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Mike Wheeler

Mike Wheeler

Forms of Learning: Operant Conditioning

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction to Psychology
What is Psychology & Where Did It Come From?

11m 53s

Intro
0:00
What is Psychology?
0:15
Types of Questions Psychology Looks to Answer
0:35
Biological Psychology
0:41
Personality Psychology
0:46
Developmental Psychology
0:53
Social Psychology
1:01
What Types of Questions Does Psychology Address?
1:20
Psychology of Memory
1:22
Psychological Disorders
1:33
Social-Cultural Psychology
1:48
Learning and Evolutionary Psychology
1:59
Cognitive Psychology
2:28
Industrial Psychology
2:53
Roots of Psychology
3:03
Philosophy and Biology
3:14
Ancient Greek Philosophers
3:22
William James: Inner Sensations and Introspection
3:48
Wilhelm Wundt: Sensation and Perception
4:20
Father of Psychology
4:56
Perspectives or Theories
5:12
Psychoanalysis
5:53
The Science of Mental Life
6:13
Watson and Skinner: Behaviorism
6:26
Humanistic Approach
7:10
Cognitive Approach
8:27
Biopsychosocial Approach
9:45
Psychology Defined
10:34
Scientific Study
10:44
Behavior
11:18
Mental Processes
11:23
Definition Reflects a Focus on Behavior, Emotions, and Cognitions
11:36
Psychological Perspectives & Subfields

24m 7s

Intro
0:00
Psychological Perspectives
0:08
Defined Psychology as the Scientific Study of Behavior and Mental Processes
0:09
Major Approaches/ Perspectives
0:21
Psychoanalysis
1:38
Sigmund Freud
1:39
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory: Early Childhood Influences and Unconscious Motives and Desires
3:06
Look Deep Into Unconscious to Identify Issues That Form the Root Cause of Symptoms
4:08
Defense Mechanisms
4:39
Rationalizing
5:05
Psychodynamic Therapists
6:17
Behaviorism
6:58
John Watson and B.F. Skinner: Reward and Punishment
7:26
Environmental Conditioning
7:40
Everything We Do Has Been Rewarded
8:11
Behaviorism Did Not Consider Genetics or Biology
8:26
Humanism
9:14
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
9:15
Focus on Healing and Growth
10:01
Focus on Becoming Healthier and Happier by Loving and Accepting Ourselves
10:42
Self-actualize is the Ultimate Goal
10:49
Impacted Much of How We Look At Raising and Educating Children
11:24
Cognitive Perspective
11:43
Gained Prominence as Computers Became Part of Every Day Life
11:58
Focuses on How People Process Information, Solve Problems, and Make Decisions
12:26
Integrated in Sub-Disciplines in Psychology and Other Disciplines
12:30
Biological Perspective
12:57
Biological Creatures
13:08
Brain Circuitry and Biological Processes
13:56
Drug Therapy
14:26
Biopsychosocial Perspective
15:31
Interaction of Biology, Cognitions, and the Social Situation or Environment
15:50
Biopsychosocial Model
16:39
Types of Psychologists
16:47
Applied
17:20
Research
18:18
Clinical/ Educational Psychologist
19:09
Developmental Psychologist
19:49
Cognitive Psychologist
19:59
Biological Psychologist/ Neuropsychologist
20:03
Social Psychologist
20:10
Industrial Organizational Psychologist
20:49
Personality Psychologist
21:13
Forensic Psychologist
22:08
Abnormal Psychologist
22:22
Experimental Qualitative Psychologist
22:29
Summary
22:54
Perspectives in Psychology Try to Explain The Same Thing
22:58
Psychologists Apply Their Knowledge of Human Behavior in Many Different Fields
23:34
Psychology as a Science

12m 44s

Intro
0:00
Critical Analysis
0:10
Hindsight Bias
0:41
Judgmental Overconfidence
1:50
Scientific Method
2:58
Psychology is a Science
3:00
Making Observations
3:57
Developing Theories/ Hypotheses
4:09
Testing Hypotheses
4:46
Analyzing Results
4:56
Scientific Attitude
5:13
Scientists Need to Be Critical Thinkers with Scientific Attitude
5:19
Search for the Truth
7:14
Scientific Terms
7:48
Hypothesis
7:52
Operational Definition
8:03
Replication
9:11
Scientific Example
10:17
Summary
12:02
Data Collection & Analysis

32m 15s

Intro
0:00
Data Collection
0:13
Naturalistic Observation
0:18
Case Study
1:25
Survey
3:27
Data Analysis: Correlation
6:14
Correlation Looks At Whether or Not Two Variables are Related
6:36
Correlation Provides Information on Direction and Strength
8:19
Direction of the Correlation
9:14
Strength of the Correlation
12:56
Cannot Infer Causality
17:28
Data Analysis: Experiment
20:40
Show Cause and Effect Relationship
20:43
Independent Variable
24:25
Dependent Variable
25:58
Placebo Effect
27:49
Blind Study
29:47
Double Blind Study
30:35
II. Biology and Behavior
Neurons, the Source of Internal Communication

14m 6s

Intro
0:00
Neurons
0:10
Neural Communication
0:11
The Neuron
0:53
Structure of a Neuron
1:58
Dendrites
2:02
Axon
2:18
Axon Terminals
2:22
Function of a Neuron
2:54
Structure of a Neuron: Myelin
2:55
Resting Potential
4:02
Action Potential
4:38
Neurotransmitters
7:03
Chemicals That Carry Message from one Neuron to Another
7:18
Common Neurotransmitters
8:02
Synapse
11:29
Drugs That Mimic Neurotransmitters
12:54
The Nervous System

15m 6s

Intro
0:00
The Nervous System
0:08
Central Nervous System
0:45
Peripheral Nervous System
1:01
Sensory Neurons
2:12
Motor Neurons
2:52
Interneurons
3:20
The Peripheral Nervous System
4:12
Somatic Nervous System
4:41
Autonomic Nervous System
5:10
Sympathetic Branch
7:24
Parasympathetic Branch
7:52
The Spinal Cord
8:25
Information Going To and From the Brain Passes Through the Spinal Cord
8:26
Interneurons Within the Spinal Cord
8:49
Responsible for Reflex Behavior Including the Spinal Reflex
9:00
The Endocrine System
11:46
Glands Secrete Hormones Into the Blood Stream
12:26
Hormones are Chemical Messengers
12:39
Pituitary Gland is the Master Gland
13:31
Thyroid Gland Influences Metabolism
13:58
Adrenal Glands Secrete Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
14:11
The Brain

29m 4s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:06
Upper and Lower Brain Structures
0:09
Lower Brain Structures
0:44
Lower Brain Structures
2:03
Brainstem
2:07
Thalamus
3:39
Reticular Formation
4:30
Cerebellum
5:08
Limbic System
6:15
Cerebral Cortex
9:28
85% of the Brain's Weight in Humans
10:30
20 Billion Neurons Reside in Cerebral Cortex
10:38
Thinking, Speaking, Perceiving
11:23
'Smarter' Mammals Have a Larger Cerebral Cortex
11:51
4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
12:44
Frontal Lobe
13:43
Parietal Lobe
16:01
Temporal Lobe
17:54
Occipital Lobe
20:03
Association Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
21:13
Remaining Area of Lobes with No Known Specific Function
21:51
Enable Judgment, Planning, Processing New Memories, and Math and Special Reasoning
22:19
The Split Brain
22:38
Split Brain Procedure
23:48
Left Hemisphere
24:54
Right Hemisphere
25:17
III. Developing Through the Life Span
Cognitive & Moral Development Through the Lifespan

27m 36s

Intro
0:00
Prenatal and Newborn Development
0:08
Prenatal Development
0:12
Newborn Development
1:07
Development in Infancy
3:18
Born With Nearly All Neurons We Will Ever Have
3:19
Stronger Connections with More Stimulation
3:28
Memories Consolidate Starting Age 4
4:18
Jean Piaget
5:15
Theories
6:24
Schema
7:00
Piaget's Cognitive Stages of Development
10:59
Sensorimotor Stage
11:11
Preoperational Stage
12:34
Concrete Operations Stage
15:41
Formal Operations Stage
17:11
Moral Development
19:32
Preconvenitonal Morality
19:48
Conventional Morality
20:30
Postconvenitonal Morality
21:25
Cognitive Development in Adulthood
22:38
Memory in Adulthood
22:57
Intelligence in Adulthood
24:24
Social Development Through the Lifespan

39m 6s

Intro
0:00
Psychosocial Stages of Development
0:07
Erik Erikson Theorized the Psychosocial Stages of Development
0:08
Each Stage Poses a Social Issue
0:15
Trust vs. Mistrust
0:54
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
2:08
Initiative vs. Guilt
3:01
Industry vs. Inferiority
4:38
Identity vs. Role Confusion
6:19
Intimacy vs. Isolation
8:04
Generativity vs. Stagnation
10:45
Integrity vs. Despair
12:43
Social Development in Infancy
13:49
Secure Attachment
14:14
Insecure Attachment
19:29
Parenting Styles
21:41
Authoritarian Style
22:13
Permissive Style
23:21
Authoritative Style
24:02
Research on Parenting Style
25:12
Social Development in Adolescence
26:35
Forming an Identity
26:59
Teens Who Seek Counseling
27:35
81% of American Teens Are Content With Their Lives
28:08
Social Development in Adulthood
28:43
Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood Varies Among Cultures
29:05
Western Cultures Take Longer
30:44
Form Close Emotional Relationships
31:44
Social Development in Middle Adulthood
32:12
Family and Career
32:24
Do Not Experience Distress In Their 40's
32:59
Married Adults Report Higher Levels of Happiness
33:56
Social Development in Late Adulthood
34:55
Working Less, Decline in Physical Abilities, Shrinking Group of Close Friends
35:04
Happiness Levels
35:45
Do Not Process Negative Information as Readily
36:26
Death Can Have a Strong Negative Impact
37:37
Opportunities
38:03
IV. Learning
Forms of Learning: Classical Conditioning

29m 16s

Intro
0:00
Forms of Learning
0:03
Defining Learning
0:11
Primary Forms of Learning
1:03
Classical Conditioning
1:16
Operant Conditioning
2:04
Observational Learning
3:25
Classical Conditioning
3:54
Ivan Pavlov
4:01
Learning by Associating Two Things That Occur Together
5:04
How It Works
5:14
Example of Classical Conditioning
7:12
Unconditioned Stimulus
9:19
Unconditioned Response
9:33
Conditioned Stimulus
9:42
Conditioned Response
9:50
Example: Dogs
10:00
Example: Peoples
11:28
Stages of Classical Conditioning
13:44
Acquisition
13:50
Extinction
14:29
Spontaneous Recovery
15:58
Generalization
18:02
Discrimination
21:24
Features of Classical Conditioning
23:05
Time Delay
23:14
Stronger When Biological Predisposition In Place
25:47
Learning Happens Automatically
26:53
Conditioned Response Usually Is Not Stronger Than Unconditioned Response
28:12
Forms of Learning: Operant Conditioning

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Forms of Learning
0:03
Classical Conditioning
0:22
Operant Conditioning
1:24
Observational Learning
1:59
Operant Conditioning
2:26
Actions or Behaviors Lead to Consequences
2:32
Examples
2:54
E.L. Thorndike: Law of Effect
4:23
B.F. Skinner: Skinner Box
4:29
Shaping is a Method of Rewarding Small Steps Toward a Larger Goal
5:22
Example
5:39
Positive Reinforcement
7:45
Reinforcement
8:01
Defining Positive Reinforcement
8:54
Negative Reinforcement
10:45
Defining Negative Reinforcement
10:57
Examples
12:04
Reinforcers
14:12
Defining Reinforcer
14:27
Primary Reinforcer
14:47
Secondary Reinforcer
15:49
Punishment
17:03
Defining Punishment
17:10
Examples
17:46
Punishment
20:04
Punishment Teaches What Not To Do
20:05
Negative Side Effects
20:39
Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement
23:17
Continuous Reinforcement is Reinforcement Given After Every Correct Response
23:18
Reinforcing Less Frequently Can Lead to Stronger Behaviors That Don't Extinguish as Quickly
23:49
Fixed-Ratio
24:40
Variable-Ratio
25:53
Fixed-Interval
27:37
Variable-Interval
28:29
Latent Learning
30:34
Cognitive Processes Play a Role in Operant Conditioning
30:35
Biological Constraints Predispose Organisms to Learn Associations That are Naturally Adaptive
32:34
Forms of Learning: Observational Learning

13m 49s

Intro
0:00
Forms of Learning
0:06
Classical Conditioning
0:13
Operant Conditioning
0:41
Observational Learning
1:20
Observational Learning
1:49
Defining Observational Learning
1:51
Albert Bandura: Bobo Doll Experiment
2:08
Modeling
4:07
Bandura's Studies
4:12
Modeling is Observing and Imitating What is Seen
4:54
Prosocial Modeling
5:17
Impact of Watching Violence on TV
6:24
Antisocial Modeling
6:26
Relationship Between Viewing Violent TV and Acting Violently
7:28
Mirror Neurons
10:27
Specialized Neurons Fire When We Observe Others Enabling Us to Imitate What the Person is Doing
10:54
Enable Empathy
11:36
Underlie Our Intensely Social Nature
13:07
V. Memory
The Three Stages of Memory

26m 39s

Intro
0:00
Memory
0:10
Memory Is a Large Part of Who We Are
0:16
Definition of Memory
0:44
Three Stages of Memory
1:19
Three Stage Processing Model
1:22
Information Processing Model
1:32
Three Stage Processing Model of Memory
2:09
Sensory Memory
2:13
Iconic Memory
3:23
Echoic Memory
4:58
The Specific Auditory or Visual Information We Choose to Focus on Moves to Short-Term Memory
6:48
Short-Term Memory
6:57
Working Memory
7:00
You Can See It and Work On It
7:37
Auditory or Visual Information
7:51
Recalling a Memory From the Past
8:33
Capacity of Short-Term Memory
9:15
Duration of Short-Term Memory
9:39
Maintenance Rehearsal
14:37
Long-Term Memory
15:25
Everything in Your Memory
17:33
Information We Can Store
18:23
Stored Throughout the Brain in Synaptic Interconnections
19:54
Long Term Potentiation
20:33
Types of Long-Term Memories
21:56
Semantic Memories
22:23
Episodic Memories
22:45
Procedural Memories
23:03
Explicit Memories
23:26
Implicit Memories
24:55
Memory-Encoding Information

19m 36s

Intro
0:00
Levels of Processing
0:12
Automatic Processing
0:50
Effortful Processing
2:11
Encoding
2:57
Rehearsal
3:04
Spacing Effect
3:40
Serial Position Effect
5:18
How We Encode
7:40
Semantic Encoding
8:06
Visual Encoding
9:02
Auditory Encoding
10:03
Mnemonics
11:13
Mnemonics Example: ROY G BIV
12:06
Visual Image is Created
13:09
Organizing Information Into Hierarchies
14:47
Key to Encoding Into Long-Term Memory is Making if Meaningful or Familiar
16:04
New Terms Are Difficult to Encode
17:10
Memory: Storage & Retrieval of Information

16m 45s

Intro
0:00
Explicit and Implicit Memory Storage
0:11
Explicit Memory
0:24
Implicit Memory
0:50
Where Explicit Memories Are Stored
1:07
Explicit Memory Storage
1:48
Left Side: Verbal Information
2:00
Right Side: Visual Design Memories
2:13
Spatial Memory
2:23
Additional Sub-regions
2:31
Flashbulb Memory
3:04
Stronger Emotional Experiences
3:52
Emotions Enhance Memory
4:00
The Amygdala
4:19
Amnesia
4:48
Infantile Amnesia
5:17
Implicit Memory Storage
6:21
Formed and Stored in the Cerebellum
6:26
Cerebellum is Key in Forming Memories Created by Classical Conditioning
6:48
Two-Way Memory System
7:12
Memory Retrieval
8:17
Retrieval of Information
8:49
Recognition vs. Recall
9:03
Retrieval Cues
10:10
Retrieval Cues
10:24
Priming
11:39
Context
12:58
Mood
15:20
Memory: Why Do We Forget?

21m 48s

Intro
0:00
Encoding Failure
0:10
We Do Not Remember Every Detail of Our Lives
0:46
Encoding Failure
1:28
Storage Decay
3:06
Information Decays From Our Memory Over Time
3:16
Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve
3:58
Retrieval Failure
5:33
Lack of Cues
6:05
Context Cues
6:26
State of Mind
7:38
Interference
8:31
Retroactive Interference
8:59
Proactive Interference
10:03
Research Shows Sleeping an Hour After Studying Maximizes Memory
11:41
Repression
12:44
Freud's First Theory on Repressing Traumatic Memories
12:56
Research Shows Most Traumatic Events are Highly Emotional and Stronger Memories
13:30
Memory Construction
13:58
Combination of What We Saw and What We Think We Should Have Seen
14:07
Misinformation Effect
15:00
Source Amnesia
17:05
Improving Memory
18:35
Study Repeatedly
18:42
Make the Material Meaningful
19:09
Use Mnemonic Techniques
19:22
Activate Retrieval Cues
19:55
Minimize Interference
20:27
Sleep More
21:01
Test Yourself
21:17
VI. Personality
Personality: The Psychoanalytic Approach

29m 30s

Intro
0:00
Theories of Personality
0:14
Pattern of Thinking, Feeling, and Acting
0:18
Personality Theories Explain Where Our Personalities Come From
0:44
Trait Theory
1:14
Psychoanalytic Approach
1:45
Sigmund Freud
1:49
Psychoanalysis
2:28
Main Ideas
2:51
The Unconscious
3:56
Conscious
4:07
Preconscious
4:19
Unconscious
4:48
Levels of Consciousness
5:17
Conscious
5:20
Preconscious
5:23
Unconscious
5:28
Most of Our Behavior, Personality, Beliefs, Habits, and Illnesses Stem From Unconscious Thoughts
5:56
Psychoanalysis
6:27
Root Cause of Behavioral Issues Stem from Unresolved Issues from Past
6:28
Freud's Method of Treatment: Psychoanalysis
6:52
Free Association
7:21
Structure of Personality
8:09
Id
8:35
Superego
8:54
Ego
9:28
Defense Mechanisms
11:14
Rationalization
11:47
Projection
12:59
Reaction Formation
13:29
Anger Displacement
14:38
Psychosexual Stages of Development
16:35
Oral Stage
18:06
Anal Stage
19:23
Phallic Stage
20:57
Latency Stage
22:52
Genital Stage
23:04
The Neo-Freudians
23:43
Freud's Followers Who Differed in Several Ways
23:48
Believed the Conscious Mind Had a Role in Interpreting Experience and Coping the with Environment
24:44
Sex Drive and Aggression
25:14
Alfred Adler: Inferiority
25:35
Karen Horney: Love and Security
26:25
Carl Jung: Collective Unconscious
26:49
Personality: The Behaviorist, Humanistic & Social-Cognitive Perspectives

19m 7s

Intro
0:00
Theories of Personality
0:14
Pattern of Thinking, Feeling, and Acting
0:19
Personality Theories Explain Where Our Personalities Come From
0:58
Trait Theory
1:15
Behaviorist Approach
1:33
Environmental Conditioning
2:00
Operant Conditioning
2:18
Humanistic Approach
4:18
Focuses on the Positive Side of Human Potential
4:53
Humanistic Approach
5:06
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
5:28
Humanistic Approach Focus
5:34
Self-Actualization
6:57
Maslow and Self-Actualization
7:00
Self-Actualization
7:39
Famous People in History
8:04
Characteristics of Self-Actualization
8:21
Person-Centered Approach
9:34
Carl Rogers
9:38
Three Conditions to Live a Full Life
9:58
Person-Centered Perspective
11:40
Questionnaire
12:30
Social-Cognitive Perspective
13:22
Looks at Behavior as a Function of the Interaction Between the Person and the Environment
13:24
Considers How We Influence the Environment
13:55
Reciprocal Determinism
15:05
Social-Cognitive Perspective
16:30
Expectations and Personality
16:34
Behavior Influenced By Biology, Experiences, and Cognitive Interpretation
18:06
Personality: Trait Theory & Projective Personality Tests

25m 4s

Intro
0:00
Theories of Personality
0:13
Defining Personality
0:15
Personality Theories
0:49
Personality Traits
1:10
Personality Traits
1:11
Measured on a Scale from Low to High
1:34
Factor Analysis
2:14
Trait of Conscientiousness
2:57
Stability of Personality
3:29
Traits Must Be Fairly Consistent Over Time
3:30
Personality is Consistent
3:44
Temperament and Extraversion
5:10
The Big Five Factor Model
7:01
Five Traits
7:28
All Other Traits
7:52
Big Five Factor Model
8:06
Extroversion
9:00
Agreeableness
9:54
Conscientiousness
10:08
Neuroticism
10:41
Openness to Experience
11:22
Why Measure Personality?
12:09
Employment Selection
12:25
Job or Occupation Choices
13:14
Gain a Better Understanding of Behavior
14:24
Team Building
15:06
The MMPI
15:43
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is Designed to Diagnose Disorders
16:07
Structure of the Exam
16:29
Projective Personality Tests
20:17
Purpose of Projective Personality Tests
20:27
Rorschach Inkblot Test
21:02
Thematic Apperception Test
22:35
Summary of Projective Personality Testing
23:52
Most Psychologists Do Not See Significant Benefits from Projective Forms of Personality Testing
23:57
Some Therapists Use Them As An Additional Tool
24:34
VII. Social Psychology
Social Psychology: Attitudes & Behavior

15m 22s

Intro
0:00
Social Psychology
0:11
Influence On Our Attitudes and Behavior Can Be Strong
0:30
Social Psychology
0:36
Attribution Theory
1:02
Attribute Others' Behavior To Internal Dispositions or to External Situations
1:03
Fundamental Attribution Error
2:08
Attitudes and Behavior
2:45
Defining Attitude
2:46
Defining Behavior
2:57
Cognitive Dissonance
3:42
Cognitive Dissonance
4:43
Smoker Example
4:44
People Often Refuse to Believe Something That Goes Against What They Think is True
6:31
Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon
7:53
Dissonance Created Leads to a Change in Attitude
9:26
Adopting a Role
10:37
Behave as Society Expects a Person In That 'Role' to Behave
10:42
Our Behavior in a Role Influences Our Attitudes
11:22
Stanford Prison Study
11:32
Changing Attitudes and Behavior
13:57
Can Change How We Think About Others and Feel About Ourselves
14:15
Various Therapies Involve Acting in a More Positive Manner
14:22
Social Psychology: Conformity & Obedience

18m 45s

Intro
0:00
Social Psychology
0:11
Influence On Our Attitudes and Behavior Can Be Strong
0:14
Social Psychology
0:37
Conformity
0:53
Mimic the Behavior or Others
1:02
Mimicking Has Many Beneficial Outcomes
1:43
Negative Behaviors are Also Mimicked
2:59
Group Pressure and Conformity
3:24
Conformity
3:26
Solomon Ash
4:02
The Experiment
4:17
When Does Conformity Increase
5:56
Why We Feel Pressure to Conform
7:35
Normative Social Influence
7:59
Informational Social Influence
9:30
Obedience
10:18
Compliance and Obedience
10:24
Stanley Milgram Conducted a Now Famous Experiment
11:18
The Experiment
12:03
Point of the Experiment
12:08
Milgram's Experiment Showed How Influential Orders from an Authority Figure Can Be
14:40
Factors That Lead to More Obedience
16:00
If the Situation is Powerful Enough, Normal People Can Become Agents to Terrible Acts
18:05
Social Psychology: Group Influence

17m 48s

Intro
0:00
Social Facilitation
0:09
Social Psychology
0:11
Social Facilitation
1:06
Social Loafing
2:22
Defining Social Loafing
2:42
Each Person in a Group Tends to 'Slack' Because of These Reasons
3:08
Reducing Social Loafing
3:57
Deindividuation
4:30
Defining Deindividuation
4:34
Involves Feelings of Depersonalization
6:11
Studies Show That Changing Ones Appearance Increases Levels of Anonymity
7:05
Group Polarization
7:51
Defining Group Polarization
7:59
It Can Be Positive
8:39
It Can Be Negative
9:59
Groupthink
10:33
Defining Groupthink
11:36
When Does Groupthink Occur
12:06
Examples
12:45
The Power of Individuals
15:13
Minority Influence
15:58
People Who Have Influenced Millions of People
16:05
When Minority Influence is the Strongest
16:44
Social Relations: Prejudice & Aggression

24m 24s

Intro
0:00
Prejudice
0:09
Social Psychology
0:14
Prejudice
0:40
Usually Directed at Different Cultural, Ethnic, or Gender Groups
0:50
Prejudice Involves Beliefs, Emotions, and Predisposition to Action
1:03
Attitudinal Roots of Prejudice
1:48
Developing Prejudice Attitudes
1:53
Just-World Phenomenon
2:57
Stereotypes Rationalize Inequalities
3:52
Blame-the-Victim
4:34
Ingroup Bias
5:46
The Groups We Associated With Help Define Us
5:55
'Us' and 'Them'
7:00
Ingroup Bias
7:21
Ingroup Bias Occurs Naturally
7:30
Ingroup Bias Predisposes Prejudice Against Strangers
8:59
Emotional Roots of Prejudice
9:53
Prejudice Usually Carries an Emotional Element
10:03
Scapegoat Theory of Prejudice
10:33
When Is Prejudice Higher
11:14
Anger and Frustration Create Aggression Which Raises Prejudice Attitudes to a Violent Level
12:17
Cognitive Roots of Prejudice
12:40
Cognitively Process Information Can Lead to Prejudice
13:13
Own-Race Bias
14:06
Remember and Over generalize Memorable Or Vivid Stories
14:49
Aggression
15:32
Defining Aggression
15:37
Stems From the Interaction of Biology and Psychology
15:55
Biologically, Aggression Comes from Genetics, Neural System, and Biochemicals
16:22
Frustration-Aggression Principle
18:22
Social and Cultural Factors Play a Role in Aggression
20:42
Learned Behavior: Rewarded or Punished
20:52
Fight for What You Need and Don't Back Down
21:32
Watching Violence on TV Desensitizes Those to Violence and Correlates with Feelings of Hostility and Aggression
22:36
Summary
23:44
Social Relations: Altruism, Attraction, & the Bystander Effect

31m 15s

Intro
0:00
Altruism
0:10
Social Psychology
0:11
Altruism
0:38
Kitty Genovese Example
1:07
Bystander Intervention
1:38
Theory of Bystander Intervention
1:40
Notice the Incident
2:03
Interpret It As An Emergency
2:11
Assume Responsibility
3:22
Bystander Effect
3:45
The Bystander Effect
3:57
Someone Alone Is More Likely to Help Someone in an Emergency
4:03
Person in a Group is Less Likely to Help Someone in an Emergency
4:06
Diffusion of Responsibility
4:43
Social Exchange Theory
4:58
Defining the Social Exchange Theory
5:04
Helping is Intrinsically Rewarding for Most People
6:48
Reciprocity Norms
7:30
Social Responsibility Norms
8:15
Attraction
8:52
Factors That Strongly Impact Attraction
9:30
Proximity
9:42
Mere Exposure Effect
10:20
Physical Attractiveness
10:56
Similarity
13:26
Reward Theory of Attraction
14:36
Romantic Love
15:17
Romantic Love
15:25
Passionate Love
15:32
Companionate Love
15:56
Long Lasting Relationships
16:47
Equity
17:06
Self-disclosure
17:31
Conflict
19:14
Defining Conflict
19:20
Social Traps
20:40
View Other People and Nations as Untrustworthy and Evil
22:39
Mirror-Image Perceptions
23:21
Promoting Peace
24:44
Enemy Can Quickly Become an Ally
24:46
Four Conditions Contribute to Peacefulness
25:04
Contact
25:21
Cooperation
26:10
Communication
28:51
Conciliation
29:53
VIII. Psychological Disorders
Psychological Disorders: Definition & Classification

22m 37s

Intro
0:00
Psychological Disorders
0:11
World Health Organization Reports That Worldwide 450 Million People Suffer from a Psychological Disorder
0:12
Feel the Pain
0:34
'To Study the Abnormal is the Best Way of Understanding the Normal'
1:01
Defining Psychological Disorders
1:17
Deviant
1:42
Distressful
3:25
Dysfunctional
4:04
Major Categories of Disorders
5:32
Mood Disorders
5:39
Schizophrenia
5:58
Anxiety Disorders
6:04
Somatoform Disorders
6:50
Dissociative Disorders
7:04
Personality Disorders
7:16
Medical Model
7:38
Strange Behavior Was Often Attributed to Evil Spirits
7:40
Severe Stress, Inhumane Conditions, and Disease Are Underlying Causes of Many Odd Behaviors
8:15
Asylums Gave Rise to Medical Model
8:43
Biopsychosocial Model
9:36
Medical Model Looks for Physical Causes of Mental Disorders and Attempts to Cure the Person Through Treatment
9:40
Psychologists Believe the Medical Model to Be Incomplete
9:57
Biopsychosocial Model
10:07
Classification of Disorders
11:15
Classification
11:16
Diagnostic Classification
12:20
Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
13:01
DSM-V
14:01
DSM-I
14:03
Proponents
14:40
Critics
15:09
Many Studies Have Shown That Biased Perceptions Elecity the Very Behavior Expected
16:40
Famous Study
17:05
Effects of Labeling
18:16
Labeling Someone
18:18
Refusing to Seek Treatment Due to the Stigma of Having a 'Psychological Issue'
18:24
Individuals Labeled with a Mental Disorder Are Often Portrayed as Dangerous
18:46
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
19:15
26% of American Adults
19:16
Highest Rate
19:36
Lowest Rate
20:04
Rates of Serious Psychological Disorders is Doubled in Areas Below the Poverty Line
20:46
Psychological Disorders
21:37
Mood Disorders

12m 28s

Intro
0:00
Mood Depressive Disorder
0:07
Mood Disorders
0:13
Major Depressive Disorder
0:46
Depression
1:34
Major Depressive Disorder
1:43
Depression Often Follows Stressful Events
1:46
Rates of Depression
1:58
Women are Twice as Likely To Suffer
2:18
Men are More Vulnerable to Externalized Disorders
2:44
Depression Subsides on Its Own
2:49
About 50% of People Who Recover from Depression Will Experience it Again Within Two Years
3:28
Experience Behavioral Changes and Cognitive Changes
3:49
Causes of Depression
4:26
Stems from Interaction of Biology, Cognitions and the Environment
4:27
Biology and Genetics
5:07
Imbalance of Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Dopamine
7:06
Social Cognitive Perspective
8:25
Bipolar Disorder
9:56
Lows of Depression are Sometimes Followed by Extreme Hyperactivity
9:58
Defining Bipolar Disorder
10:30
Manic Phase
10:49
Some Artists With Bipolar Disease Created Some of Their Greatest Works During Milder Manic Phases
11:22
Summary
11:53
Anxiety Disorders

21m 53s

Intro
0:00
Anxiety Disorders
0:06
Characterized by Persistent, Intense Feelings of Anxiousness and Fear
0:09
Some Anxiety Disorders Include
0:18
15% of Americans Suffer from One or More Anxiety Disorders
0:42
Occur Twice as Frequently in Females
0:57
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
1:12
Characterized by Negative Feelings, Tension, Constant Worrying, and Apprehension
1:17
Often Resort to Maladaptive Behaviors and Suffer Physical Problems
1:58
Panic Disorder
3:09
Characterized by Panic Attacks
3:11
Panic Attacks Usually Last 10-20 Mins
3:47
Often Experience Anxiety Anticipating Another Panic Attack
4:10
Phobias
4:33
Characterized by an Intense, Irrational Fear
4:36
Most Common Phobias
5:30
9-18% of Americans Suffer from Phobias
6:45
More Prevalent in Adults Than Children, and More in Females than Males
6:50
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
7:19
Characterized by Repetitive Thoughts and/or Actions
7:23
More Common Among Teens and Young Adults
8:41
Most Common Obsessions and Compulsions
8:51
Most Common Obsessions
8:53
Most Common Compulsions
9:59
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
10:55
Characterized by Haunting Memories, Nightmares, Social Withdrawal, Jumpy Anxiety, or Insomnia That Lingers After a Traumatic Experience
11:03
Factors That Increase the Risk of PTSD
13:05
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
13:46
Anxiety is a Feeling and a Cognition
14:00
The Learning Perspective
14:08
Classical Conditioning
14:52
Reinforced and Repeated Behaviors
15:26
The Biological Perspective
16:34
People with 'High-Strung' Temperaments
17:20
Traumatic Experiences Can Cause Fear Circuits
18:06
Hereditary Explanation
18:46
Summary
21:23
Schizophrenia

21m 21s

Intro
0:00
Schizophrenia
0:07
Psychotic Disorder Marked by Irrationality and Lost Contact with Reality
0:32
Characterized by Disorganized Thinking, Disturbed Perceptions, Inappropriate Emotions and Behavior
1:18
Disorganized Thinking
1:32
Disturbed Perceptions
2:17
Inappropriate Emotions and Behavior
2:57
Positive and Negative Symptoms
4:05
Positive Symptoms
4:58
Negative Symptoms
5:12
Types of Schizophrenia
5:51
Chronic Schizophrenia
6:02
Acute Schizophrenia
6:57
Facts About Schizophrenia
7:57
Age
8:00
Over 50% of People with Schizophrenia Also Have a Substance Abuse Disorder
8:28
Life-Expectancy
9:31
Causes of Schizophrenia
10:05
Complex Cluster of Disorders
10:28
Brain Abnormalities
11:19
Dopamine
11:52
Abnormal Activity in Multiple Areas of the Brain
12:13
Prenatal Factors
15:13
Known Risk Factors: Low Birth Rate and Oxygen Deprivation
15:46
Mid-pregnancy Virus
16:29
Genetic Factors
18:02
Psychological and Environmental Factors
19:00
Dissociative, Somatic, and Personality Disorders

29m 23s

Intro
0:00
Dissociative Disorders
0:09
Disorders of Consciousness
0:16
Three Dissociative Disorders
0:46
Dissociative Identity Disorder
1:51
Defining Dissociative Identity Disorder
1:54
Identities Can Suddenly Change
2:10
Psychoanalytic Therapists
4:07
Learning Psychologists
4:25
Uncommon
5:04
Skeptics
6:28
Patients Exhibit Physical Signs When Changing from One Identity to Another
7:41
Somatic Symptom Disorders
9:07
Characteristics
9:17
Stems from Anxiety
9:49
Two Prevalent Disorders
10:09
Somatization Disorder
11:11
Patient Interprets Normal Sensations as Symptoms of a Dreaded Disease
11:12
Search for Confirmation of Disease
11:17
Temporary Relief
12:00
Culture and Somatic Symptom Disorders
12:20
Emotional Symptoms
13:29
Physical Symptoms
13:52
Personality Disorders
14:29
Characteristics
14:39
Difficulty with Cognitions, Emotions, Interpersonal Functioning, and/or Impulse Control
14:54
Three Clusters
16:20
Odd or Eccentric Personality Disorders
16:31
Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Personality Disorders
17:08
Anxious or Fearful Personality Disorders
18:06
Antisocial Personality Disorder
20:04
Sociopath or Psychopath
20:14
Patient Profile
20:36
Roughly 50% Adolescents Become Criminals as Adults
21:00
Exhibit The Following Behavior
21:22
No Fears and Feels Nothing Toward His Victims
22:19
Do Not Have Antisocial Personality Disorder -- They Show Concern for Friends
23:22
Prevalence is Higher Among Prisoners and Those in Drug and Alcohol Treatment Programs
23:54
Roots of Antisocial Personality Disorder
24:13
Biological and Psychological Roots
24:14
Children with Low Levels of Arousal
25:10
Less Activity in Frontal Lobe
25:52
Lower Levels of Serotonin
26:24
Head Injuries Have Been Linked to Antisocial Personality Disorder
27:04
Socio-Cultural and Psychological Factors
28:50
IX. Therapies
Psychological Therapies

36m 56s

Intro
0:00
Types of Therapy
0:08
Psychological
0:48
Biomedical
1:04
Psychotherapy and Biomedical Approach
1:24
Electric Approach
1:52
Major Psychological Therapies
2:16
Psychoanalysis
2:46
Sigmund Freud
2:50
Psychodynamic Therapists
3:08
Original Psychoanalytic Theory
3:52
Role of the Unconscious
4:19
5 Psychosexual Stages
4:22
Id, Superego, Ego
4:31
Purpose of Psychoanalysis
5:50
Patient Engages in Free Association
6:04
Psychodynamic Therapy
6:57
Transference
7:00
How Psychodynamic Therapists Help Clients
7:53
Humanistic Therapies
9:08
Humanistic Therapies
9:14
Involves Understanding Who We Are and Why We Act and Feel Certain Ways
10:26
Therapists Promote Self-Acceptance and Self Love
11:08
Carl Rogers Developed Client Centered Therapy
11:48
Improve Self-Awareness and Self-Esteem
14:00
Behavior Therapies
14:10
Behavior Therapies
14:16
Classical Conditioning Techniques
15:02
Systematic Desensitization
15:31
Aversive Conditioning
16:45
Operant Conditioning Techniques
18:00
Cognitive Therapies
20:06
Look at Our Responses to Events as the Problem
20:17
Focus
22:42
Cognitive Behavioral Therapies
23:01
Focus
23:02
Effective for Anxiety and Depression
23:26
Dealing with Anxiety Issues
23:58
Group and Family Therapies
25:30
When Issues within the Family Occur
25:32
Family Members Can Work on Communication
26:22
Most Therapies Occur in Small Groups
26:33
Effective in Dealing with Relationship Issues
27:20
Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
27:25
Most People Who Seek Therapy Report Improvement After
27:42
Therapists Also Report Seeing Positive Outcomes From Sessions with Clients
28:15
Behavioral Conditioning
30:24
Cognitive Therapy
30:57
Alternative Therapies
31:30
Alternative Methods
31:49
Considerations When Seeking Therapy
33:03
Conclusions
33:50
Three Common Elements
33:55
Evaluating Therapists, Experience, and Degrees
35:40
Biomedical Therapies

29m 17s

Intro
0:00
Types of Therapy
0:07
Psychological
0:36
Biomedical
1:16
Biomedical Therapies
1:20
Treat Psychological Disorders with Drugs
1:21
Psychiatrist Administers Medication
1:59
Electric Approach
2:25
Drug Therapies
2:40
Advances in Psychopharmacology
2:45
Pros of Drug Therapy
3:37
Cons of Drug Therapy
4:15
Antipsychotic Drugs
6:50
Blocks Dopamine Receptor Sites
6:54
Control Positive Symptoms
7:24
Most Common is Chlorpromazine
8:24
Chronic Schizophrenia Patients Do Not Respond to Antipsychotics
8:52
Atypical Antipsychotics
8:58
Target Dopamine and Serotonin Receptors
9:14
Antianxiety Drugs
10:17
Treat Symptoms of Anxiety
10:19
Xanax and Ativan
10:25
Physiological Dependence
12:47
Antidepressants
13:38
Boost a Person's Mood By Increasing the Neurotransmitters
14:28
Prozac and Zoloft
14:36
Becoming the Most Common Method to Treat Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders
16:10
SSRIs
16:18
Addictive
16:50
Electroconvulsive Therapy
17:08
Shock Treatment
17:19
Low Voltage Currents to the Brain
17:55
Short Term Success Rate
18:32
Relapse
18:54
Alternative Neurostimulation Therapies
19:17
Deep Brain Stimulation
19:20
Brain Pacemaker
20:14
Psychosurgery
21:39
Psychosurgery
21:42
Lobotomy
22:10
Vegetable State
22:19
Today It is Only Performed in Extreme Cases
23:29
Lifestyle Therapy
24:04
We Cannot Isolate Our Mind From Our Body
25:01
80% of All Physical Illness is Related to Stress
25:35
Eat, Sleep, Exercise
26:20
Ways to Take Care of Ourselves
27:12
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Forms of Learning: Operant Conditioning

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  • Intro 0:00
  • Forms of Learning 0:03
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Operant Conditioning
    • Observational Learning
  • Operant Conditioning 2:26
    • Actions or Behaviors Lead to Consequences
    • Examples
    • E.L. Thorndike: Law of Effect
    • B.F. Skinner: Skinner Box
    • Shaping is a Method of Rewarding Small Steps Toward a Larger Goal
    • Example
  • Positive Reinforcement 7:45
    • Reinforcement
    • Defining Positive Reinforcement
  • Negative Reinforcement 10:45
    • Defining Negative Reinforcement
    • Examples
  • Reinforcers 14:12
    • Defining Reinforcer
    • Primary Reinforcer
    • Secondary Reinforcer
  • Punishment 17:03
    • Defining Punishment
    • Examples
  • Punishment 20:04
    • Punishment Teaches What Not To Do
    • Negative Side Effects
  • Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement 23:17
    • Continuous Reinforcement is Reinforcement Given After Every Correct Response
    • Reinforcing Less Frequently Can Lead to Stronger Behaviors That Don't Extinguish as Quickly
    • Fixed-Ratio
    • Variable-Ratio
    • Fixed-Interval
    • Variable-Interval
  • Latent Learning 30:34
    • Cognitive Processes Play a Role in Operant Conditioning
    • Biological Constraints Predispose Organisms to Learn Associations That are Naturally Adaptive
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