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Dan Fullerton

Dan Fullerton

Center of Mass

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
What is Physics?

7m 12s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:11
What is Physics?
0:27
Why?
0:50
Physics Answers the 'Why' Question
0:51
Matter
1:27
Matter
1:28
Mass
1:43
Inertial Mass
1:50
Gravitational Mass
2:13
A Spacecraft's Mass
3:03
What is the Mass of the Spacecraft?
3:05
Energy
3:37
Energy
3:38
Work
3:45
Putting Energy and Work Together
3:50
Mass-Energy Equivalence
4:15
Relationship between Mass & Energy: E = mc²
4:16
Source of Energy on Earth
4:47
The Study of Everything
5:00
Physics is the Study of Everything
5:01
Mechanics
5:29
Topics Covered
5:30
Topics Not Covered
6:07
Next Steps
6:44
Three Things You'd Like to Learn About in Physics
6:45
Math Review

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:10
Vectors and Scalars
1:06
Scalars
1:07
Vectors
1:27
Vector Representations
2:00
Vector Representations
2:01
Graphical Vector Addition
2:54
Graphical Vector Addition
2:55
Graphical Vector Subtraction
5:36
Graphical Vector Subtraction
5:37
Vector Components
7:12
Vector Components
7:13
Angle of a Vector
8:56
tan θ
9:04
sin θ
9:25
cos θ
9:46
Vector Notation
10:10
Vector Notation 1
10:11
Vector Notation 2
12:59
Example I: Magnitude of the Horizontal & Vertical Component
16:08
Example II: Magnitude of the Plane's Eastward Velocity
17:59
Example III: Magnitude of Displacement
19:33
Example IV: Total Displacement from Starting Position
21:51
Example V: Find the Angle Theta Depicted by the Diagram
26:35
Vector Notation, cont.
27:07
Unit Vector Notation
27:08
Vector Component Notation
27:25
Vector Multiplication
28:39
Dot Product
28:40
Cross Product
28:54
Dot Product
29:03
Dot Product
29:04
Defining the Dot Product
29:26
Defining the Dot Product
29:27
Calculating the Dot Product
29:42
Unit Vector Notation
29:43
Vector Component Notation
30:58
Example VI: Calculating a Dot Product
31:45
Example VI: Part 1 - Find the Dot Product of the Following Vectors
31:46
Example VI: Part 2 - What is the Angle Between A and B?
32:20
Special Dot Products
33:52
Dot Product of Perpendicular Vectors
33:53
Dot Product of Parallel Vectors
34:03
Dot Product Properties
34:51
Commutative
34:52
Associative
35:05
Derivative of A * B
35:24
Example VII: Perpendicular Vectors
35:47
Cross Product
36:42
Cross Product of Two Vectors
36:43
Direction Using the Right-hand Rule
37:32
Cross Product of Parallel Vectors
38:04
Defining the Cross Product
38:13
Defining the Cross Product
38:14
Calculating the Cross Product Unit Vector Notation
38:41
Calculating the Cross Product Unit Vector Notation
38:42
Calculating the Cross Product Matrix Notation
39:18
Calculating the Cross Product Matrix Notation
39:19
Example VII: Find the Cross Product of the Following Vectors
42:09
Cross Product Properties
45:16
Cross Product Properties
45:17
Units
46:41
Fundamental Units
46:42
Derived units
47:13
Example IX: Dimensional Analysis
47:21
Calculus
49:05
Calculus
49:06
Differential Calculus
49:49
Differentiation & Derivative
49:50
Example X: Derivatives
51:21
Integral Calculus
53:03
Integration
53:04
Integral
53:11
Integration & Derivation are Inverse Functions
53:16
Determine the Original Function
53:37
Common Integrations
54:45
Common Integrations
54:46
Example XI: Integrals
55:17
Example XII: Calculus Applications
58:32
II. Kinematics
Describing Motion I

23m 47s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:10
Position / Displacement
0:39
Object's Position
0:40
Position Vector
0:45
Displacement
0:56
Position & Displacement are Vectors
1:05
Position & Displacement in 1 Dimension
1:11
Example I: Distance & Displacement
1:21
Average Speed
2:14
Average Speed
2:15
Average Speed is Scalar
2:27
Average Velocity
2:39
Average Velocity
2:40
Average Velocity is a Vector
2:57
Example II: Speed vs. Velocity
3:16
Example II: Deer's Average Speed
3:17
Example II: Deer's Average Velocity
3:48
Example III: Chuck the Hungry Squirrel
4:21
Example III: Chuck's Distance Traveled
4:22
Example III: Chuck's Displacement
4:43
Example III: Chuck's Average Speed
5:25
Example III: Chuck's Average Velocity
5:39
Acceleration
6:11
Acceleration: Definition & Equation
6:12
Acceleration: Units
6:19
Relationship of Acceleration to Velocity
6:52
Example IV: Acceleration Problem
7:05
The Position Vector
7:39
The Position Vector
7:40
Average Velocity
9:35
Average Velocity
9:36
Instantaneous Velocity
11:20
Instantaneous Velocity
11:21
Instantaneous Velocity is the Derivative of Position with Respect to Time
11:35
Area Under the Velocity-time Graph
12:08
Acceleration
12:36
More on Acceleration
12:37
Average Acceleration
13:11
Velocity vs. Time Graph
13:14
Graph Transformations
13:59
Graphical Analysis of Motion
14:00
Velocity and acceleration in 2D
14:35
Velocity Vector in 2D
14:39
Acceleration Vector in 2D
15:26
Polynomial Derivatives
16:10
Polynomial Derivatives
16:11
Example V: Polynomial Kinematics
16:31
Example VI: Velocity Function
17:54
Example VI: Part A - Determine the Acceleration at t=1 Second
17:55
Example VI: Part B - Determine the Displacement between t=0 and t=5 Seconds
18:33
Example VII: Tortoise and Hare
20:14
Example VIII: d-t Graphs
22:40
Describing Motion II

36m 47s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Special Case: Constant Acceleration
0:31
Constant Acceleration & Kinematic Equations
0:32
Deriving the Kinematic Equations
1:28
V = V₀ + at
1:39
∆x = V₀t +(1/2)at²
2:03
V² = V₀² +2a∆x
4:05
Problem Solving Steps
7:02
Step 1
7:13
Step 2
7:18
Step 3
7:27
Step 4
7:30
Step 5
7:31
Example IX: Horizontal Kinematics
7:38
Example X: Vertical Kinematics
9:45
Example XI: 2 Step Problem
11:23
Example XII: Acceleration Problem
15:01
Example XIII: Particle Diagrams
15:57
Example XIV: Particle Diagrams
17:36
Example XV: Quadratic Solution
18:46
Free Fall
22:56
Free Fall
22:57
Air Resistance
23:24
Air Resistance
23:25
Acceleration Due to Gravity
23:48
Acceleration Due to Gravity
23:49
Objects Falling From Rest
24:18
Objects Falling From Rest
24:19
Example XVI: Falling Objects
24:55
Objects Launched Upward
26:01
Objects Launched Upward
26:02
Example XVII: Ball Thrown Upward
27:16
Example XVIII: Height of a Jump
27:48
Example XIX: Ball Thrown Downward
31:10
Example XX: Maximum Height
32:27
Example XXI: Catch-Up Problem
33:53
Example XXII: Ranking Max Height
35:52
Projectile Motion

30m 34s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
What is a Projectile?
0:28
What is a Projectile?
0:29
Path of a Projectile
0:58
Path of a Projectile
0:59
Independence of Motion
2:45
Vertical & Horizontal Motion
2:46
Example I: Horizontal Launch
3:14
Example II: Parabolic Path
7:20
Angled Projectiles
8:01
Angled Projectiles
8:02
Example III: Human Cannonball
10:05
Example IV: Motion Graphs
14:39
Graphing Projectile Motion
19:05
Horizontal Equation
19:06
Vertical Equation
19:46
Example V: Arrow Fired from Tower
21:28
Example VI: Arrow Fired from Tower
24:10
Example VII: Launch from a Height
24:40
Example VIII: Acceleration of a Projectile
29:49
Circular & Relative Motion

30m 24s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Radians and Degrees
0:32
Degrees
0:35
Radians
0:40
Example I: Radians and Degrees
1:08
Example I: Part A - Convert 90 Degrees to Radians
1:09
Example I: Part B - Convert 6 Radians to Degrees
2:08
Linear vs. Angular Displacement
2:38
Linear Displacement
2:39
Angular Displacement
2:52
Linear vs. Angular Velocity
3:18
Linear Velocity
3:19
Angular Velocity
3:25
Direction of Angular Velocity
4:36
Direction of Angular Velocity
4:37
Converting Linear to Angular Velocity
5:05
Converting Linear to Angular Velocity
5:06
Example II: Earth's Angular Velocity
6:12
Linear vs. Angular Acceleration
7:26
Linear Acceleration
7:27
Angular Acceleration
7:32
Centripetal Acceleration
8:05
Expressing Position Vector in Terms of Unit Vectors
8:06
Velocity
10:00
Centripetal Acceleration
11:14
Magnitude of Centripetal Acceleration
13:24
Example III: Angular Velocity & Centripetal Acceleration
14:02
Example IV: Moon's Orbit
15:03
Reference Frames
17:44
Reference Frames
17:45
Laws of Physics
18:00
Motion at Rest vs. Motion at a Constant Velocity
18:21
Motion is Relative
19:20
Reference Frame: Sitting in a Lawn Chair
19:21
Reference Frame: Sitting on a Train
19:56
Calculating Relative Velocities
20:19
Calculating Relative Velocities
20:20
Example: Calculating Relative Velocities
20:57
Example V: Man on a Train
23:19
Example VI: Airspeed
24:56
Example VII: 2-D Relative Motion
26:12
Example VIII: Relative Velocity w/ Direction
28:32
III. Dynamics
Newton's First Law & Free Body Diagrams

23m 57s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:11
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
0:28
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
0:29
Force
1:16
Definition of Force
1:17
Units of Force
1:20
How Much is a Newton?
1:25
Contact Forces
1:47
Field Forces
2:32
What is a Net Force?
2:53
What is a Net Force?
2:54
What Does It Mean?
4:35
What Does It Mean?
4:36
Objects at Rest
4:52
Objects at Rest
4:53
Objects in Motion
5:12
Objects in Motion
5:13
Equilibrium
6:03
Static Equilibrium
6:04
Mechanical Equilibrium
6:22
Translational Equilibrium
6:38
Inertia
6:48
Inertia
6:49
Inertial Mass
6:58
Gravitational Mass
7:11
Example I: Inertia
7:40
Example II: Inertia
8:03
Example III: Translational Equilibrium
8:25
Example IV: Net Force
9:19
Free Body Diagrams
10:34
Free Body Diagrams Overview
10:35
Falling Elephant: Free Body Diagram
10:53
Free Body Diagram Neglecting Air Resistance
10:54
Free Body Diagram Including Air Resistance
11:22
Soda on Table
11:54
Free Body Diagram for a Glass of Soda Sitting on a Table
11:55
Free Body Diagram for Box on Ramp
13:38
Free Body Diagram for Box on Ramp
13:39
Pseudo- Free Body Diagram
15:26
Example V: Translational Equilibrium
18:35
Newton's Second & Third Laws of Motion

23m 57s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
0:36
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
0:37
Applying Newton's 2nd Law
1:12
Step 1
1:13
Step 2
1:18
Step 3
1:27
Step 4
1:36
Example I: Block on a Surface
1:42
Example II: Concurrent Forces
2:42
Mass vs. Weight
4:09
Mass
4:10
Weight
4:28
Example III: Mass vs. Weight
4:45
Example IV: Translational Equilibrium
6:43
Example V: Translational Equilibrium
8:23
Example VI: Determining Acceleration
10:13
Example VII: Stopping a Baseball
12:38
Example VIII: Steel Beams
14:11
Example IX: Tension Between Blocks
17:03
Example X: Banked Curves
18:57
Example XI: Tension in Cords
24:03
Example XII: Graphical Interpretation
27:13
Example XIII: Force from Velocity
28:12
Newton's 3rd Law
29:16
Newton's 3rd Law
29:17
Examples - Newton's 3rd Law
30:01
Examples - Newton's 3rd Law
30:02
Action-Reaction Pairs
30:40
Girl Kicking Soccer Ball
30:41
Rocket Ship in Space
31:02
Gravity on You
31:23
Example XIV: Force of Gravity
32:11
Example XV: Sailboat
32:38
Example XVI: Hammer and Nail
33:18
Example XVII: Net Force
33:47
Friction

20m 41s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Coefficient of Friction
0:21
Coefficient of Friction
0:22
Approximate Coefficients of Friction
0:44
Kinetic or Static?
1:21
Sled Sliding Down a Snowy Hill
1:22
Refrigerator at Rest that You Want to Move
1:32
Car with Tires Rolling Freely
1:49
Car Skidding Across Pavement
2:01
Example I: Car Sliding
2:21
Example II: Block on Incline
3:04
Calculating the Force of Friction
3:33
Calculating the Force of Friction
3:34
Example III: Finding the Frictional Force
4:02
Example IV: Box on Wood Surface
5:34
Example V: Static vs. Kinetic Friction
7:35
Example VI: Drag Force on Airplane
7:58
Example VII: Pulling a Sled
8:41
Example VIII: AP-C 2007 FR1
13:23
Example VIII: Part A
13:24
Example VIII: Part B
14:40
Example VIII: Part C
15:19
Example VIII: Part D
17:08
Example VIII: Part E
18:24
Retarding & Drag Forces

32m 10s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Retarding Forces
0:41
Retarding Forces
0:42
The Skydiver
1:30
Drag Forces on a Free-falling Object
1:31
Velocity as a Function of Time
5:31
Velocity as a Function of Time
5:32
Velocity as a Function of Time, cont.
12:27
Acceleration
12:28
Velocity as a Function of Time, cont.
15:16
Graph: Acceleration vs. Time
16:06
Graph: Velocity vs. Time
16:40
Graph: Displacement vs. Time
17:04
Example I: AP-C 2005 FR1
17:43
Example I: Part A
17:44
Example I: Part B
19:17
Example I: Part C
20:17
Example I: Part D
21:09
Example I: Part E
22:42
Example II: AP-C 2013 FR2
24:26
Example II: Part A
24:27
Example II: Part B
25:25
Example II: Part C
26:22
Example II: Part D
27:04
Example II: Part E
30:50
Ramps & Inclines

20m 31s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Drawing Free Body Diagrams for Ramps
0:32
Step 1: Choose the Object & Draw It as a Dot or Box
0:33
Step 2: Draw and Label all the External Forces
0:39
Step 3: Sketch a Coordinate System
0:42
Example: Object on a Ramp
0:52
Pseudo-Free Body Diagrams
2:06
Pseudo-Free Body Diagrams
2:07
Redraw Diagram with All Forces Parallel to Axes
2:18
Box on a Ramp
4:08
Free Body Diagram for Box on a Ramp
4:09
Pseudo-Free Body Diagram for Box on a Ramp
4:54
Example I: Box at Rest
6:13
Example II: Box Held By Force
6:35
Example III: Truck on a Hill
8:46
Example IV: Force Up a Ramp
9:29
Example V: Acceleration Down a Ramp
12:01
Example VI: Able of Repose
13:59
Example VII: Sledding
17:03
Atwood Machines

24m 58s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
What is an Atwood Machine?
0:25
What is an Atwood Machine?
0:26
Properties of Atwood Machines
1:03
Ideal Pulleys are Frictionless and Massless
1:04
Tension is Constant
1:14
Setup for Atwood Machines
1:26
Setup for Atwood Machines
1:27
Solving Atwood Machine Problems
1:52
Solving Atwood Machine Problems
1:53
Alternate Solution
5:24
Analyze the System as a Whole
5:25
Example I: Basic Atwood Machine
7:31
Example II: Moving Masses
9:59
Example III: Masses and Pulley on a Table
13:32
Example IV: Mass and Pulley on a Ramp
15:47
Example V: Ranking Atwood Machines
19:50
IV. Work, Energy, & Power
Work

37m 34s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
What is Work?
0:36
What is Work?
0:37
Units of Work
1:09
Work in One Dimension
1:31
Work in One Dimension
1:32
Examples of Work
2:19
Stuntman in a Jet Pack
2:20
A Girl Struggles to Push Her Stalled Car
2:50
A Child in a Ghost Costume Carries a Bag of Halloween Candy Across the Yard
3:24
Example I: Moving a Refrigerator
4:03
Example II: Liberating a Car
4:53
Example III: Lifting Box
5:30
Example IV: Pulling a Wagon
6:13
Example V: Ranking Work on Carts
7:13
Non-Constant Forces
12:21
Non-Constant Forces
12:22
Force vs. Displacement Graphs
13:49
Force vs. Displacement Graphs
13:50
Hooke's Law
14:41
Hooke's Law
14:42
Determining the Spring Constant
15:38
Slope of the Graph Gives the Spring Constant, k
15:39
Work Done in Compressing the Spring
16:34
Find the Work Done in Compressing the String
16:35
Example VI: Finding Spring Constant
17:21
Example VII: Calculating Spring Constant
19:48
Example VIII: Hooke's Law
20:30
Example IX: Non-Linear Spring
22:18
Work in Multiple Dimensions
23:52
Work in Multiple Dimensions
23:53
Work-Energy Theorem
25:25
Work-Energy Theorem
25:26
Example X: Work-Energy Theorem
28:35
Example XI: Work Done on Moving Carts
30:46
Example XII: Velocity from an F-d Graph
35:01
Energy & Conservative Forces

28m 4s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Energy Transformations
0:31
Energy Transformations
0:32
Work-Energy Theorem
0:57
Kinetic Energy
1:12
Kinetic Energy: Definition
1:13
Kinetic Energy: Equation
1:55
Example I: Frog-O-Cycle
2:07
Potential Energy
2:46
Types of Potential Energy
2:47
A Potential Energy Requires an Interaction between Objects
3:29
Internal energy
3:50
Internal Energy
3:51
Types of Energy
4:37
Types of Potential & Kinetic Energy
4:38
Gravitational Potential Energy
5:42
Gravitational Potential Energy
5:43
Example II: Potential Energy
7:27
Example III: Kinetic and Potential Energy
8:16
Example IV: Pendulum
9:09
Conservative Forces
11:37
Conservative Forces Overview
11:38
Type of Conservative Forces
12:42
Types of Non-conservative Forces
13:02
Work Done by Conservative Forces
13:28
Work Done by Conservative Forces
13:29
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
14:18
Gravitational Force of Attraction between Any Two Objects with Mass
14:19
Gravitational Potential Energy
15:27
Gravitational Potential Energy
15:28
Elastic Potential Energy
17:36
Elastic Potential Energy
17:37
Force from Potential Energy
18:51
Force from Potential Energy
18:52
Gravitational Force from the Gravitational Potential Energy
20:46
Gravitational Force from the Gravitational Potential Energy
20:47
Hooke's Law from Potential Energy
22:04
Hooke's Law from Potential Energy
22:05
Summary
23:16
Summary
23:17
Example V: Kinetic Energy of a Mass
24:40
Example VI: Force from Potential Energy
25:48
Example VII: Work on a Spinning Disc
26:54
Conservation of Energy

54m 56s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Conservation of Mechanical Energy
0:32
Consider a Single Conservative Force Doing Work on a Closed System
0:33
Non-Conservative Forces
1:40
Non-Conservative Forces
1:41
Work Done by a Non-conservative Force
1:47
Formula: Total Energy
1:54
Formula: Total Mechanical Energy
2:04
Example I: Falling Mass
2:15
Example II: Law of Conservation of Energy
4:07
Example III: The Pendulum
6:34
Example IV: Cart Compressing a Spring
10:12
Example V: Cart Compressing a Spring
11:12
Example V: Part A - Potential Energy Stored in the Compressed Spring
11:13
Example V: Part B - Maximum Vertical Height
12:01
Example VI: Car Skidding to a Stop
13:05
Example VII: Block on Ramp
14:22
Example VIII: Energy Transfers
16:15
Example IX: Roller Coaster
20:04
Example X: Bungee Jumper
23:32
Example X: Part A - Speed of the Jumper at a Height of 15 Meters Above the Ground
24:48
Example X: Part B - Speed of the Jumper at a Height of 30 Meters Above the Ground
26:53
Example X: Part C - How Close Does the Jumper Get to the Ground?
28:28
Example XI: AP-C 2002 FR3
30:28
Example XI: Part A
30:59
Example XI: Part B
31:54
Example XI: Part C
32:50
Example XI: Part D & E
33:52
Example XII: AP-C 2007 FR3
35:24
Example XII: Part A
35:52
Example XII: Part B
36:27
Example XII: Part C
37:48
Example XII: Part D
39:32
Example XIII: AP-C 2010 FR1
41:07
Example XIII: Part A
41:34
Example XIII: Part B
43:05
Example XIII: Part C
45:24
Example XIII: Part D
47:18
Example XIV: AP-C 2013 FR1
48:25
Example XIV: Part A
48:50
Example XIV: Part B
49:31
Example XIV: Part C
51:27
Example XIV: Part D
52:46
Example XIV: Part E
53:25
Power

16m 44s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Defining Power
0:20
Definition of Power
0:21
Units of Power
0:27
Average Power
0:43
Instantaneous Power
1:03
Instantaneous Power
1:04
Example I: Horizontal Box
2:07
Example II: Accelerating Truck
4:48
Example III: Motors Delivering Power
6:00
Example IV: Power Up a Ramp
7:00
Example V: Power from Position Function
8:51
Example VI: Motorcycle Stopping
10:48
Example VII: AP-C 2003 FR1
11:52
Example VII: Part A
11:53
Example VII: Part B
12:50
Example VII: Part C
14:36
Example VII: Part D
15:52
V. Momentum
Momentum & Impulse

13m 9s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Momentum
0:39
Definition of Momentum
0:40
Total Momentum
1:00
Formula for Momentum
1:05
Units of Momentum
1:11
Example I: Changing Momentum
1:18
Impulse
2:27
Impulse
2:28
Example II: Impulse
2:41
Relationship Between Force and ∆p (Impulse)
3:36
Relationship Between Force and ∆p (Impulse)
3:37
Example III: Force from Momentum
4:37
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
5:14
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
5:15
Example IV: Impulse-Momentum
6:26
Example V: Water Gun & Horizontal Force
7:56
Impulse from F-t Graphs
8:53
Impulse from F-t Graphs
8:54
Example VI: Non-constant Forces
9:16
Example VII: F-t Graph
10:01
Example VIII: Impulse from Force
11:19
Conservation of Linear Momentum

46m 30s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Conservation of Linear Momentum
0:28
In an Isolated System
0:29
In Any Closed System
0:37
Direct Outcome of Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
0:47
Collisions and Explosions
1:07
Collisions and Explosions
1:08
The Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum
1:25
Solving Momentum Problems
1:35
Solving Momentum Problems
1:36
Types of Collisions
2:08
Elastic Collision
2:09
Inelastic Collision
2:34
Example I: Traffic Collision
3:00
Example II: Collision of Two Moving Objects
6:55
Example III: Recoil Velocity
9:47
Example IV: Atomic Collision
12:12
Example V: Collision in Multiple Dimensions
18:11
Example VI: AP-C 2001 FR1
25:16
Example VI: Part A
25:33
Example VI: Part B
26:44
Example VI: Part C
28:17
Example VI: Part D
28:58
Example VII: AP-C 2002 FR1
30:10
Example VII: Part A
30:20
Example VII: Part B
32:14
Example VII: Part C
34:25
Example VII: Part D
36:17
Example VIII: AP-C 2014 FR1
38:55
Example VIII: Part A
39:28
Example VIII: Part B
41:00
Example VIII: Part C
42:57
Example VIII: Part D
44:20
Center of Mass

28m 26s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Center of Mass
0:45
Center of Mass
0:46
Finding Center of Mass by Inspection
1:25
For Uniform Density Objects
1:26
For Objects with Multiple Parts
1:36
For Irregular Objects
1:44
Example I: Center of Mass by Inspection
2:06
Calculating Center of Mass for Systems of Particles
2:25
Calculating Center of Mass for Systems of Particles
2:26
Example II: Center of Mass (1D)
3:15
Example III: Center of Mass of Continuous System
4:29
Example IV: Center of Mass (2D)
6:00
Finding Center of Mass by Integration
7:38
Finding Center of Mass by Integration
7:39
Example V: Center of Mass of a Uniform Rod
8:10
Example VI: Center of Mass of a Non-Uniform Rod
11:40
Center of Mass Relationships
14:44
Center of Mass Relationships
14:45
Center of Gravity
17:36
Center of Gravity
17:37
Uniform Gravitational Field vs. Non-uniform Gravitational Field
17:53
Example VII: AP-C 2004 FR1
18:26
Example VII: Part A
18:45
Example VII: Part B
19:38
Example VII: Part C
21:03
Example VII: Part D
22:04
Example VII: Part E
24:52
VI. Uniform Circular Motion
Uniform Circular Motion

21m 36s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Uniform Circular Motion
0:42
Distance Around the Circle for Objects Traveling in a Circular Path at Constant Speed
0:51
Average Speed for Objects Traveling in a Circular Path at Constant Speed
1:15
Frequency
1:42
Definition of Frequency
1:43
Symbol of Frequency
1:46
Units of Frequency
1:49
Period
2:04
Period
2:05
Frequency and Period
2:19
Frequency and Period
2:20
Example I: Race Car
2:32
Example II: Toy Train
3:22
Example III: Round-A-Bout
4:07
Example III: Part A - Period of the Motion
4:08
Example III: Part B- Frequency of the Motion
4:43
Example III: Part C- Speed at Which Alan Revolves
4:58
Uniform Circular Motion
5:28
Is an Object Undergoing Uniform Circular Motion Accelerating?
5:29
Direction of Centripetal Acceleration
6:21
Direction of Centripetal Acceleration
6:22
Magnitude of Centripetal Acceleration
8:23
Magnitude of Centripetal Acceleration
8:24
Example IV: Car on a Track
8:39
Centripetal Force
10:14
Centripetal Force
10:15
Calculating Centripetal Force
11:47
Calculating Centripetal Force
11:48
Example V: Acceleration
12:41
Example VI: Direction of Centripetal Acceleration
13:44
Example VII: Loss of Centripetal Force
14:03
Example VIII: Bucket in Horizontal Circle
14:44
Example IX: Bucket in Vertical Circle
15:24
Example X: Demon Drop
17:38
Example X: Question 1
18:02
Example X: Question 2
18:25
Example X: Question 3
19:22
Example X: Question 4
20:13
VII. Rotational Motion
Rotational Kinematics

32m 52s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Radians and Degrees
0:35
Once Around a Circle: In Degrees
0:36
Once Around a Circle: In Radians
0:48
Measurement of Radian
0:51
Example I: Radian and Degrees
1:08
Example I: Convert 90° to Radians
1:09
Example I: Convert 6 Radians to Degree
1:23
Linear vs. Angular Displacement
1:43
Linear Displacement
1:44
Angular Displacement
1:51
Linear vs. Angular Velocity
2:04
Linear Velocity
2:05
Angular Velocity
2:10
Direction of Angular Velocity
2:28
Direction of Angular Velocity
2:29
Converting Linear to Angular Velocity
2:58
Converting Linear to Angular Velocity
2:59
Example II: Angular Velocity of Earth
3:51
Linear vs. Angular Acceleration
4:35
Linear Acceleration
4:36
Angular Acceleration
4:42
Example III: Angular Acceleration
5:09
Kinematic Variable Parallels
6:30
Kinematic Variable Parallels: Translational & Angular
6:31
Variable Translations
7:00
Variable Translations: Translational & Angular
7:01
Kinematic Equation Parallels
7:38
Kinematic Equation Parallels: Translational & Rotational
7:39
Example IV: Deriving Centripetal Acceleration
8:29
Example V: Angular Velocity
13:24
Example V: Part A
13:25
Example V: Part B
14:15
Example VI: Wheel in Motion
14:39
Example VII: AP-C 2003 FR3
16:23
Example VII: Part A
16:38
Example VII: Part B
17:34
Example VII: Part C
24:02
Example VIII: AP-C 2014 FR2
25:35
Example VIII: Part A
25:47
Example VIII: Part B
26:28
Example VIII: Part C
27:48
Example VIII: Part D
28:26
Example VIII: Part E
29:16
Moment of Inertia

24m

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Types of Inertia
0:34
Inertial Mass
0:35
Moment of Inertia
0:44
Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Disc
1:25
Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Disc
1:26
Calculating Moment of Inertia (I)
5:32
Calculating Moment of Inertia (I)
5:33
Moment of Inertia for Common Objects
5:49
Moment of Inertia for Common Objects
5:50
Example I: Point Masses
6:46
Example II: Uniform Rod
9:09
Example III: Solid Cylinder
13:07
Parallel Axis Theorem (PAT)
17:33
Parallel Axis Theorem (PAT)
17:34
Example IV: Calculating I Using the Parallel Axis Theorem
18:39
Example V: Hollow Sphere
20:18
Example VI: Long Thin Rod
20:55
Example VII: Ranking Moment of Inertia
21:50
Example VIII: Adjusting Moment of Inertia
22:39
Torque

26m 9s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Torque
0:18
Definition of Torque
0:19
Torque & Rotation
0:26
Lever Arm ( r )
0:30
Example: Wrench
0:39
Direction of the Torque Vector
1:45
Direction of the Torque Vector
1:46
Finding Direction Using the Right-hand Rule
1:53
Newton's 2nd Law: Translational vs. Rotational
2:20
Newton's 2nd Law: Translational vs. Rotational
2:21
Equilibrium
3:17
Static Equilibrium
3:18
Dynamic Equilibrium
3:30
Example I: See-Saw Problem
3:46
Example II: Beam Problem
7:12
Example III: Pulley with Mass
10:34
Example IV: Net Torque
13:46
Example V: Ranking Torque
15:29
Example VI: Ranking Angular Acceleration
16:25
Example VII: Café Sign
17:19
Example VIII: AP-C 2008 FR2
19:44
Example VIII: Part A
20:12
Example VIII: Part B
21:08
Example VIII: Part C
22:36
Example VIII: Part D
24:37
Rotational Dynamics

56m 58s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Conservation of Energy
0:48
Translational Kinetic Energy
0:49
Rotational Kinetic Energy
0:54
Total Kinetic Energy
1:03
Example I: Disc Rolling Down an Incline
1:10
Rotational Dynamics
4:25
Rotational Dynamics
4:26
Example II: Strings with Massive Pulleys
4:37
Example III: Rolling without Slipping
9:13
Example IV: Rolling with Slipping
13:45
Example V: Amusement Park Swing
22:49
Example VI: AP-C 2002 FR2
26:27
Example VI: Part A
26:48
Example VI: Part B
27:30
Example VI: Part C
29:51
Example VI: Part D
30:50
Example VII: AP-C 2006 FR3
31:39
Example VII: Part A
31:49
Example VII: Part B
36:20
Example VII: Part C
37:14
Example VII: Part D
38:48
Example VIII: AP-C 2010 FR2
39:40
Example VIII: Part A
39:46
Example VIII: Part B
40:44
Example VIII: Part C
44:31
Example VIII: Part D
46:44
Example IX: AP-C 2013 FR3
48:27
Example IX: Part A
48:47
Example IX: Part B
50:33
Example IX: Part C
53:28
Example IX: Part D
54:15
Example IX: Part E
56:20
Angular Momentum

33m 2s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Linear Momentum
0:44
Definition of Linear Momentum
0:45
Total Angular Momentum
0:52
p = mv
0:59
Angular Momentum
1:08
Definition of Angular Momentum
1:09
Total Angular Momentum
1:21
A Mass with Velocity v Moving at Some Position r
1:29
Calculating Angular Momentum
1:44
Calculating Angular Momentum
1:45
Spin Angular Momentum
4:17
Spin Angular Momentum
4:18
Example I: Object in Circular Orbit
4:51
Example II: Angular Momentum of a Point Particle
6:34
Angular Momentum and Net Torque
9:03
Angular Momentum and Net Torque
9:04
Conservation of Angular Momentum
11:53
Conservation of Angular Momentum
11:54
Example III: Ice Skater Problem
12:20
Example IV: Combining Spinning Discs
13:52
Example V: Catching While Rotating
15:13
Example VI: Changes in Angular Momentum
16:47
Example VII: AP-C 2005 FR3
17:37
Example VII: Part A
18:12
Example VII: Part B
18:32
Example VII: Part C
19:53
Example VII: Part D
21:52
Example VIII: AP-C 2014 FR3
24:23
Example VIII: Part A
24:31
Example VIII: Part B
25:33
Example VIII: Part C
26:58
Example VIII: Part D
28:24
Example VIII: Part E
30:42
VIII. Oscillations
Oscillations

1h 1m 12s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Simple Harmonic Motion
0:45
Simple Harmonic Motion
0:46
Circular Motion vs. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
1:39
Circular Motion vs. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
1:40
Position, Velocity, & Acceleration
4:55
Position
4:56
Velocity
5:12
Acceleration
5:49
Frequency and Period
6:37
Frequency
6:42
Period
6:49
Angular Frequency
7:05
Angular Frequency
7:06
Example I: Oscillating System
7:37
Example I: Determine the Object's Angular Frequency
7:38
Example I: What is the Object's Position at Time t = 10s?
8:16
Example I: At What Time is the Object at x = 0.1m?
9:10
Mass on a Spring
10:17
Mass on a Spring
10:18
Example II: Analysis of Spring-Block System
11:34
Example III: Spring-Block ranking
12:53
General Form of Simple Harmonic Motion
14:41
General Form of Simple Harmonic Motion
14:42
Graphing Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
15:22
Graphing Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
15:23
Energy of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
15:49
Energy of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
15:50
Horizontal Spring Oscillator
19:24
Horizontal Spring Oscillator
19:25
Vertical Spring Oscillator
20:58
Vertical Spring Oscillator
20:59
Springs in Series
23:30
Springs in Series
23:31
Springs in Parallel
26:08
Springs in Parallel
26:09
The Pendulum
26:59
The Pendulum
27:00
Energy and the Simple Pendulum
27:46
Energy and the Simple Pendulum
27:47
Frequency and Period of a Pendulum
30:16
Frequency and Period of a Pendulum
30:17
Example IV: Deriving Period of a Simple Pendulum
31:42
Example V: Deriving Period of a Physical Pendulum
35:20
Example VI: Summary of Spring-Block System
38:16
Example VII: Harmonic Oscillator Analysis
44:14
Example VII: Spring Constant
44:24
Example VII: Total Energy
44:45
Example VII: Speed at the Equilibrium Position
45:05
Example VII: Speed at x = 0.30 Meters
45:37
Example VII: Speed at x = -0.40 Meter
46:46
Example VII: Acceleration at the Equilibrium Position
47:21
Example VII: Magnitude of Acceleration at x = 0.50 Meters
47:35
Example VII: Net Force at the Equilibrium Position
48:04
Example VII: Net Force at x = 0.25 Meter
48:20
Example VII: Where does Kinetic Energy = Potential Energy?
48:33
Example VIII: Ranking Spring Systems
49:35
Example IX: Vertical Spring Block Oscillator
51:45
Example X: Ranking Period of Pendulum
53:50
Example XI: AP-C 2009 FR2
54:50
Example XI: Part A
54:58
Example XI: Part B
57:57
Example XI: Part C
59:11
Example XII: AP-C 2010 FR3
1:00:18
Example XII: Part A
1:00:49
Example XII: Part B
1:02:47
Example XII: Part C
1:04:30
Example XII: Part D
1:05:53
Example XII: Part E
1:08:13
IX. Gravity & Orbits
Gravity & Orbits

34m 59s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
0:45
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
0:46
Example I: Gravitational Force Between Earth and Sun
2:24
Example II: Two Satellites
3:39
Gravitational Field Strength
4:23
Gravitational Field Strength
4:24
Example III: Weight on Another Planet
6:22
Example IV: Gravitational Field of a Hollow Shell
7:31
Example V: Gravitational Field Inside a Solid Sphere
8:33
Velocity in Circular Orbit
12:05
Velocity in Circular Orbit
12:06
Period and Frequency for Circular Orbits
13:56
Period and Frequency for Circular Orbits
13:57
Mechanical Energy for Circular Orbits
16:11
Mechanical Energy for Circular Orbits
16:12
Escape Velocity
17:48
Escape Velocity
17:49
Kepler's 1st Law of Planetary Motion
19:41
Keller's 1st Law of Planetary Motion
19:42
Kepler's 2nd Law of Planetary Motion
20:05
Keller's 2nd Law of Planetary Motion
20:06
Kepler's 3rd Law of Planetary Motion
20:57
Ratio of the Squares of the Periods of Two Planets
20:58
Ratio of the Squares of the Periods to the Cubes of Their Semi-major Axes
21:41
Total Mechanical Energy for an Elliptical Orbit
21:57
Total Mechanical Energy for an Elliptical Orbit
21:58
Velocity and Radius for an Elliptical Orbit
22:35
Velocity and Radius for an Elliptical Orbit
22:36
Example VI: Rocket Launched Vertically
24:26
Example VII: AP-C 2007 FR2
28:16
Example VII: Part A
28:35
Example VII: Part B
29:51
Example VII: Part C
31:14
Example VII: Part D
32:23
Example VII: Part E
33:16
X. Sample AP Exam
1998 AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice

28m 11s

Intro
0:00
Problem 1
0:30
Problem 2
0:51
Problem 3
1:25
Problem 4
2:00
Problem 5
3:05
Problem 6
4:19
Problem 7
4:48
Problem 8
5:18
Problem 9
5:38
Problem 10
6:26
Problem 11
7:21
Problem 12
8:08
Problem 13
8:35
Problem 14
9:20
Problem 15
10:09
Problem 16
10:25
Problem 17
11:30
Problem 18
12:27
Problem 19
13:00
Problem 20
14:40
Problem 21
15:44
Problem 22
16:42
Problem 23
17:35
Problem 24
17:54
Problem 25
18:32
Problem 26
19:08
Problem 27
20:56
Problem 28
22:19
Problem 29
22:36
Problem 30
23:18
Problem 31
24:06
Problem 32
24:40
1998 AP Practice Exam: Free Response Questions (FRQ)

28m 11s

Intro
0:00
Question 1
0:15
Part A: I
0:16
Part A: II
0:46
Part A: III
1:13
Part B
1:40
Part C
2:49
Part D: I
4:46
Part D: II
5:15
Question 2
5:46
Part A: I
6:13
Part A: II
7:05
Part B: I
7:48
Part B: II
8:42
Part B: III
9:03
Part B: IV
9:26
Part B: V
11:32
Question 3
13:30
Part A: I
13:50
Part A: II
14:16
Part A: III
14:38
Part A: IV
14:56
Part A: V
15:36
Part B
16:11
Part C
17:00
Part D: I
19:56
Part D: II
21:08
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Lecture Comments (5)

2 answers

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Tue Jan 20, 2015 6:35 AM

Post by Caleb Lear on January 20, 2015

Curious, I thought that your calculation only covered the distance from point B to point D. You calculated the time it would take for an object to fall from B, then checked how far it could go in that time period given its velocity at B. Isn't that just the distance from B to D? The problem asked for the distance from A to D, so don't we need to add the distance from A to B?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Dan Fullerton
Sun Dec 14, 2014 7:10 AM

Post by Thadeus McNamara on December 13, 2014

for that ap question at the end... was there any center of mass application? i didnt use any but it was still good practice

Center of Mass

  • You can treat an entire complex object as if its entire mass were contained at a single point known as the object’s center of mass.
  • Center of mass is the weighted average of the location of mass in an object.
  • For uniform density objects, the center of mass is the geometric center.
  • For objects with multiple parts, find the center of mass of each part and treat those as point particles.
  • The center of gravity is the location at which the force of gravity acts upon an object as if it were a point particle with all its mass focused at that point.
  • In a uniform gravitational field, center of gravity and center of mass are the same. In a non-uniform gravitational field, they may be different.

Center of Mass

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Objectives 0:07
  • Center of Mass 0:45
    • Center of Mass
  • Finding Center of Mass by Inspection 1:25
    • For Uniform Density Objects
    • For Objects with Multiple Parts
    • For Irregular Objects
  • Example I: Center of Mass by Inspection 2:06
  • Calculating Center of Mass for Systems of Particles 2:25
    • Calculating Center of Mass for Systems of Particles
  • Example II: Center of Mass (1D) 3:15
  • Example III: Center of Mass of Continuous System 4:29
  • Example IV: Center of Mass (2D) 6:00
  • Finding Center of Mass by Integration 7:38
    • Finding Center of Mass by Integration
  • Example V: Center of Mass of a Uniform Rod 8:10
  • Example VI: Center of Mass of a Non-Uniform Rod 11:40
  • Center of Mass Relationships 14:44
    • Center of Mass Relationships
  • Center of Gravity 17:36
    • Center of Gravity
    • Uniform Gravitational Field vs. Non-uniform Gravitational Field
  • Example VII: AP-C 2004 FR1 18:26
    • Example VII: Part A
    • Example VII: Part B
    • Example VII: Part C
    • Example VII: Part D
    • Example VII: Part E

Transcription: Center of Mass

Hello, everyone, and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

I’m Dan Fullerton and in this lesson we are going to talk about center of mass.0004

Our objectives include identifying by inspection the center of mass of a symmetrical object.0008

Locating the center of mass of a system consisting of two such objects.0014

Using integration to find the center of mass of the thin rod on non uniform density.0018

Applying the relation between center of mass velocity in a linear momentum0025

and between center of mass acceleration and net external force for system particles.0029

Defining center of gravity and using this concept to express the gravitational potential energy of a rigid object0034

in terms of the position of its center of mass.0040

Let us start by talking about what center of mass is.0045

Real objects are more complex than these theoretical particles we been dealing with.0049

It is never just the entire amount of mass at some tiny point and you can treat it that way.0053

Real objects are more irregular, they are more complicated than that.0058

However, what is really nice, is from a physics perspective, we can treat the entire object as0062

if its entire mass are concentrated in a single point that we are going to call the object center of mass.0067

Usually abbreviated CM or C o center of mass.0073

Mathematically speaking, center of mass is the weighted average of the location of mass and object.0080

How will we find center of mass?0086

Well, with some objects we can do it by inspection.0088

For uniform density of objects, the center of mass is going to be the geometric center of that object.0091

For object of multiple parts, you can find the center of mass of each part and treat it as a point and then look at their geometric center.0097

For the irregular objects, one way you can find it experimentally is to suspend the object from two or more points and draw a plumb line.0105

The lines are always going to intersect the center of mass.0112

If you attached it by a couple points, drop a plumb line from it, wherever they cross a right there that would be your center of mass of the object.0115

We can also figure this out by inspection especially if we have a highly symmetric object.0125

If we have something like this with the uniform density even though it is got a complex object it is pretty easy to see0130

that the center of mass is going to be right in the geometric center of our object.0136

That was pretty straightforward.0141

If we have a system of particles, however, we need to get a little bit more detail.0144

The position vector to the center of mass is the sum of all the little objects there mass × position ÷ total mass of your system.0149

Or if you want to look at coordinates, an x center of mass coordinates that would be your first mass × its x position + your second mass × x position and so on.0159

Divided by the sum of the masses.0170

In a similar fashion, if you wanted the center of mass for Y, that would be M1Y1 + M2Y2 and so on divided by the total mass.0173

Or m + m2 + 3 or total mass typically written capital M.0187

Let us do a quick example here.0194

Find the center of mass of an object model as two separate masses on the x axis.0196

Our first mass is2kg in the x coordinate of 2 and the second mass is 6kg here in the x coordinate of 8.0201

To find that, we can go to our function, that x coordinate of center of mass is M1X1 + M2X2 / M0210

which would be M1 2kg × its x position 2m + our second mass 6kg × its x position 8m divided by their total mass 8 kg.0224

4 + 48 ÷ 8 is just going to give us 6.5m.0244

We could treat this system as if its entire mass was one object here at about 6 1/2 with a mass of 8kg.0250

What if it is a continuous system?0268

Find the center of mass of the combination object here below.0271

The density of the object is uniform.0274

What we can do by inspection if this is a 3 kg block, we can see that its center of mass0278

is right in the center at what the position we are calling 00.0283

This object, we can find its center of mass here at 0, 3 on the number line, the center of that object.0286

What we can do is add these up as if the particles.0293

We can pretty easily see that the x center of mass is going to be right on that to x =0 line by symmetry.0297

All we need to figure out is the y center of mass which will be M1Y1 + M2Y2 divided by our total mass M0304

which will be 3kg × its y position 0 + 6kg × this objects y position 3 divided by our total mass 9 kg.0317

Our y position, center of mass is going to be 6 × 3 is 18 ÷ 9 are going to be 2.0333

The center of mass of our system would be at 0, 2 or right about there.0344

Let us do a two dimensional problem, find the coordinates of the center of mass for the system shown below,0358

where we got 3 kg mass at 1, 2, a 4kg mass 5, 3, and a 1kg mass at 7, 1.0364

We can do the x first, the x coordinate for the center of mass is going to be M1X1 3 × 1 + M2X2 4 × 5 + M3X3 1 × 7 divided by our total mass 3 + 4 + 1 or 8.0374

I come up with the value of 3.75.0399

Our y coordinate for the center of mass, we find the same way.0405

We will have 3 × 2 + 4 × 3 + 1 × 1 divided by their total mass 8.0409

6 + 12 =18 + 1= 19/8 or 2.38.0421

Our total, our center of mass of the system of object is going to be at 3.75 up to .38 is going to be right around there.0428

We can treat the entire system as if we had one particle with the mass of 8kg here at 3.75, 2. 38.0440

For more complex objects, you can find the center of mass by summing up all the little pieces a position vectors multiplied by that differential,0459

that little tiny piece of mass and then dividing by the total mass.0466

Just doing the calculus version, the integration version, is to make all of those mass is smaller and smaller.0470

The position vector to the center of mass is equal to the integral of the position vector × all those little tiny small masses divided by the total mass.0477

Let us put that in the play so you can see how that works.0488

We will start by finding the center of mass of a uniform rod of length LMSM.0491

The first thing I'm going to do is I'm going to do a couple definitions here.0496

I'm going to say the linear of mass density which we are going to call λ.0500

The mass in the length λ is M / L.0504

When I go and break this up into little pieces and when you break it up into little pieces along the X axis Dx and V.0510

Linear mass density there is just going to be that little bit of mass DM / dx, the mass in length again.0519

Which implies that just a little tiny piece of mass, DM is going to be our linear mass density × DX.0528

I can go to my formula for the position vector to the center of mass.0539

Our center of mass = the integral of our DM / our total mass which implies then that the vector to the center of mass is equal to the integral.0547

Our r in this case is just going to be our x coordinate.0562

X DM / our total mass but what is this the DM?0567

For that, we have to go up to our definition here, the little bit of mass contain a bit in that piece Dx is λ.0572

The linear mass density × DX.0579

That is going to be equal to the integral of x × differential of mass λ DX all divided by M.0583

We can pull out our constants because it is a uniform rod, λ is constant.0597

Our total mass already is constant.0601

We would have the λ divided by M integral of XDX.0604

We are going to integrate from x = 0 to X = some final value L the length of the rod.0611

This implies then that the vector r CM = we have a λ / M integral of X is x² /2 evaluated from 0 to L which is going to be λ/M L² /2.0619

We also know now that if λ = M/L well M = L λ.0646

We can replace M with L λ then we have λ L² /M which is L λ 2.0657

Our linear mass density cancels out and we end up with just L /2.0667

It is right in the middle.0678

That is common sense right.0678

If it is a uniform mass density rod the center of mass is going to be right in the center.0681

We proved that using calculus, going step by step as an exercise to see if we could do it, to show how you would go doing integration like this.0686

How you would determine the center of mass which is going to be useful when we do our next example problem.0694

Let us find the center of mass, now the non uniform rod.0701

This non uniform rod has length L and mass M, and its density is given by λ = KX.0705

You get the larger and larger values as x gets more and more dense.0711

Right away, just common sense tells me I would expect that we are going to have the center of mass somewhere to the right of center of this object.0716

We will use that as a check when we are all done.0724

To find the total mass that is going to be helpful here.0726

The total mass is going to be the integral from X = 0 to L of our linear mass density DX which is going to be our integral from 0 to L.0729

λ is KXDX, this is going to be KL² /2.0746

Let us go to our function again.0756

The position vector to the center of mass is the integral of r DM divided by our total mass.0758

We know that our R is just x coordinate.0768

We are dealing with one dimension.0773

Now, λ = KX which means that our differential of mass is going to be λ DX but now that is KX DX.0776

Our position vector to the center of mass = the integral of X × DM which is KXDX all divided by our total mass M.0787

Or position vector to the center of mass is we can pull K and M out of there, they are constants K /M integral for x=0 to x=L of we have got an x² in here now DX.0806

That is going to be K/M integral of x² is x³/3 evaluated from 0 to L.0821

We are going to have KL² / 3M.0829

But remember, we said M was KL² / 20836

this implies then that our position vector to the center of mass is going to be, we got KL² / 3 and our M KL² / 2.0844

A little bit of simplification here, L² we got an L there, we have got a K and I end up with 2/3 L.0860

It is somewhere over in this area, just like we predicted, a little bit to the right of center.0875

Let us take a look at some relationships here, if the position vector to the center of mass is 1/the total mass × the sum0883

over all the little tiny pieces of the mass of those pieces × their position vector.0894

That implies that the velocity of the center of mass is 1/ that mass × the sum over all i for all those little pieces of Mi × there individual little velocities.0903

We also know that momentum is mass × velocity so we can write this as the velocity of the center of mass is 1/ M sum0920

overall I, all of those individual little momentum of each of those pieces.0933

Which implies then that the total momentum which is what this is the total momentum = the total mass × the velocity of the center of mass.0941

The total momentum is mass × the velocity of the center of mass.0954

You can find the total momentum by just using that center of mass piece as well.0957

Or total momentum, if that is equal to M × velocity of the center of mass0963

and we know from previous work that force is that derivative of momentum with respect to time.0971

Let us take the derivative of our both sides here.0982

For the left hand side, we have a derivative of the total momentum with respect to T.0986

Which we know is must be our total force and that must be equal to the derivative of the right hand side.0993

The derivative with respect to T of mass × the velocity of the center of mass.1004

Which implies then that our total force must be equal to, the derivative of mass × velocity1011

mass is a constant the derivative of the velocity of the center of mass must be the acceleration of the center of mass.1020

Newton’s second law, the total force is equal to our total mass × the acceleration of the center of mass.1026

With Newton’s second law again, we do not have to worry about individual point particles or irregularly shaped object.1033

We treat the whole thing as if it had its entire mass right at that point the center of mass and we are allowed to do that.1046

Simplifies this up tremendously.1053

Another term you might have heard is called center of gravity.1056

Center of gravity refers to the location at which the force of gravity acts upon the object is if it were point particle with all of its mass at that point.1060

In a uniform gravitational field, the center of gravity and the center of mass are the same.1068

But if you happen to be the non uniform gravitational field they could be different.1074

If you have a humongous object that is so big, that parts that are in different gravitational field strengths where you have to bring that into account.1078

The center of mass and the center of gravity can be different.1088

For the most part, when we are in uniform gravitational fields where1091

we make the estimation like here on the surface of earth with relatively small objects, they are the same.1094

Technically speaking now, they are different quantities.1101

Let us finish up by looking in an old free response problem.1105

We will take the 2004 Mechanics exam free response number 1, you can find the link up here or google it.1108

Take a minute, print it out, and give it a try, then come back here and we will see how you do.1117

Taking a look at this question.1126

We have got someone swinging from a rope, right when they get to the vertical position on the rope they are grabbing that rock,1130

that mass, and then they are flying off as a projectile.1136

Find the speed of a person just before the collision with the object.1140

I would do that by conservation of energy.1143

The gravitational potential energy at position A must be converted into kinetic energy at position B.1146

Which implies that MG L the length of the rope must equal ½ M1 V².1154

I suppose that is M1 as well.1164

Which implies then the V² = 2 GL or V is going to be equal to the √2 GL right before the collision.1167

It also asks us to find the tension in the rope just before the collision with the object.1181

Our free body diagram, we have tension up and we have M1 G down.1186

We know that the net force, this case we will talk about a centripetal force, must be T - M1 G toward the center of the circle the positive direction.1192

And that has to be equal to mass × centripetal acceleration.1204

In this case, that will be M1 V² /L.1208

Therefore, solving for tension T will be M1 V² /L + M1 G.1215

But we just found out that V² = 2 GL right up there.1225

We can write this as T = M1 2 GL ÷ L + M1 G.1233

We got an L so I have 2M1 G + M1 G is just going to be 3 M1 G.1249

Let us move on to part C, find the speed of the person and object right after the collision.1263

That is a conservation of momentum problem.1271

Our initial momentum must equal our final momentum.1273

You can make a momentum table here if you want to.1277

Which implies then the D mass 1 × initial velocity must equal the combined mass after they collide × their final velocity.1280

Or V final is going to be equal to M1/M1 + M2 × the initial.1293

But V initial is √2 GL so that is just going to be M1/M1 + M2 √2 GL.1301

Moving on the part D, find the ratio of the kinetic energy of the person object system before the collision so the kinetic energy after the collision.1325

Let us start off with a kinetic energy before, that is going to be ½ M1 Vb 4² which is ½ M1 V² was 2 GL.1338

That is going to be M1 GL.1353

To find the kinetic energy after, the kinetic energy after will be 1/2 and their combined mass is M1 + M2 VF²1359

which is ½ F M1 + M2 × (M1 / M1) + M2 × √2 GL² our velocity we found in part C.1370

That implies then with a little bit of algebra, kinetic energy after is going to be ½ M1 + M2.1393

We will have M1² / M1 + M2² × 2 GL.1402

We can do little bit of simplification, M1 + M2 ÷ M1 + M2 to give us ½ M1 + M2 that is going to be equal to M1² / M1 + M2 GL.1415

When we take the final ratio, kinetic energy of B / kinetic energy at A, we are going to have kinetic energy at B/A.1447

We will have M1 GL / A.1457

We have got M1² GL M1 + M2 left over.1463

A little bit of simplification GGLL.1472

We got that M1 vs. M1².1477

I come up with M1 + M2 all divided by M 1.1480

We have got a part E in this question here as well.1493

Let us go give ourselves a little more room again.1496

For part E, find the total horizontal displacement x of the person from position A and tell the person object when the water at D.1499

That second part looks like it is a projectile motion problem, something launch horizontally.1510

Let us do that first.1515

We will find out how long they are in the air.1517

We will take a look at the vertical motion, we will call down the positive y direction.1520

V initial vertically is 0.1525

Our δ y is going to be L.1528

Our acceleration is G, the acceleration due to gravity.1531

δ Y = V initial T + ½ AY T².1536

Our V initial is 0 so that term goes away.1543

We could then write that L = ½ GT² or T is going to be equal to √2 L/G.1547

If we want the total horizontal displacement from B to D, δ x from B to D is just going to be the velocity in x × the time it is in the air.1560

We figured out the velocity in the x direction as they went the edge of the cliff previously, that was M1 / M1 + M2 × √2GL.1576

We need to multiply all of that by the time they are in the air √2L/G.1591

√2L √2L = 2L √G √G is a little bit of simplification here then I come up with 2 LM1 / M1 + M2.1598

We are not asked for just that distance, we are asked for the total distance.1617

The total horizontal displacement from position A.1621

Our total displacement is going to be L + what we just found there 2 LM1 / M1 + M2.1625

Or if you want to do a little bit of algebra, I think which you have there perfectly acceptable.1642

But you could go distribute that through a little bit and have L × get a common denominator M1 + M2 / M1 + M2 + 2 L M1 / M1 + M2,1647

which would be L × M1 + M2 + 2 M1 / M1 + M2.1666

Which is equivalent to, we would have L × 3 M1 + M2 / M1 + M2.1678

I'm not sure that is a whole lot prettier than what we have right there but either one of those should work.1690

Hopefully, that gets you a good feel for center of mass and center of gravity.1698

Thanks for watching www.educator.com.1701

We will see you again soon and make it a great day everybody.1703

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