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Professor Goldwhite

Professor Goldwhite

Types of Solids, X-Ray Diffraction, Unit Cells

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Table of Contents

I. Introduction
Introduction to Chemistry

47m 38s

Intro
0:00
What is Chemistry?
0:07
Experimental Science
0:48
Changes in Matter
1:18
Energy and its Redistribution
2:20
Central Science
2:45
Properties of Matter
7:10
Physical
7:45
Example: Physical Properties
7:58
Chemical
9:02
Example: Chemical Properties
9:18
Physical Changes (Reversible)
11:19
Melting
11:39
Boiling (Evaporation and Condensation)
13:21
Dissolving (Solution)
15:41
Chemical Changes
18:04
Example: Balanced Chemical Equation
18:37
Compositions of Matter
23:15
Heterogeneous Mixture
23:27
Example: Milk
23:40
Example: Dirt
25:07
Homogenous Mixture
25:40
Example: Air, Gas, Vinegar
26:20
Solutions vs Pure Substances
27:06
Compounds and Elements
29:13
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
II. Atoms
Atomic Theory and Measurement

1h 2m 38s

Intro
0:00
Dalton's Atomic Theory
0:05
Law of Multiple Proportions
3:10
Current Atomic Theory
5:59
Components: Electrons, Protons, Neutrons
6:51
Isotopes
8:04
Complex Molecules
9:35
Fundamental Definition of an Element
11:27
Nuclear Charge (Z)
11:35
Atomic Number
12:37
Isotopes
13:37
Atomic Masses
15:53
Hydrogen, Carbon, Chlorine
16:33
Measurement
22:35
SI Units
23:50
Basic Units
26:39
Meter, Kilogram, Second, Kelvin, Liter
26:52
Multiplier Prefixes
33:05
Measure Quantity
40:50
Number x Unit
41:05
Example: Height, Volume
41:16
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
The Chemist's Atom

22m 20s

Intro
0:00
JJ Thompson and the Electron
1:11
Cathode Ray Tube
1:19
Electron Prediction
3:31
Millikan, Charge of Electron
3:57
Proton
4:45
Rutherford and the Nucleus
5:42
Alpha Particles
6:06
Nucleus
8:05
Chadwick and the Neutron
12:35
Neutron
13:27
Constitutions of Atoms
17:05
Example: Hydrogen Isotopes
17:09
Example: Iodine 127
20:08
III. Significant Figures
Significant Figures and the Mole

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Significant Figures: Sphere
0:14
Example: Cube
7:11
Example: Weight
10:40
The Mole
13:36
Examples: Number of Entities
14:00
Avogadro's Number
15:10
Carbon 12
16:16
Mass of 1 Mol
17:49
Molar Mass of Oxygen
20:01
Stoichiometry
25:15
Example: Molar Masses
26:25
Molar Mass
26:39
Example: Cholesterol
27:08
Example: Insulin
38:38
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
IV. Equations and Formulas
Balancing Equations, Limiting Reagents, Percentage Yield

58m 17s

Intro
0:00
Balancing Chemical Equations
0:49
Atoms and Charges
1:50
Example: Mercury and Oxygen
2:45
Example: Combustion of a Hydrocarbon
6:19
Redox: Oxidation and Reduction
12:30
Example: Sodium and Chlorine
23:55
Electron Transfer
19:34
Limiting Reagent
22:25
Example: Nuts and Bolts
22:45
Example: Mercury and Oxygen
27:24
Reaction Formulas
32:03
Example: Iron Oxide and Carbon
32:11
Example: Benzene and Chlorine
38:28
Theoretical Yields, Actual Yields
42:13
Percentage Yield
42:53
Example
43:08
Theoretical Yield from Limiting Reagent
45:11
Example: Benzene and Chlorine
45:35
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
Empirical and Molecular Formulas

1h 1m 11s

Intro
0:00
Empirical Formula
0:45
Molecular Formula
1:22
Percentage by Mass
1:40
Elements in Compounds
1:48
Example: Water
2:44
Example: Copper Sulfate
7:29
Empirical Formula
13:02
Example: Hydrocarbons
13:37
Calculating Empirical Formula
20:24
Example: C, H, O
20:32
Molar Mass and Molecular Formulas
27:54
Determining Molar Mass
32:21
Mass Spectrometry
32:38
Gas Laws
36:28
Colligative Properties
39:18
Empirical and Molecular Formulas
39:30
Example: Ethylene and Chlorine
39:32
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
V. Chemical Reactions
Classifying Chemical Reactions

42m 43s

Intro
0:00
Combustion Reactions
0:39
Example: Balancing
2:33
Exchange Reactions
7:58
Example: Silver Nitrate + Sodium Chloride
9:11
Precipitate
10:56
Example: Sulfuric Acid + Sodium Chloride
13:20
Naming Ions With Oxygen
16:10
Example: Benzene and Chlorine
17:26
Acid Base Reactions
18:50
Recognizing Acids
19:18
Recognizing Bases
23:48
Litmus Test
26:02
Common Acids
26:31
Common Bases
28:40
Redox Reactions
34:13
Example: Potassium + Fluorine
35:54
Example: Sodium + Oxygen
39:11
Energy in Chemical Reactions

1h 3m 47s

Intro
0:00
Forms of Energy
1:30
Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy
1:32
Example: Potential
2:53
Example: Kinetic
4:07
Units of Energy
5:20
Example: Kinetic Energy, Joules
6:40
Calorie
8:02
Conservation of Energy
11:41
First Law of Thermodynamics
12:22
Heat Capacity and Measurement
17:10
Heat Capacity
17:38
Calorimeter
19:04
Examples: Elements and Compounds
20:37
Enthalpy
25:40
Enthalpy Changes in Physical/Chemical Processes
31:25
Exothermic
32:09
Endothermic
34:16
Example: Water
36:09
Reversing a Process
38:21
Example: Hydrogen + Oxygen
39:06
Hess's Law
42:38
Example: Hydrogen + Oxygen
43:46
Enthalpy of Formation
47:05
Example: Hydrogen + Oxygen
49:53
Enthalpy of Formation: Carbon Disulfide
51:13
Additional Example 1
-1
VI. Electromagnetic Radiation
Electromagnetic Radiation Quantum Theory

1h 3m 35s

Intro
0:00
Waves and Their Characteristics
0:32
Amplitude, Trough, Crest
1:01
Wavelength
1:40
Frequency
2:11
Velocity (Speed of Light)
2:58
Electromagnetic Radiation
5:10
Gamma Rays and X-Rays
5:43
Visible Light
6:19
Infrared
6:54
Radio Waves
7:16
Spectra and Spectroscopy
7:58
Hydrogen Atom Spectrum
10:13
Emission Spectrum vs Absorption Spectrum
14:13
Rydberg Formula
14:51
Planck's Quantum Theory
16:55
Black Body Radiation and Quanta
17:30
Photoelectric Effect
23:29
Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
28:20
Ground State
29:17
Excited State
29:26
Heisenberg and the Uncertainty Principle
34:48
De Broglie and the Wave Nature of Particles
40:07
Principle Quantum Number
44:05
First Quantum Number
45:46
m1 Quantum Number
51:00
Spin Quantum Number
54:28
Pauli Principle
54:58
Additional Example 1
-1
VII. Periodic Table and Bonding
Periodic Table, Electronic Configurations, Ionic Bond

1h 13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Periodic Law of Mendeleev and Meyer
0:43
Modern Periodic Table
5:09
Atomic Number
5:51
Noble Gases
6:46
Halogens
7:06
Group Number
7:16
Metals
8:07
Groups and Periods
8:30
Transition Metals
9:18
Lanthanides
10:23
Actinides
11:26
Quantum Numbers and the Shape of the Table
12:06
Electron Configuration of Atoms
17:59
Electron Configuration of Neutral Atoms
19:49
Example: Elements
20:23
Example: Noble Gases
25:26
Electron Configuration of Monatomic Ions
28:40
Example: Elements
29:42
Atomic Size
37:59
Larger as Down a Group
38:44
Smaller as Across a Period
39:34
Sizes of Monatomic Ions
42:05
Example: Elements
43:15
Noble Gas Electron Configurations
45:52
Example: Elements
46:10
Electron Affinity
50:20
Ionization Energy
52:32
Example: First Ionization Energy
52:43
Periodic Table Trend
53:37
Example: Boron
54:22
Ionic Compounds (NaCl)
57:00
Ionic Bond (Electrostatic)
57:57
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
Covalent Bond, Lewis Structures, Molecular Orbitals

1h 17m 27s

Intro
0:00
Covalent Bond
1:05
Hydrogen Atom
1:38
Lewis
2:41
Sharing of Electrons
3:14
Valence Electrons
4:13
Example: Lewis Symbols
5:35
Lewis Structures of Atoms and Ions
10:05
Example: Ions
10:56
Octet Rule
13:34
Noble Gases
14:14
How to Draw Lewis Structures
17:35
Single Bond
21:39
Double Bond
21:54
Triple Bond
22:02
Examples: Compounds
22:23
Formal Charges
32:44
Example: 3 Structures of FCN
34:01
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
40:17
Fewer Than 8 Electrons
41:07
Example: Boron (Electron Deficiency)
41:53
More Than 8 Electrons
44:22
Example: Compounds
45:37
Electronegativity
48:09
Example: Values
49:24
Ionic or Polar Covalent Bond
52:02
Molecular Orbitals
54:16
Sigma and Pi Bonding
55:56
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
Shapes of Molecules and Hybridization

1h 11m 19s

Intro
0:00
VSEPR: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
0:53
Counting Electron Sets
4:20
Example: Methane
4:48
Example: Ammonia
5:48
Example: Formaldehyde
7:06
Example: Hydrogen Cyanide
8:48
Geometry of 2 and 3 Sets
10:28
Two Sets: Linear
11:30
Examples
11:57
Three Sets: Trigonal and Planar
14:29
Examples
15:48
Geometry of 4 Sets
19:46
Four Sets: Tetrahedral
20:08
Examples
22:03
Geometry of 5 and 6 Sets
27:50
Five Sets: Trigonal Bipyramid
28:12
Six Sets: Octahedron
30:28
Hybridization and Hybrid Orbitals
32:07
Linus Pauling
33:27
Example: Carbon
33:46
Orbital Phases
40:14
Wave Function Phases
40:20
Example: 2p Orbital
41:09
Sigma Bonds
42:51
Example: Ethane
46:37
Pi Bonds
49:04
Example: Ethylene
50:15
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
VIII. States of Matter
States of Matter, Intermolecular Forces, Gases and Gas laws

1h 1m 12s

Intro
0:00
States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas
0:43
Solid
1:10
Liquid
2:14
Gas
3:10
Phase Transitions
4:36
Melting, Freezing, Boiling, Condensing
5:09
Sublimation, Condensation
6:49
Example: Dry Ice
7:25
Ionic Forces and Ion Dipole Forces
8:42
Example: Ionic Forces
11:04
Example: Ion Dipole Forces (Polar)
12:44
Dipole-Dipole Forces and Hydrogen Bonding
15:51
Example: Water Molecules
16:06
Example: Liquid Hydrogen Chloride
16:46
Strong Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen Bonds
17:43
Boiling Points
19:30
Dispersion or London Forces
22:36
Boiling Points of Noble Gases
26:39
Hydrogen Bonding in Water and Biological Systems
28:17
Example: Crystalline Water (Open Structure)
28:28
Example: Protein
29:34
Example: DNA Double Helix
30:31
Gaseous State: Kinetic Molecular Model
31:00
Gases of the Atmosphere
33:31
Percentage by Volume
33:59
Pressure
33:15
Mercury Barometer
36:14
Units of Pressure
38:33
Pascal
39:23
Bar, Torr, Atm
39:49
Gas Laws and the Ideal Gas Law
41:47
Boyle's Law
42:01
Charles' Law
42:45
Ideal Gas Law (Combined Law)
43:25
Gas Constant R
44:11
Example: Gas Law Calculations
45:02
Molar Mass from Gas Law Calculations
47:21
Example: Experimental Gas
48:21
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
IX. Gases
Partial Pressure, Real Gases, Atmospheric Pollution

1h 1m 12s

Intro
0:00
Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction
1:08
Example: Gases A, B, C
3:00
Example: Mole Fraction of A, B, C
4:28
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
6:29
Example: Gases A, B, C
8:14
Example: Air
11:27
Applications of Dalton's Law
12:23
Example: Potassium Chlorate
12:39
Real Gases
20:16
Example: Hydrogen and Nitrogen
21:05
Departure from Ideal Gas Law
23:42
Van der Waals' Equation
28:52
Corrective Equation
31:18
Ozone and the Ozone Hole
34:01
How Ozone is Formed
35:56
Effects of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)
40:49
Example: Freon
52:59
Oxides of Nitrogen
47:15
Sulfur Dioxide
51:32
Acid Rain
54:19
Additional Example 1
-1
X. Phases
Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Phase Diagrams

56m 58s

Intro
0:00
Vapor Pressure: An Equilibrium Phenomenon
0:55
Thought Experiment: Water Equilibrium
1:06
Boiling Point and Normal Boiling Point
6:19
Reducing Boiling Point
3:10
Example: Water
9:51
Surface Tension
14:12
Example: Water
15:55
Viscosity
19:53
Intermolecular Forces
22:22
Example: Ethanol, Antifreeze, Glycerol
22:52
Enthalpies of Phase Changes
28:08
Example: Water
28:22
Phase Diagrams (Water)
32:22
Vapor Pressure Curve
35:30
Melting Point Line
35:54
Triple Point
36:36
Critical Point
37:50
Phase Diagrams (Carbon Dioxide)
38:42
Sublimation
40:11
Critical Point
42:56
Triple Point and Critical Point
44:54
Example: Carbon Dioxide
46:11
XI. Solids
Types of Solids, X-Ray Diffraction, Unit Cells

57m 30s

Intro
0:00
Solids: Crystalline and Amorphous
0:59
X-Ray Diffraction
4:30
Types of Crystalline Solids: Atomic
5:39
Example: Metallic Copper
5:50
Types of Crystalline Solids: Ionic Crystal
7:20
Example: NaCl
7:37
Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular Crystal
11:30
Example: Ice
11:42
Types of Crystalline Solids: Network Solid
13:22
Example: Carbon Allotropes (Diamond and Graphite)
13:36
X-Ray Diffraction and Bragg's Law
18:26
Bragg's Law Equation
23:53
Unit Cell
26:55
Simple Cubic Unit Cell
27:47
Face-Centered and Body-Centered Unit Cells
31:06
Body-Centered Cubic
31:22
Face-Centered Cubic
32:53
Unit Cell and Densities of Crystalline Solids
36:13
Example: Platinum
36:39
First Law of Thermodynamics and Lattice Energy
42:14
Example: NaCl
42:33
Lattice Energies and Constitutions of Ionic Solids
47:33
Additional Example 1
-1
XII. Carbon
Carbon Allotropes, Band Theory of Solids

52m 34s

Intro
0:00
Diamond and Graphite
0:55
Diamond
1:32
Graphite
3:25
C-60: An Unexpected Allotrope
6:59
Buckyball (R. Buckminster Fuller)
9:30
Carbon Nanotubes
11:42
Possible Uses
13:51
Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators
15:34
3 Classes of Conductors
15:41
Conductivity and Band Theory
20:30
Example: Valence Band
22:46
P-Type and N-Type Semiconductors
27:21
Phosphorus to Silicon
29:21
Boron to Silicon
31:38
P/N Junctions
33:48
Integrated Circuit
38:49
Glasses and Ceramics
40:26
Glasses
41:02
Example: Common Window Glass
44:49
Ceramics
47:16
XIII. Solutions
Solutions, Henry's Law, Concentration Equations

1h 5m 40s

Intro
0:00
Types of Solutions
1:43
Examples: Homogeneous Mixtures
2:37
Examples: Solid Solutions
6:59
Saturation Solubility
8:47
Example: Solvent and Soluten (Salt and Water)
9:15
Solubility Dependencies
14:54
Henry's Law
15:36
Values for Henry's Law Constant (Water)
18:01
Example: Soda Can
19:27
Example: SCUBA
21:10
Solution Concentration Expressions
26:02
Percentage by Mass
26:16
Example: Salt and Water
26:52
Molarity
28:18
Molality
31:26
Calculation of Solution Concentrations
32:42
Example: Sodium Chloride Solution
32:49
Dilution of Solutions
37:35
Example: Hydrochloric Acid
38:54
Effects of Temperature on Solubility (Gases in Liquids)
42:01
Example: Water
42:40
Effects of Temperature on Solubility (Solids in Liquids)
45:42
Examples: Various Salts
46:47
Entropy: Qualitative Introduction
52:25
Temperature Effects: Enthalpy, Entropy
55:39
Additional Example 1
-1
XIV. Colligative Properties
Colligative Properties, Colloids, Surfactants

1h 10m 42s

Intro
0:00
Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law
0:43
Colligative (Collective)
0:46
Raoult's Law
1:55
Uses of Raoult's Law (Mole Fraction and Molar Mass)
4:34
Boiling Point Elevation, Freezing Point Depression
5:47
Pure Water and Solution in Water
6:17
Lower Vapor Pressure
6:53
Higher Boiling Point (Elevation)
7:04
Lower Freezing Point (Depression)
7:52
Example: Antifreeze
8:37
Change in Boiling Point (Molality)
10:55
Molar Mass from Elevation and Depression
12:49
Example: Water and Cystine
13:20
Van der Waals' Alpha Factor
18:59
Alpha Factor Equation
20:15
Example: Salt Ions
21:11
Osmosis
23:02
Blood (Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic)
23:47
Osmotic Pressure
27:40
Osmotic Pressure Definition (Pi)
30:14
Van der Waals'
30:57
Molar Mass from Osmotic Pressure
33:29
Example: Peptide in Water
34:20
Colloids and the Tyndall Effect
38:33
Light Beam (Solution and Colloidal Suspension)
41:05
Surfactants
44:11
Example: Sodium Stearate (Soap)
45:10
Soaps and Detergents
49:24
Ordinary Soaps Problem
52:36
Synthetic Soaps
53:57
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
XV. Kinetics
Kinetics, Rate Laws, Reaction Mechanism

1h 8m 48s

Intro
0:00
Reaction Rate
1:30
Chemical Reaction Rate
2:36
Example: Methyl Bromide and Sodium Hydroxide
4:04
Reaction Rates: Changing Concentrations
10:28
Example: Double Initial Concentrations
11:33
Order of Reaction
17:05
Experimental Rate Law
17:47
Overall Rate
21:27
Initial Rate Measurement
23:24
Example: Methyl Bromide and Sodium Hydroxide
23:44
Integrated Rate Laws: First Order Reaction
29:54
Integrated Rate Equation
31:12
Example: Transitional Metal Complex
33:48
Integrated Rate Laws: Second Order Reaction
38:12
Integrated Rate Equation
38:37
Experimental Rate Laws
39:41
Example: Transitional Metal Complex
39:55
Experimental Rate Laws, cont.
42:45
Example: Nitramide
43:00
Reaction Mechanism
46:12
Hypothetical Aspect
47:38
Predict Outcomes
48:02
Elementary Reactions and Reaction Mechanisms
49:43
Example: Methyl Bromide and Hydroxide Ion
51:02
Rate Limiting Step
54:47
Example: Rate Limiting Step
55:41
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
XVI. Temperature Effects
Temperature Effects, Reaction Rate Theory, Catalysis

1h 2m 56s

Intro
0:00
Effects of Temperature on Reaction Rates
1:05
Common Examples
4:30
Arrhenius' Equation
6:40
Activation Energy
9:09
Example: Nitrogen Pentoxide
11:52
Reaction Rate Theory
15:20
Activated Complex and Transition State
17:05
Example: Methyl Bromide and Hydroxide Ion
19:58
Calculating Activation Energy
22:32
Plotting ln K and Inverse T
23:38
Catalysis in Practice
25:33
Example: Catalytic Converter
26:43
Example: Oil Refinery
29:30
Acid Catalysis of Ehtyl Acetate Hydrolysis
31:48
Example
32:03
Industrial Production of Ammonia
35:54
Haber Bosch Process
36:06
Industrial Production of Sulfuric Acid
41:02
Series of Processes
41:38
Enzymes as Catalysts
45:59
Example: Amino Acid
47:04
Example: Protein
47:18
Additional Example 1
-1
XVII. Equilibrium
Physical and Chemical Equilibrium, Equilibrium Law, Le Chatelier's Principle

1h 10m 47s

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium in Physical Processes
1:13
Example: Water Equilibrium (Vapor Pressure)
1:30
Example: Water Equilibrium (Melting )
1:58
Equilibrium in Chemical Processes
3:37
Example: Acetic Acid and Ethanol
3:51
The Equilibrium Law and Equilibrium Constant
9:11
Equilibrium Law
11:32
Equilibrium Constant K
12:47
Equilibrium Expressions and Constants
14:11
Example: Acetic Acid and Ethanol
14:24
Example: Calcium Carbonate (Lime Burning)
17:23
Standard Concentration and Activities
21:13
Kp and Kr
23:56
Example: Nitric Oxide
24:26
Calculations of Equilibria
29:06
Example: Acetic Acid and Ethanol
29:17
Le Chatelier's Principle
40:47
Stressors
42:55
Example: Haber Bosch
49:26
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
XVIII. Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases: Strong and Weak, pH

1h 41s

Intro
0:00
Acids
0:36
React with Some Metals
2:25
Litmus Test (Red)
3:04
Bases
4:33
Litmus Test (Blue)
5:52
Acids and Base Neutralize
6:43
Classification: Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry
8:52
Arrhenius Classification
9:11
Example: HCl (Hydronium) and NaOH (Hydroxide)
11:08
Bronsted-Lowry Classification
12:42
Example: HCl
13:30
Conjugate Acid, Conjugate Base
14:08
Lewis Acids and Bases
16:23
Lewis Base: Electron Pair Donor
17:24
Lewis Acid: Electron Pair Acceptor
18:24
Example: Lewis Acid Base Reaction
20:03
Common Strong Acids
22:02
Common Strong Bases
24:39
Common Weak Acids
26:24
Common Weak Bases
31:14
Water as an Acid and Base: Kw
34:01
K of Water
35:21
Ionization Constants for Weak Acids
38:11
Examples: Constants
38:20
Ionization Constants for Weak Bases
40:30
Examples: Constants
40:44
pH and the pH Scale
43:12
Sorenson pH
43:46
Neutral Water
44:48
Acid and Base pH
46:24
pH Scale (Acid and Alkaline)
47:30
Additional Example 1
-1
pH Calculations, Polyprotic Acids

1h 9s

Intro
0:00
pH in a Solution of a Weak Acid
0:45
Vinegar (Acetic Acid)
1:00
Example: pH of Acetic Acid Solution
2:34
pH in a Solution of a Weak Base
9:42
Ammonia
9:48
Example: pH of Pyridine Solution
11:46
Salts of Weak Acids with Strong Bases
17:15
Example: Acetic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide
17:55
Salts of Weak Bases with Strong Acids
20:55
Example: Ammonia and Hydrochloric Acid
21:13
Conjugate Acid Base Pairs: Ka and Kb
22:58
Example: Acetic Acid Ionization
23:06
Polyprotic Acids: Successive Ka Values
28:50
Example: Diprotic Acid (Sulfuric Acid)
29:13
Example: Tripotic Acid (Phosphoric Acid)
29:28
pH in a Polyprotic Acid Solution
41:02
Example: Phosphoric Acid Solution pH
41:21
Salts of Polyprotic Acids
47:32
Examples: TSP, Tartaric Acid
47:45
Additional Example 1
-1
Titrations, Indicators, Buffers

1h 6m 19s

Intro
0:00
Titration and Analysis
0:43
Equipment: Burets, Pipet, Stopcock, Volumetric Flask
1:38
Molarity
4:04
Strong Acid-Strong Base Titration
6:16
Example: Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid
7:04
Weak Acid-Strong Base Titration
16:45
Example: Acetic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide
17:06
pH Meter
28:48
pH Electrode: Logarithmic Change to Hydronium
29:19
Indicators
32:10
Example: Indicator and Hydronium
33:21
Phenolphthalein
34:07
Methyl Orange
35:12
Theory and Choice of Indicators
39:19
Indicator Visibility if Factor of 10
40:45
Buffers
42:47
What is a Buffer Solution?
46:08
Acetate Buffer and Ammonium Buffer
47:16
Example: Buffer Effects
48:26
Buffer Regions in Titrations
51:38
Example: Acetic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide
51:48
Practical Buffers
55:17
Example: Acetic Acid and Acetate Ion (pH Range)
55:27
Additional Example 1
-1
XIX. Solubility
Solubility Product Constant, Precipitation

59m 36s

Intro
0:00
Equilibrium in Saturated Salt Solution
1:12
Example: Silver Chloride
1:50
Ksp (Solubility Product Constant)
4:12
Solubility Product Constant
6:19
Example : Lead Iodide
6:31
Limitations of the Solubility Product
9:06
Low Solubility
9:23
Complexes that are Soluble
11:31
Ksp Values and Ion Concentrations
13:28
Example: Silver Chloride
16:06
Example: Lead Chloride
19:22
Precipitation of Salts
23:56
Example: Silver Bromide and Copper Bromide
25:31
Common Ion Effect
31:52
Example: Lead Sulfate
32:11
Le Chatelier's Principle
39:30
Common Ion Solubility
42:37
Example: Lead Chloride in Sodium Chloride Solution
42:46
Acids, Bases, and Solubility Equilibria
48:32
Example: Lead Carbonate
48:46
Lle Chatelier's Principle
54:26
Group Separation and Qualitative Analysis of Metal Ions
55:09
Examples
56:25
Additional Example 1
-1
XX. Enthalpy and Entropy
Enthalpy, Entropy, Second Law of Thermodynamics

53m 51s

Intro
0:00
Factors Affecting Equilibrium Constants
1:15
Spontaneous Reaction
2:17
Temperature Effects
4:50
State Functions: Enthalpy and Entropy
6:17
Example: Methane and Chlorine
8:32
Hess's Law
10:36
Entropy
10:55
Statistical Interpretation of Entropy
13:24
Boltzmann Entropy Equation
13:33
Reversible Change
16:24
Example: Water and Ice
16:55
Third Law of Thermodynamics
20:06
Nernst
20:31
Entropies of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
23:16
Example: Entropy Values
25:17
Entropy Values from Enthalpy/Temperature
28:55
Example: Water (Graph)
29:34
Entropy Changes in Phase Changes
32:33
Melting (Fusion)
32:41
Example: Water Melting
33:15
Second Law of Thermodynamics
34:21
Example: Hydrogen and Oxygen
37:20
Statement of Second Law (Spontaneous/Reversible)
39:28
Reactant Favored and Product Favored Equilibria
41:10
Reactant or Product Favored
41:48
Converse
45:15
Limitations of Applying the Second Law to Equilibria
46:57
Delta S
47:30
XXI. Gibbs' Function
Gibbs' Function, Equilibrium

1h 1m 10s

Intro
0:00
The Gibbs' Function
0:35
Values of Delta G
4:57
The Gibbs' Function and K
9:11
Gibbs' Function Change (Free Energy)
11:06
Values of Gibbs' Function Standard Change
14:17
Calculation of K from ThermoDynamic Data
15:46
Example: Nitrogen Dioxide to Dinitrogen Tetroxide
16:01
Calculation of K
24:32
Example: Diamond to Graphite
24:46
Calculation of K
31:33
Example: Ammonia
31:38
Temperature Changes: Gibbs' Function and K
38:12
Estimating Gibbs' Function Values at Temperatures
40:04
Temperature Changes
42:29
Example: Oxide of Iron and Carbon
42:49
Additional Example 1
-1
XXII. Redox Reactions
Balancing Redox Reactions, Half Reactions

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Oxidation and Reduction Review
0:58
Example: Sodium and Chlorine
1:05
Determining Oxidation Numbers
5:43
Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
8:02
Oxidation Number Assignment
11:25
Examples: Various
11:42
Balancing Half Reactions
18:26
Example: Half Reactions
21:22
Example: Zinc in Hydrochloric Acid
22:34
Combining Half Reactions Into Complete Reactions
24:32
Example: Zinc
24:40
Spectator Ions
26:10
Half Reactions in Acidic and Basic Solutions
28:38
Example: Permanganate
29:18
Balancing Redox Reactions
36:34
Example: Determination of Iron
37:22
Balancing Redox Reactions
45:54
Example: Lead Dioxide and Chloride Ion
46:12
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
XXIII. Electrochemistry
Electrochemical Cells, Half-Cell Potentials

1h 7m 52s

Intro
0:00
Electricity from Chemical Reactions
0:29
Galvani Volta: Current Electricity
0:40
Voltaic Pile (Battery)
3:33
Potato Clock
4:35
Daniell Cell
5:56
Oxidation of Zinc, Reduction of Copper
6:46
Spontaneous Overall Reaction
8:25
Anode and Cathode
9:20
Current Electricity Fundamentals
11:34
Electric Charge: Coulomb
11:46
Electric Current: Ampere
12:33
Volt
14:43
Ohm's Law
16:16
Galvanic Cell
17:41
Salt Bridge
19:35
Cell Potential and Work
20:56
Joules
21:40
Coulombs
22:27
Hydrogen Electrode
22:53
Breakdown
24:12
Half-Cell Potentials
29:24
Example: Zinc and Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE)
30:50
Electrochemical Series
35:04
Example: Aluminum Reducing Iron Ion
38:26
Nernst Equation
41:46
Faraday
42:09
Example: Concentration Cell (Copper Ions)
46:39
Nernst Equation: pH Meter
52:24
Example: Potential and pH
53:21
Nernst Equation: Ion Concentrations
56:11
Additional Example 1
-1
Additional Example 2
-2
Practical Batteries, Electrolysis

1h 2m 6s

Intro
0:00
Primary Batteries
0:54
Leclanche Dry Cell
1:03
Alkaline Cell
4:34
Fuel Cell
6:53
Overall Reaction
8:24
Secondary Batteries
13:47
Car Battery
14:04
Electrolysis
18:41
Aluminum Plant
19:14
Chromium Plating
22:42
Sodium Chloride
24:08
Example: Metallic Na
24:20
Example: Bleach
28:38
Faraday's Laws
32:22
Example: Aluminum Electrolysis
34:54
Corrosion of Iron
41:24
Example: Iron Galvanic Cell
44:34
Protection of Iron Against Corrosion
46:55
Coating of Tin Cans
47:18
Additional Example 1
-1
XXIV. Radioactivity
Radioactivity, Nuclear Equations, Mass Energy Equivalence

40m 35s

Intro
0:00
Radioactivity Pioneers
0:36
Becquerel
2:20
Curie
1:53
Rutherford
2:38
Soddy
2:55
Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiation
3:46
Three Types of Emission
4:28
Transmutation and Nuclear Equations
7:01
Decay of Uranium
8:07
Balancing Nuclear Equations
13:08
Example: Chromium
13:19
Example: Radium
15:56
Synthesis of New Isotopes and Elements
18:47
Example: Nitrogen and Alpha Particles
19:44
Example: Uranium and Carbon Nuclei
21:41
Mass Changes in Nuclear Transformations
23:55
Mass and Energy Equivalence (e=mc2, Einstein)
24:39
Mass-Energy Transformations
28:35
Example: Uranium
28:38
Stability of Nuclei and Binding Energy
33:11
Nucleons
33:34
Example: Deuterium and Helium
33:51
Curve of Binding Energy; Fission and Fusion
35:53
Radioactive Decay, Half-Life, Nuclear Reactions

56m 12s

Intro
0:00
First Order Nuclear Decay
0:41
Example: Uranium
2:01
Rate Constant
3:42
Integrated Rate Equation
3:52
Half-Life
5:14
Half-Lives and Rate Constants
6:09
Examples: Various
6:14
Radioactive Dating: Rocks
9:18
Example: Rock with Uranium and Lead
10:53
Radioactive Dating: Carbon-14
17:27
Example: Shroud of Turin
20:54
Example: Wooden Staff
22:31
Nuclear Fusion in Stars
27:22
Example: Reaction in Sun
29:21
Nuclear Weapons
32:24
Example: Uranium Isotope
34:14
Nuclear Power
38:52
Nuclear Power Usage
42:30
Nuclear Wastes and Their Disposal
45:03
Additional Example 1
-1
XXV. Miscellaneous
Organic Structures, Isomers, Functional Groups

1h 8m 32s

Intro
0:00
Saturated Hydrocarbons C-1 to C-4
1:41
Acyclic
2:38
Example: Methane, Ethane, Propane
3:28
Isomers
7:19
Acyclic Saturated Hydrocarbons C-5 Isomers
10:27
Example: Pentanes
10:40
Alkenes and Ring Compounds
14:56
Alkenes
15:34
Example: Ethene, Ethylene
16:25
Example: Propene Isomers
19:19
Geometric Isomers of Alkenes
24:13
Example: 2-Butene
24:34
Trans and Cis
26:27
Optical Isomers
28:45
Example: Carbon Atom
33:49
Functional Groups: Alcohols and Caboxylic Acids
39:11
Alcohols
39:27
Carboxylic Acids
41:41
Functional Groups: Esters and Ethers
44:10
Esters (Ethyl Acetate)
44:27
Ethers (Diethylether)
46:14
Functional Groups: Aldehydes and Ketones
47:48
Examples
47:59
Amines
51:01
Amide Group
54:24
Peptides and Proteins
56:02
Additional Example 1
-1
Chemistry and the Environment

50m 13s

Intro
0:00
Global Climate Change
1:41
Greenhouse Gases
3:49
Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change
6:53
Last 100 Years
9:11
Water Pollution: Eutrophication
12:59
Example: Fertilizers
15:41
Water Pollution: Organic Pollutants
9:15
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (DDT)
19:30
Dioxins and Phthalates
20:58
Water Pollution: Heavy Metal Pollutants
23:58
Examples: Lead, Chromium, Arsenic
24:17
Radiation in the Environment
24:35
Thresholds
39:20
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Types of Solids, X-Ray Diffraction, Unit Cells

  • Crystalline solids ordered: test is X-ray diffraction; fracture along planes

  • Amorphous solids; not ordered; fracture along curves e.g. glass

  • Types of crystalline solid include metals; ionic crystals like NaCl; molecular crystals like sucrose; network solids like diamond, quartz

  • Bragg’s Law gives structures from X-ray diffraction

  • Unit cell represents symmetry of whole crystal by abstracting a small portion

  • Simple cubic, face-centered cubic, and body-centered cubic unit cells; learn how to draw each

  • Unit cell contents and densities of materials; master connections between atomic radii, unit cell dimensions, and density

  • First Law of Thermo and formation of ionic crystals from elements, e.g. NaCl

  • Lattice energy and relationship to constitution of ionic crystals

Types of Solids, X-Ray Diffraction, Unit Cells

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Solids: Crystalline and Amorphous 0:59
    • X-Ray Diffraction
  • Types of Crystalline Solids: Atomic 5:39
    • Example: Metallic Copper
  • Types of Crystalline Solids: Ionic Crystal 7:20
    • Example: NaCl
  • Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular Crystal 11:30
    • Example: Ice
  • Types of Crystalline Solids: Network Solid 13:22
    • Example: Carbon Allotropes (Diamond and Graphite)
  • X-Ray Diffraction and Bragg's Law 18:26
    • Bragg's Law Equation
  • Unit Cell 26:55
    • Simple Cubic Unit Cell
  • Face-Centered and Body-Centered Unit Cells 31:06
    • Body-Centered Cubic
    • Face-Centered Cubic
  • Unit Cell and Densities of Crystalline Solids 36:13
    • Example: Platinum
  • First Law of Thermodynamics and Lattice Energy 42:14
    • Example: NaCl
  • Lattice Energies and Constitutions of Ionic Solids 47:33
  • Additional Example 1
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