbol to Name): Co₂(CO₃)₃
20:48
Ionic Compounds Involving Transition Metals (Name to Symbol): Palladium 2 Acetate
22:44
Naming Covalent Compounds (Symbol to Name): CO
26:21
Naming Covalent Compounds (Name to Symbol): Nitrogen Trifluoride
27:34
Naming Covalent Compounds (Name to Symbol): Dichlorine Monoxide
27:57
Naming Acids Introduction
28:11
Naming Acids (Name to Symbol): Chlorous Acid
35:08
% Composition by Mass Example
37:38
Stoichiometry

37m 19s

Intro
0:00
Stoichiometry
0:25
Introduction to Stoichiometry
0:26
Example 1
5:03
Example 2
10:17
Example 3
15:09
Example 4
24:02
Example 5: Questions
28:11
Example 5: Part A - Limiting Reactant
30:30
Example 5: Part B
32:27
Example 5: Part C
35:00
II. Aqueous Reactions & Stoichiometry
Precipitation Reactions

31m 14s

Intro
0:00
Precipitation Reactions
0:53
Dissociation of ionic Compounds
0:54
Solubility Guidelines for ionic Compounds: Soluble Ionic Compounds
8:15
Solubility Guidelines for ionic Compounds: Insoluble ionic Compounds
12:56
Precipitation Reactions
14:08
Example 1: Mixing a Solution of BaCl₂ & K₂SO₄
21:21
Example 2: Mixing a Solution of Mg(NO₃)₂ & KI
26:10
Acid-Base Reactions

43m 21s

Intro
0:00
Acid-Base Reactions
1:00
Introduction to Acid: Monoprotic Acid and Polyprotic Acid
1:01
Introduction to Base
8:28
Neutralization
11:45
Example 1
16:17
Example 2
21:55
Molarity
24:50
Example 3
26:50
Example 4
30:01
Example 4: Limiting Reactant
37:51
Example 4: Reaction Part
40:01
Oxidation Reduction Reactions

47m 58s

Intro
0:00
Oxidation Reduction Reactions
0:26
Oxidation and Reduction Overview
0:27
How Can One Tell Whether Oxidation-Reduction has Taken Place?
7:13
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 1
11:22
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 2
12:46
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 3
13:25
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 4
14:50
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 5
15:41
Rules for Assigning Oxidation State: Number 6
17:00
Example 1: Determine the Oxidation State of Sulfur in the Following Compounds
18:20
Activity Series and Reduction Properties
25:32
Activity Series and Reduction Properties
25:33
Example 2: Write the Balance Molecular, Total Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations for Al + HCl
31:37
Example 3
34:25
Example 4
37:55
Stoichiometry Examples

31m 50s

Intro
0:00
Stoichiometry Example 1
0:36
Example 1: Question and Answer
0:37
Stoichiometry Example 2
6:57
Example 2: Questions
6:58
Example 2: Part A Solution
12:16
Example 2: Part B Solution
13:05
Example 2: Part C Solution
14:00
Example 2: Part D Solution
14:38
Stoichiometry Example 3
17:56
Example 3: Questions
17:57
Example 3: Part A Solution
19:51
Example 3: Part B Solution
21:43
Example 3: Part C Solution
26:46
III. Gases
Pressure, Gas Laws, & The Ideal Gas Equation

49m 40s

Intro
0:00
Pressure
0:22
Pressure Overview
0:23
Torricelli: Barometer
4:35
Measuring Gas Pressure in a Container
7:49
Boyle's Law
12:40
Example 1
16:56
Gas Laws
21:18
Gas Laws
21:19
Avogadro's Law
26:16
Example 2
31:47
Ideal Gas Equation
38:20
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
38:21
Example 3
40:43
Partial Pressure, Mol Fraction, & Vapor Pressure

32m

Intro
0:00
Gases
0:27
Gases
0:28
Mole Fractions
5:52
Vapor Pressure
8:22
Example 1
13:25
Example 2
22:45
Kinetic Molecular Theory and Real Gases

31m 58s

Intro
0:00
Kinetic Molecular Theory and Real Gases
0:45
Kinetic Molecular Theory 1
0:46
Kinetic Molecular Theory 2
4:23
Kinetic Molecular Theory 3
5:42
Kinetic Molecular Theory 4
6:27
Equations
7:52
Effusion
11:15
Diffusion
13:30
Example 1
19:54
Example 2
23:23
Example 3
26:45
AP Practice for Gases

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Example 1
0:34
Example 1
0:35
Example 2
6:15
Example 2: Part A
6:16
Example 2: Part B
8:46
Example 2: Part C
10:30
Example 2: Part D
11:15
Example 2: Part E
12:20
Example 2: Part F
13:22
Example 3
14:45
Example 3
14:46
Example 4
18:16
Example 4
18:17
Example 5
21:04
Example 5
21:05
IV. Thermochemistry
Energy, Heat, and Work

37m 32s

Intro
0:00
Thermochemistry
0:25
Temperature and Heat
0:26
Work
3:07
System, Surroundings, Exothermic Process, and Endothermic Process
8:19
Work & Gas: Expansion and Compression
16:30
Example 1
24:41
Example 2
27:47
Example 3
31:58
Enthalpy & Hess's Law

32m 34s

Intro
0:00
Thermochemistry
1:43
Defining Enthalpy & Hess's Law
1:44
Example 1
6:48
State Function
13:11
Example 2
17:15
Example 3
24:09
Standard Enthalpies of Formation

23m 9s

Intro
0:00
Thermochemistry
1:04
Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Definition & Equation
1:05
∆H of Formation
10:00
Example 1
11:22
Example 2
19:00
Calorimetry

39m 28s

Intro
0:00
Thermochemistry
0:21
Heat Capacity
0:22
Molar Heat Capacity
4:44
Constant Pressure Calorimetry
5:50
Example 1
12:24
Constant Volume Calorimetry
21:54
Example 2
24:40
Example 3
31:03
V. Kinetics
Reaction Rates and Rate Laws

36m 24s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
2:18
Rate: 2 NO₂ (g) → 2NO (g) + O₂ (g)
2:19
Reaction Rates Graph
7:25
Time Interval & Average Rate
13:13
Instantaneous Rate
15:13
Rate of Reaction is Proportional to Some Power of the Reactant Concentrations
23:49
Example 1
27:19
Method of Initial Rates

30m 48s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:33
Rate
0:34
Idea
2:24
Example 1: NH₄⁺ + NO₂⁻ → NO₂ (g) + 2 H₂O
5:36
Example 2: BrO₃⁻ + 5 Br⁻ + 6 H⁺ → 3 Br₂ + 3 H₂O
19:29
Integrated Rate Law & Reaction Half-Life

32m 17s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:52
Integrated Rate Law
0:53
Example 1
6:26
Example 2
15:19
Half-life of a Reaction
20:40
Example 3: Part A
25:41
Example 3: Part B
28:01
Second Order & Zero-Order Rate Laws

26m 40s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:22
Second Order
0:23
Example 1
6:08
Zero-Order
16:36
Summary for the Kinetics Associated with the Reaction
21:27
Activation Energy & Arrhenius Equation

40m 59s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:53
Rate Constant
0:54
Collision Model
2:45
Activation Energy
5:11
Arrhenius Proposed
9:54
2 Requirements for a Successful Reaction
15:39
Rate Constant
17:53
Arrhenius Equation
19:51
Example 1
25:00
Activation Energy & the Values of K
32:12
Example 2
36:46
AP Practice for Kinetics

29m 8s

Intro
0:00
Kinetics
0:43
Example 1
0:44
Example 2
6:53
Example 3
8:58
Example 4
11:36
Example 5
16:36
Example 6: Part A
21:00
Example 6: Part B
25:09
VI. Equilibrium
Equilibrium, Part 1

46m

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium
1:32
Introduction to Equilibrium
1:33
Equilibrium Rules
14:00
Example 1: Part A
16:46
Example 1: Part B
18:48
Example 1: Part C
22:13
Example 1: Part D
24:55
Example 2: Part A
27:46
Example 2: Part B
31:22
Example 2: Part C
33:00
Reverse a Reaction
36:04
Example 3
37:24
Equilibrium, Part 2

40m 53s

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium
1:31
Equilibriums Involving Gases
1:32
General Equation
10:11
Example 1: Question
11:55
Example 1: Answer
13:43
Example 2: Question
19:08
Example 2: Answer
21:37
Example 3: Question
33:40
Example 3: Answer
35:24
Equilibrium: Reaction Quotient

45m 53s

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium
0:57
Reaction Quotient
0:58
If Q > K
5:37
If Q < K
6:52
If Q = K
7:45
Example 1: Part A
8:24
Example 1: Part B
13:11
Example 2: Question
20:04
Example 2: Answer
22:15
Example 3: Question
30:54
Example 3: Answer
32:52
Steps in Solving Equilibrium Problems
42:40
Equilibrium: Examples

31m 51s

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium
1:09
Example 1: Question
1:10
Example 1: Answer
4:15
Example 2: Question
13:04
Example 2: Answer
15:20
Example 3: Question
25:03
Example 3: Answer
26:32
Le Chatelier's principle & Equilibrium

40m 52s

Intro
0:00
Le Chatelier
1:05
Le Chatelier Principle
1:06
Concentration: Add 'x'
5:25
Concentration: Subtract 'x'
7:50
Example 1
9:44
Change in Pressure
12:53
Example 2
20:40
Temperature: Exothermic and Endothermic
24:33
Example 3
29:55
Example 4
35:30
VII. Acids & Bases
Acids and Bases

50m 11s

Intro
0:00
Acids and Bases
1:14
Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model
1:28
Reaction of an Acid with Water
4:36
Acid Dissociation
10:51
Acid Strength
13:48
Example 1
21:22
Water as an Acid & a Base
25:25
Example 2: Part A
32:30
Example 2: Part B
34:47
Example 3: Part A
35:58
Example 3: Part B
39:33
pH Scale
41:12
Example 4
43:56
pH of Weak Acid Solutions

43m 52s

Intro
0:00
pH of Weak Acid Solutions
1:12
pH of Weak Acid Solutions
1:13
Example 1
6:26
Example 2
14:25
Example 3
24:23
Example 4
30:38
Percent Dissociation: Strong & Weak Bases

43m 4s

Intro
0:00
Bases
0:33
Percent Dissociation: Strong & Weak Bases
0:45
Example 1
6:23
Strong Base Dissociation
11:24
Example 2
13:02
Weak Acid and General Reaction
17:38
Example: NaOH → Na⁺ + OH⁻
20:30
Strong Base and Weak Base
23:49
Example 4
24:54
Example 5
33:51
Polyprotic Acids

35m 34s

Intro
0:00
Polyprotic Acids
1:04
Acids Dissociation
1:05
Example 1
4:51
Example 2
17:30
Example 3
31:11
Salts and Their Acid-Base Properties

41m 14s

Intro
0:00
Salts and Their Acid-Base Properties
0:11
Salts and Their Acid-Base Properties
0:15
Example 1
7:58
Example 2
14:00
Metal Ion and Acidic Solution
22:00
Example 3
28:35
NH₄F → NH₄⁺ + F⁻
34:05
Example 4
38:03
Common Ion Effect & Buffers

41m 58s

Intro
0:00
Common Ion Effect & Buffers
1:16
Covalent Oxides Produce Acidic Solutions in Water
1:36
Ionic Oxides Produce Basic Solutions in Water
4:15
Practice Example 1
6:10
Practice Example 2
9:00
Definition
12:27
Example 1: Part A
16:49
Example 1: Part B
19:54
Buffer Solution
25:10
Example of Some Buffers: HF and NaF
30:02
Example of Some Buffers: Acetic Acid & Potassium Acetate
31:34
Example of Some Buffers: CH₃NH₂ & CH₃NH₃Cl
33:54
Example 2: Buffer Solution
36:36
Buffer

32m 24s

Intro
0:00
Buffers
1:20
Buffer Solution
1:21
Adding Base
5:03
Adding Acid
7:14
Example 1: Question
9:48
Example 1: Recall
12:08
Example 1: Major Species Upon Addition of NaOH
16:10
Example 1: Equilibrium, ICE Chart, and Final Calculation
24:33
Example 1: Comparison
29:19
Buffers, Part II

40m 6s

Intro
0:00
Buffers
1:27
Example 1: Question
1:32
Example 1: ICE Chart
3:15
Example 1: Major Species Upon Addition of OH⁻, But Before Rxn
7:23
Example 1: Equilibrium, ICE Chart, and Final Calculation
12:51
Summary
17:21
Another Look at Buffering & the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
19:00
Example 2
27:08
Example 3
32:01
Buffers, Part III

38m 43s

Intro
0:00
Buffers
0:25
Buffer Capacity Part 1
0:26
Example 1
4:10
Buffer Capacity Part 2
19:29
Example 2
25:12
Example 3
32:02
Titrations: Strong Acid and Strong Base

42m 42s

Intro
0:00
Titrations: Strong Acid and Strong Base
1:11
Definition of Titration
1:12
Sample Problem
3:33
Definition of Titration Curve or pH Curve
9:46
Scenario 1: Strong Acid- Strong Base Titration
11:00
Question
11:01
Part 1: No NaOH is Added
14:00
Part 2: 10.0 mL of NaOH is Added
15:50
Part 3: Another 10.0 mL of NaOH & 20.0 mL of NaOH are Added
22:19
Part 4: 50.0 mL of NaOH is Added
26:46
Part 5: 100.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
27:26
Part 6: 150.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
32:06
Part 7: 200.0 mL of NaOH is Added
35:07
Titrations Curve for Strong Acid and Strong Base
35:43
Titrations: Weak Acid and Strong Base

42m 3s

Intro
0:00
Titrations: Weak Acid and Strong Base
0:43
Question
0:44
Part 1: No NaOH is Added
1:54
Part 2: 10.0 mL of NaOH is Added
5:17
Part 3: 25.0 mL of NaOH is Added
14:01
Part 4: 40.0 mL of NaOH is Added
21:55
Part 5: 50.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
22:25
Part 6: 60.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
31:36
Part 7: 75.0 mL (Total) of NaOH is Added
35:44
Titration Curve
36:09
Titration Examples & Acid-Base Indicators

52m 3s

Intro
0:00
Examples and Indicators
0:25
Example 1: Question
0:26
Example 1: Solution
2:03
Example 2: Question
12:33
Example 2: Solution
14:52
Example 3: Question
23:45
Example 3: Solution
25:09
Acid/Base Indicator Overview
34:45
Acid/Base Indicator Example
37:40
Acid/Base Indicator General Result
47:11
Choosing Acid/Base Indicator
49:12
VIII. Solubility
Solubility Equilibria

36m 25s

Intro
0:00
Solubility Equilibria
0:48
Solubility Equilibria Overview
0:49
Solubility Product Constant
4:24
Definition of Solubility
9:10
Definition of Solubility Product
11:28
Example 1
14:09
Example 2
20:19
Example 3
27:30
Relative Solubilities
31:04
Solubility Equilibria, Part II

42m 6s

Intro
0:00
Solubility Equilibria
0:46
Common Ion Effect
0:47
Example 1
3:14
pH & Solubility
13:00
Example of pH & Solubility
15:25
Example 2
23:06
Precipitation & Definition of the Ion Product
26:48
If Q > Ksp
29:31
If Q < Ksp
30:27
Example 3
32:58
Solubility Equilibria, Part III

43m 9s

Intro
0:00
Solubility Equilibria
0:55
Example 1: Question
0:56
Example 1: Step 1 - Check to See if Anything Precipitates
2:52
Example 1: Step 2 - Stoichiometry
10:47
Example 1: Step 3 - Equilibrium
16:34
Example 2: Selective Precipitation (Question)
21:02
Example 2: Solution
23:41
Classical Qualitative Analysis
29:44
Groups: 1-5
38:44
IX. Complex Ions
Complex Ion Equilibria

43m 38s

Intro
0:00
Complex Ion Equilibria
0:32
Complex Ion
0:34
Ligan Examples
1:51
Ligand Definition
3:12
Coordination
6:28
Example 1
8:08
Example 2
19:13
Complex Ions & Solubility

31m 30s

Intro
0:00
Complex Ions and Solubility
0:23
Recall: Classical Qualitative Analysis
0:24
Example 1
6:10
Example 2
16:16
Dissolving a Water-Insoluble Ionic Compound: Method 1
23:38
Dissolving a Water-Insoluble Ionic Compound: Method 2
28:13
X. Chemical Thermodynamics
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part I

56m 28s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
2:25
Energy Overview
2:26
Equation: ∆E = q + w
4:30
State Function/ State Property
8:35
Equation: w = -P∆V
12:00
Enthalpy: H = E + PV
14:50
Enthalpy is a State Property
17:33
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
19:20
First Law of Thermodynamic
22:28
Entropy
25:48
Spontaneous Process
33:53
Second Law of Thermodynamic
36:51
More on Entropy
42:23
Example
43:55
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part II

39m 55s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
1:30
∆S of Universe = ∆S of System + ∆S of Surrounding
1:31
Convention
3:32
Examining a System
5:36
Thermodynamic Property: Sign of ∆S
16:52
Thermodynamic Property: Magnitude of ∆S
18:45
Deriving Equation: ∆S of Surrounding = -∆H / T
20:25
Example 1
25:51
Free Energy Equations
29:22
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part III

30m 10s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
0:11
Example 1
2:38
Key Concept of Example 1
14:06
Example 2
15:56
Units for ∆H, ∆G, and S
20:56
∆S of Surrounding & ∆S of System
22:00
Reaction Example
24:17
Example 3
26:52
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part IV

30m 7s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
0:29
Standard Free Energy of Formation
0:58
Example 1
4:34
Reaction Under Non-standard Conditions
13:23
Example 2
16:26
∆G = Negative
22:12
∆G = 0
24:38
Diagram Example of ∆G
26:43
Spontaneity, Entropy, & Free Energy, Part V

44m 56s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy
0:56
Equations: ∆G of Reaction, ∆G°, and K
0:57
Example 1: Question
6:50
Example 1: Part A
9:49
Example 1: Part B
15:28
Example 2
17:33
Example 3
23:31
lnK = (- ∆H° ÷ R) ( 1 ÷ T) + ( ∆S° ÷ R)
31:36
Maximum Work
35:57
XI. Electrochemistry
Oxidation-Reduction & Balancing

39m 23s

Intro
0:00
Oxidation-Reduction and Balancing
2:06
Definition of Electrochemistry
2:07
Oxidation and Reduction Review
3:05
Example 1: Assigning Oxidation State
10:15
Example 2: Is the Following a Redox Reaction?
18:06
Example 3: Step 1 - Write the Oxidation & Reduction Half Reactions
22:46
Example 3: Step 2 - Balance the Reaction
26:44
Example 3: Step 3 - Multiply
30:11
Example 3: Step 4 - Add
32:07
Example 3: Step 5 - Check
33:29
Galvanic Cells

43m 9s

Intro
0:00
Galvanic Cells
0:39
Example 1: Balance the Following Under Basic Conditions
0:40
Example 1: Steps to Balance Reaction Under Basic Conditions
3:25
Example 1: Solution
5:23
Example 2: Balance the Following Reaction
13:56
Galvanic Cells
18:15
Example 3: Galvanic Cells
28:19
Example 4: Galvanic Cells
35:12
Cell Potential

48m 41s

Intro
0:00
Cell Potential
2:08
Definition of Cell Potential
2:17
Symbol and Unit
5:50
Standard Reduction Potential
10:16
Example Figure 1
13:08
Example Figure 2
19:00
All Reduction Potentials are Written as Reduction
23:10
Cell Potential: Important Fact 1
26:49
Cell Potential: Important Fact 2
27:32
Cell Potential: Important Fact 3
28:54
Cell Potential: Important Fact 4
30:05
Example Problem 1
32:29
Example Problem 2
38:38
Potential, Work, & Free Energy

41m 23s

Intro
0:00
Potential, Work, Free Energy
0:42
Descriptions of Galvanic Cell
0:43
Line Notation
5:33
Example 1
6:26
Example 2
11:15
Example 3
15:18
Equation: Volt
22:20
Equations: Cell Potential, Work, and Charge
28:30
Maximum Cell Potential is Related to the Free Energy of the Cell Reaction
35:09
Example 4
37:42
Cell Potential & Concentration

34m 19s

Intro
0:00
Cell Potential & Concentration
0:29
Example 1: Question
0:30
Example 1: Nernst Equation
4:43
Example 1: Solution
7:01
Cell Potential & Concentration
11:27
Example 2
16:38
Manipulating the Nernst Equation
25:15
Example 3
28:43
Electrolysis

33m 21s

Intro
0:00
Electrolysis
3:16
Electrolysis: Part 1
3:17
Electrolysis: Part 2
5:25
Galvanic Cell Example
7:13
Nickel Cadmium Battery
12:18
Ampere
16:00
Example 1
20:47
Example 2
25:47
XII. Light
Light

44m 45s

Intro
0:00
Light
2:14
Introduction to Light
2:15
Frequency, Speed, and Wavelength of Waves
3:58
Units and Equations
7:37
Electromagnetic Spectrum
12:13
Example 1: Calculate the Frequency
17:41
E = hν
21:30
Example 2: Increment of Energy
25:12
Photon Energy of Light
28:56
Wave and Particle
31:46
Example 3: Wavelength of an Electron
34:46
XIII. Quantum Mechanics
Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals

54m

Intro
0:00
Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals
0:51
Quantum Mechanics & Electron Orbitals Overview
0:52
Electron Orbital and Energy Levels for the Hydrogen Atom
8:47
Example 1
13:41
Quantum Mechanics: Schrodinger Equation
19:19
Quantum Numbers Overview
31:10
Principal Quantum Numbers
33:28
Angular Momentum Numbers
34:55
Magnetic Quantum Numbers
36:35
Spin Quantum Numbers
37:46
Primary Level, Sublevels, and Sub-Sub-Levels
39:42
Example
42:17
Orbital & Quantum Numbers
49:32
Electron Configurations & Diagrams

34m 4s

Intro
0:00
Electron Configurations & Diagrams
1:08
Electronic Structure of Ground State Atom
1:09
Order of Electron Filling
3:50
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: H
8:41
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: He
9:12
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Li
9:47
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Be
11:17
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: B
12:05
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: C
13:03
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: N
14:55
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: O
15:24
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: F
16:25
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Ne
17:00
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: S
18:08
Electron Configurations & Diagrams: Fe
20:08
Introduction to Valence Electrons
23:04
Valence Electrons of Oxygen
23:44
Valence Electrons of Iron
24:02
Valence Electrons of Arsenic
24:30
Valence Electrons: Exceptions
25:36
The Periodic Table
27:52
XIV. Intermolecular Forces
Vapor Pressure & Changes of State

52m 43s

Intro
0:00
Vapor Pressure and Changes of State
2:26
Intermolecular Forces Overview
2:27
Hydrogen Bonding
5:23
Heat of Vaporization
9:58
Vapor Pressure: Definition and Example
11:04
Vapor Pressures is Mostly a Function of Intermolecular Forces
17:41
Vapor Pressure Increases with Temperature
20:52
Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature: Graph and Equation
22:55
Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
31:55
Example 1
32:13
Heating Curve
35:40
Heat of Fusion
41:31
Example 2
43:45
Phase Diagrams & Solutions

31m 17s

Intro
0:00
Phase Diagrams and Solutions
0:22
Definition of a Phase Diagram
0:50
Phase Diagram Part 1: H₂O
1:54
Phase Diagram Part 2: CO₂
9:59
Solutions: Solute & Solvent
16:12
Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Mass Percent or Weight Percent
18:46
Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Molarity
20:07
Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Mole Fraction
20:48
Ways of Discussing Solution Composition: Molality
21:41
Example 1: Question
22:06
Example 1: Mass Percent
24:32
Example 1: Molarity
25:53
Example 1: Mole Fraction
28:09
Example 1: Molality
29:36
Vapor Pressure of Solutions

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Vapor Pressure of Solutions
2:07
Vapor Pressure & Raoult's Law
2:08
Example 1
5:21
When Ionic Compounds Dissolve
10:51
Example 2
12:38
Non-Ideal Solutions
17:42
Negative Deviation
24:23
Positive Deviation
29:19
Example 3
31:40
Colligatives Properties

34m 11s

Intro
0:00
Colligative Properties
1:07
Boiling Point Elevation
1:08
Example 1: Question
5:19
Example 1: Solution
6:52
Freezing Point Depression
12:01
Example 2: Question
14:46
Example 2: Solution
16:34
Osmotic Pressure
20:20
Example 3: Question
28:00
Example 3: Solution
30:16
XV. Bonding
Bonding & Lewis Structure

48m 39s

Intro
0:00
Bonding & Lewis Structure
2:23
Covalent Bond
2:24
Single Bond, Double Bond, and Triple Bond
4:11
Bond Length & Intermolecular Distance
5:51
Definition of Electronegativity
8:42
Bond Polarity
11:48
Bond Energy
20:04
Example 1
24:31
Definition of Lewis Structure
31:54
Steps in Forming a Lewis Structure
33:26
Lewis Structure Example: H₂
36:53
Lewis Structure Example: CH₄
37:33
Lewis Structure Example: NO⁺
38:43
Lewis Structure Example: PCl₅
41:12
Lewis Structure Example: ICl₄⁻
43:05
Lewis Structure Example: BeCl₂
45:07
Resonance & Formal Charge

36m 59s

Intro
0:00
Resonance and Formal Charge
0:09
Resonance Structures of NO₃⁻
0:25
Resonance Structures of NO₂⁻
12:28
Resonance Structures of HCO₂⁻
16:28
Formal Charge
19:40
Formal Charge Example: SO₄²⁻
21:32
Formal Charge Example: CO₂
31:33
Formal Charge Example: HCN
32:44
Formal Charge Example: CN⁻
33:34
Formal Charge Example: 0₃
34:43
Shapes of Molecules

41m 21s

Intro
0:00
Shapes of Molecules
0:35
VSEPR
0:36
Steps in Determining Shapes of Molecules
6:18
Linear
11:38
Trigonal Planar
11:55
Tetrahedral
12:45
Trigonal Bipyramidal
13:23
Octahedral
14:29
Table: Shapes of Molecules
15:40
Example: CO₂
21:11
Example: NO₃⁻
24:01
Example: H₂O
27:00
Example: NH₃
29:48
Example: PCl₃⁻
32:18
Example: IF₄⁺
34:38
Example: KrF₄
37:57
Hybrid Orbitals

40m 17s

Intro
0:00
Hybrid Orbitals
0:13
Introduction to Hybrid Orbitals
0:14
Electron Orbitals for CH₄
5:02
sp³ Hybridization
10:52
Example: sp³ Hybridization
12:06
sp² Hybridization
14:21
Example: sp² Hybridization
16:11
σ Bond
19:10
π Bond
20:07
sp Hybridization & Example
22:00
dsp³ Hybridization & Example
27:36
d²sp³ Hybridization & Example
30:36
Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of CO
32:31
Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of BF₄⁻
35:17
Example: Predict the Hybridization and Describe the Molecular Geometry of XeF₂
37:09
XVI. AP Practice Exam
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part I

52m 34s

Intro
0:00
Multiple Choice
1:21
Multiple Choice 1
1:22
Multiple Choice 2
2:23
Multiple Choice 3
3:38
Multiple Choice 4
4:34
Multiple Choice 5
5:16
Multiple Choice 6
5:41
Multiple Choice 7
6:20
Multiple Choice 8
7:03
Multiple Choice 9
7:31
Multiple Choice 10
9:03
Multiple Choice 11
11:52
Multiple Choice 12
13:16
Multiple Choice 13
13:56
Multiple Choice 14
14:52
Multiple Choice 15
15:43
Multiple Choice 16
16:20
Multiple Choice 17
16:55
Multiple Choice 18
17:22
Multiple Choice 19
18:59
Multiple Choice 20
20:24
Multiple Choice 21
22:20
Multiple Choice 22
23:29
Multiple Choice 23
24:30
Multiple Choice 24
25:24
Multiple Choice 25
26:21
Multiple Choice 26
29:06
Multiple Choice 27
30:42
Multiple Choice 28
33:28
Multiple Choice 29
34:38
Multiple Choice 30
35:37
Multiple Choice 31
37:31
Multiple Choice 32
38:28
Multiple Choice 33
39:50
Multiple Choice 34
42:57
Multiple Choice 35
44:18
Multiple Choice 36
45:52
Multiple Choice 37
48:02
Multiple Choice 38
49:25
Multiple Choice 39
49:43
Multiple Choice 40
50:16
Multiple Choice 41
50:49
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part II

32m 15s

Intro
0:00
Multiple Choice
0:12
Multiple Choice 42
0:13
Multiple Choice 43
0:33
Multiple Choice 44
1:16
Multiple Choice 45
2:36
Multiple Choice 46
5:22
Multiple Choice 47
6:35
Multiple Choice 48
8:02
Multiple Choice 49
10:05
Multiple Choice 50
10:26
Multiple Choice 51
11:07
Multiple Choice 52
12:01
Multiple Choice 53
12:55
Multiple Choice 54
16:12
Multiple Choice 55
18:11
Multiple Choice 56
19:45
Multiple Choice 57
20:15
Multiple Choice 58
23:28
Multiple Choice 59
24:27
Multiple Choice 60
26:45
Multiple Choice 61
29:15
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part III

32m 50s

Intro
0:00
Multiple Choice
0:16
Multiple Choice 62
0:17
Multiple Choice 63
1:57
Multiple Choice 64
6:16
Multiple Choice 65
8:05
Multiple Choice 66
9:18
Multiple Choice 67
10:38
Multiple Choice 68
12:51
Multiple Choice 69
14:32
Multiple Choice 70
17:35
Multiple Choice 71
22:44
Multiple Choice 72
24:27
Multiple Choice 73
27:46
Multiple Choice 74
29:39
Multiple Choice 75
30:23
AP Practice Exam: Free response Part I

47m 22s

Intro
0:00
Free Response
0:15
Free Response 1: Part A
0:16
Free Response 1: Part B
4:15
Free Response 1: Part C
5:47
Free Response 1: Part D
9:20
Free Response 1: Part E. i
10:58
Free Response 1: Part E. ii
16:45
Free Response 1: Part E. iii
26:03
Free Response 2: Part A. i
31:01
Free Response 2: Part A. ii
33:38
Free Response 2: Part A. iii
35:20
Free Response 2: Part B. i
37:38
Free Response 2: Part B. ii
39:30
Free Response 2: Part B. iii
44:44
AP Practice Exam: Free Response Part II

43m 5s

Intro
0:00
Free Response
0:12
Free Response 3: Part A
0:13
Free Response 3: Part B
6:25
Free Response 3: Part C. i
11:33
Free Response 3: Part C. ii
12:02
Free Response 3: Part D
14:30
Free Response 4: Part A
21:03
Free Response 4: Part B
22:59
Free Response 4: Part C
24:33
Free Response 4: Part D
27:22
Free Response 4: Part E
28:43
Free Response 4: Part F
29:35
Free Response 4: Part G
30:15
Free Response 4: Part H
30:48
Free Response 5: Diagram
32:00
Free Response 5: Part A
34:14
Free Response 5: Part B
36:07
Free Response 5: Part C
37:45
Free Response 5: Part D
39:00
Free Response 5: Part E
40:26
AP Practice Exam: Free Response Part III

28m 36s

Intro
0:00
Free Response
0:43
Free Response 6: Part A. i
0:44
Free Response 6: Part A. ii
3:08
Free Response 6: Part A. iii
5:02
Free Response 6: Part B. i
7:11
Free Response 6: Part B. ii
9:40
Free Response 7: Part A
11:14
Free Response 7: Part B
13:45
Free Response 7: Part C
15:43
Free Response 7: Part D
16:54
Free Response 8: Part A. i
19:15
Free Response 8: Part A. ii
21:16
Free Response 8: Part B. i
23:51
Free Response 8: Part B. ii
25:07
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Lecture Comments (6)

3 answers

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Sun Jul 3, 2016 7:41 PM

Post by Jae Choi on January 26, 2016

Hello Professor,

Thank you so much for your awesome lectures. I am sure that you are one of the best chemistry teachers in the nation :)

I have a question about example 5. I understand why the reaction has to be the first order, but why can't C and D be the answers? They are all first order reactions too. The only difference is that they are multiplied by 2 and 1/2.

Thank you so much!

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Fri Jan 31, 2014 5:40 AM

Post by Sam Chapman on January 31, 2014

Hi Raffi,

Just a quick question regarding question 1.  An increase in the rate by a factor of 8, could be worked out quickly by asking "2 to what power gives you 8?" correct? If the concentration had been tripled could you ask "3 to what power gives you the increase in the factor of the rate?"

So say the rate had increased by a factor of 9 and the concentration had tripled, the question would be "3 to what power gives me 9? Answer: 2"

Hope this makes sense,
Many thanks.

AP Practice for Kinetics

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Kinetics 0:43
    • Example 1
    • Example 2
    • Example 3
    • Example 4
    • Example 5
    • Example 6: Part A
    • Example 6: Part B

Transcription: AP Practice for Kinetics

Hello, and welcome back to Educator.com, and welcome back to AP Chemistry.0000

In our last lesson, we concluded our discussion of kinetics, but I thought it would be a good idea to actually spend some time doing some practice problems, directly from the AP exam, and just to give you an idea of what it is that you are going to be doing on the exam, because ultimately, again, this is an AP chemistry course, and the final thing is the AP Chemistry test.0005

There is nothing altogether different as far as the example problems that we did, but I thought it would be nice to have some real, specific examples of what it is that you are going to see.0025

So, we're going to do a couple of multiple-choice and a couple of free-response questions, and things like that.0035

Let's just jump right in and see what we can do.0040

OK, so our first series of questions is going to be three multiple-choice questions, and it is going to be based on the following hypothetical reaction and the following choices.0044

OK, so let's see: we'll say: Consider the following hypothetical reaction.0055

Now, mind you, these multiple choice questions--you can't use your calculator in these, so the numbers are going to be very, very simple.0072

Often, you will be able to just look at something and see what it is that is going on, so if you find yourself having to do multiple strange computations, or if you think that you can't do it because of a computation, chances are that there is something wrong.0078

These multiple-choice questions--they test basic understanding: can you follow a logical train of thought, where the numbers are completely secondary?0091

It is the free-response questions where you can use your calculator to actually find specific answers.0102

Hypothetical reaction: we have: our reactant R, plus reactant S, goes to product T.0109

Now, the following are our choices.0117

A) Rate = K times concentration of R to the first power.0124

B) we have: The rate = K times the concentration of S to the second power.0134

Our C) choice is: The rate is equal to K, times the concentration of R to the first, the concentration of S to the first.0143

D) Our choice is: The rate is equal to K, times the concentration of R to the second power, the concentration of S to the first.0152

And E), our final choice, because you have ABCDE to bubble in: The rate is equal to K times R squared, S squared.0163

So, we have a hypothetical reaction, and we have these choices to choose from, based on the questions that we are going to ask.0176

The first question: #1: OK, it says: When R and S (in other words, when the concentrations of R and S) are doubled, the rate increases by a factor of 8 (so they are telling you this; they are telling you that they double the concentration of R; they double the concentration of S; the rate increases be a factor of 8).0183

The question is: What is the rate law?0219

A through E are our choices.0228

OK, so how do we deal with this?0232

Again, we should be able to do this reasonably quickly.0235

Well, they are telling us that they are doubling R and they are doubling S, and that the rate is increasing by a factor of 8.0239

Well, there are a couple of ways that we can do this.0248

I could say to myself, "Well, if I double the rate..." I can say by doubling something, I am just making it twice that; well, if the rate increases by a factor of 8, I can say, "Two to what power equals 8?"0249

But, I think that may be a little bit confusing, so let's go ahead and do this a more natural way.0268

Let's just go ahead and stick the doubled rate into these to see what happens.0274

Well, notice what happens: if I put in twice R into the first one, I get K2R; the 2 comes out--I get 2 KR.0279

Let me just do that; let's try choice A.0293

Try choice A: I'm a little bit longer on this first one, but it shouldn't take this long--I just want you to see the process.0297

Try choice A: Well, I get that the rate is equal to K, times twice the rate of R.0304

2 just comes out; so twice the KR.0313

Well, KR is the rate; so by doubling the rate, all I have done is multiply the rate by a factor of 2; that is not the one.0319

I do the same thing with S; so, if I try choice B, they are telling me that the rate is equal to K2S--just double the rate and put it in there; and this time, it's 2S2, right?--because our choice is S to the second power.0328

Well, this is equal to 4 times KS2.0345

So now, by doubling the concentration of S, I put it in the choice, and I run the mathematics, and I get that my final answer is 4 times K to the S squared.0352

Well, K to the S squared was the original rate; 4 times that--that is not it, either.0363

So, as it turns out, the only one of these, when I put it in, where I double R and I double S and I run the mathematics--the only thing that gives me an actual increase by a factor of 8--is choice D.0369

The answer is D, and the best way to see that--just in terms of by looking at it without having to run through this--is just: take the number 2--they double the rate--and put it in here.0386

2 squared is 4; times 2 is 8.0398

You get 8 on this side.0402

That is how you solved this problem: just put it in and see which one actually gives you what it is that they are asking for.0404

I hope that makes sense.0411

OK, under the same circumstances now, problem #2: When R and S are doubled (again, the concentrations are doubled), the rate increases by a factor of 2.0414

Well, they say that both R and S are doubled; so, if you go back to your choices, and if you look through your choices--if you put 2 in for R, 2 in for S, well, the only one that actually gives you double the rate is choice A.0448

So, A is the answer.0469

And again, if you don't see that: the rate they told me was K, times R to the first power.0477

Well, if I put in 2, they tell me R and S are doubled; in this case, this choice A is not dependent on S at all--it only depends on R; so when I put 2 in there, I get K times 2R equals 2 times K times R.0492

Well, 2 times R--that equals 2 times the rate; that means the rate is doubled; that is the only choice.0513

If I put it into the other choices, I get that the rate is increased by a factor of 4, by a factor of 8, by a factor of 16...so the only one that is doubled is choice A, so our answer is A.0520

That is how we do it; these are very, very quick--you just need to be able to know what to put where and what to multiply.0534

OK, well, let's take a look at #3.0539

This time, they say, R is doubled; so this time, they are only doubling R.0543

R is doubled; S is unchanged.0552

Well, let's write this a little differently.0562

This time, what we have is: When R is doubled (the concentration of R), and S is unchanged, the rate is unchanged.0569

OK, well, they tell me that R is doubled, and they tell me that S is unchanged, and they tell me that the rate is unchanged.0608

Well, if I go back to my choices and if I take a look--well, if R is doubled--notice that choice A, choice C, choice D, and choice E all have R in them.0618

So, if I stick a 2 in there, I am going to get an increase; there isn't going to be no change; but they tell me that S is unchanged.0631

Well, if S is unchanged, the only choice (which is choice B)--the rate on this one is equal to K, times the concentration of S squared.0641

Well, they are telling me that S is unchanged; well, if I don't change S, I don't change the rate.0658

S unchanged; rate unchanged; my only choice is B, because everything else has an R in it, and if the rate is doubled, that means there is going to be some sort of a change to the rate.0663

In this case, my only choice is choice B, under these circumstances.0675

I hope that makes sense.0682

OK, let's try a free-response question here.0686

No, actually, I'm sorry; let's try one more multiple-choice question.0697

OK, so now: For the hypothetical reaction A + B → C, based on the following data, what is the rate law?0700

OK, so we are going to give you some data here; and they give you some data: experiment, and then we have the concentration of A; we have the concentration of B; and then we have the rate.0737

Experiment 1, 2, 3; 0.20, 0.20, 0.40, 0.10, 0.20, 0.10; and we have 2.5x10-2; we have 5.0x10-2; and we have 5.0x10-2.0752

Our choices are the following: K times the concentration of A; K times the concentration of A squared; C is K times the concentration of B; D is K times the concentration of B squared; and E: K times the concentration of A, times the concentration of B.0778

OK, so now, let's take a look at this data.0804

Whenever we compare two experiments, when we are given concentration data and rate information, whenever we compare two experiments, we need to find something where only one of the concentrations changes--because again, we are only dealing with one independent variable for anything that we compare.0811

So, in this case, when we change B from point 1 to point 2, when we double it, we ended up doubling the rate.0828

OK, so that means that it is going to be first-order in B.0841

The rate is K, so so far we know that it is first-order in B, because again, when you double something and you double the rate, that is first-order in that reactant.0848

Well, now let's take a look at Experiment 1 and Experiment 3.0862

Let me do this in red; now, we look at 1, and we look at 3.0866

Here, the B concentration stays the same, but we double up A and A.0870

Let me see here: .2, .4, .2, point...oh, wait; I'm sorry; our data is wrong.0880

It is not .1; this is .2; that is .20; OK, let's try this again, shall we?0891

Let me erase this, and let me put in blue again: this is .10, .20; this is .20; OK.0900

Yes, I think that is going to change some things.0911

OK, so now let's take a look at Experiment 1 and 2 again; that is fine; so .2, .2; that is the same; we double up the concentration of B, and then we end up doubling the rate; so yes, not a problem.0913

Our rate is...that part is the same; it is going to be first-order in B.0927

And now, let's see; now, let's look at Experiment 2 and Experiment 3.0934

.2, .2; B is the same; when I end up going from changing the concentration of A from .2 to .4, when I double that, the rate goes from 5.0x10-2 to 5.0x10-2; I double the concentration, but the rate didn't change.0939

Therefore, the rate is not dependent on A at all; so we are done.0956

Rate is KB; our choice is C; that is it.0961

Any time you have data like this, you take a look at some doubling, some changing, concentration, and you see how the rate changes.0969

That will tell you the order of that particular concentration term in the differential rate law; and then, you just look through your choices.0977

Good; OK, let's see; let's try another one here.0987

#5: Reactant P underwent decomposition, and the concentration was measured at different times.1001

Now, based on the data, what is the rate law?1038

OK, so we have time data, and we have concentration of P data.1055

0 time (this is in hours, and the concentration is in moles per liter, as always): 0, 1, 2, 3; so we started off at 0.4, and an hour later, we measured the concentration; we have 0.2; an hour later, we have 0.1; an hour later, we have 0.05.1064

Now, our choices are the following.1088

First-order in P (I'm getting a little sloppy here); second-order in P; twice; D--we have half KP; and E--we have K.1094

OK, so they are saying that some reactant, P, underwent decomposition, and the concentration was measured at different times.1132

Based on the data, what is the rate law?1140

OK, take a look at the time: 1 hour, 1 hour, 1 hour.1142

The time increment is uniform; it's 1 hour.1148

Now, notice the concentration: after 1 hour, there is half of the initial concentration.1151

After another hour, there is half of this concentration.1157

After another hour, there is half of this concentration.1160

So, every hour, it is diminishing by half.1163

That should immediately tell you something; we are talking about half-life here; and what is interesting is that the time--the half-life for it to diminish by half, diminish by half, diminish by half--is uniform.1168

The t1/2 is clearly 1 hour, and it is constant.1184

Any time you have a constant half-life, you are talking about a first-order reaction.1189

Remember that the t1/2 of a first-order reaction is equal to the logarithm of 2, over K, or the logarithm of 1/2, over -K.1199

It is a constant; it doesn't depend on the concentration.1217

Because it doesn't depend on the concentration, it stays constant.1220

That is what this data is telling me.1225

One hour, one hour, one hour; half-life is constant in order for it to diminish by half, diminish by half, diminish by half.1228

So, that automatically tells me that I am talking about a first-order rate law; that is my answer.1237

My choice is A; I hope that makes sense.1247

OK, let's see what we can do here.1254

Let's see: OK, let's try a free response question.1260

This is #6: We have the following reaction: we have 2 nitrogen monoxide, plus chlorine gas, forming 2 moles of NOCl.1264

OK, we have some kinetic data; we run a series of experiments--we run 3 experiments--1, 2, 3.1278

We measure the concentration of nitrogen monoxide (initial concentration); we measure the initial concentration of Cl2; and we also measure...this time, we are measuring the rate of appearance of NOBr.1286

That is fine; we can measure the rate of appearance--a rate is a rate; rate of appearance, rate of disappearance--it's the same; it's just that one is negative and one is positive.1309

We have: the following data were obtained: .02; 0.04; 0.02; 0.02; 0.02; 0.04.1317

We have 9.6x10-2; we have 3.8x10-1; and we have 1.9x10-1.1333

Our first question to you is: what is the rate law?1346

What is the rate law?--OK, it should be easy enough.1352

We have some concentration data; we have rate data; we hold one of them fixed; we check the other one to see what is going on.1357

When we check Experiment 1 and 2, we notice that the chlorine concentration is the same.1366

We doubled the nitrogen monoxide concentration; when we doubled the concentration, we quadrupled the rate.1372

OK, I hope you see that: double, from .02 to .04, the concentration of nitrogen monoxide; this 3.8x10-1 is four times 9.6x10-2.1383

OK, I hope that you see that; watch these exponents very, very carefully.1395

So now, double NO concentration means quadruple the rate.1401

This implies that it is second-order in NO.1413

2 squared is 4; that is where this 2 comes from here.1423

OK, now, let's take a look at Experiment 2 and 3.1430

When we look at 2 and 3, we notice that we have...actually, not 2 and 3; we will have to look at 1 and 3; I'm sorry.1435

1 and 3; and the reason is because .02...now, we're going to leave the NO concentration the same; we are going to double the Cl2 concentration.1448

So, in this particular case, when we double the chlorine concentration, we end up doubling the rate: 1.9x10-1 is twice the 9.6x10-2.1459

We double the rate.1476

Well, that means--when you double something and the rate doubles, that means it is first-order.1479

Therefore, our rate law is equal to some K, times NO to the second power, times Cl2 to the first power; that is our answer.1487

That is it--nice and simple.1504

OK, let's do our next phase.1507

Part B: what is the value of the rate constant? Include units.1513

OK, what is the value of the rate constant? Include units: I do my units and my numbers separately; that is just something that I like to do.1517

You are welcome to do it any way that you like.1545

OK, so let's see: we have "What is the value of the rate constant? Include units."1548

OK, well, we just said that the rate is equal to K times NO squared, times the Cl2 concentration.1553

Well, just pick any one of the experiments; you have the rate; you have the NO concentration; you have the Cl2 concentration; just solve for K.1565

So, K is equal to the rate, divided by the NO concentration squared, times the Cl2 concentration.1575

Let's just take (I think I'm going to use Experiment 3) 1.9x10-1, divided by 0.02 squared, times 0.04; and when we do that, we end up with 1.2x104.1587

That is the numerical value; now, let's do the units.1615

The rate: OK, the rate is in moles per liter per second, because that is how much was showing up, or that is how much was disappearing.1619

That is this up here; it is in moles per liter per second.1635

These are concentrations; you get moles per liter squared, times moles per liter; you get moles per liter cubed.1638

You get moles cubed over liters cubed.1648

Well, let's see what we have: this becomes 2; this becomes 2; that cancels that and cancels that; you flip that over, and you get liters squared over moles squared-seconds.1652

That is your unit; so your answer is 1.2x104 liters squared/moles squared-second.1672

That is your answer.1684

So again, my recommendation, as far as kinetics is concerned, is: in one of the lessons (not the last lesson, but the one right before that), we did a summary of first-order reaction, second-order reaction, zero-order reaction.1687

On that summary, we discussed the differential rate law; we discussed the integrated rate law; we discussed the half-life; and we discovered the quality of the graph that gives us a straight line (whether it's the logarithm versus time; whether it's 1 over the concentration versus time; or whether it's just concentration versus time).1704

That is what you want to know, as far as kinetics is concerned.1728

If you understand that summary, if you understand that table and where each thing is coming from, all of these problems will fall out naturally.1731

OK, thank you for joining us here at Educator.com, and thank you for joining us at AP Chemistry.1741

See you next time; goodbye.1747