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INSTRUCTORS Carleen Eaton Grant Fraser
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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Polynomial Functions

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Table of Contents

I. Equations and Inequalities
Expressions and Formulas

22m 23s

Intro
0:00
Order of Operations
0:19
Variable
0:27
Algebraic Expression
0:46
Term
0:57
Example: Algebraic Expression
1:25
Evaluate Inside Grouping Symbols
1:55
Evaluate Powers
2:30
Multiply/Divide Left to Right
2:55
Add/Subtract Left to Right
3:35
Monomials
4:40
Examples of Monomials
4:52
Constant
5:27
Coefficient
5:46
Degree
6:25
Power
7:15
Polynomials
8:02
Examples of Polynomials
8:24
Binomials, Trinomials, Monomials
8:53
Term
9:21
Like Terms
10:02
Formulas
11:00
Example: Pythagorean Theorem
11:15
Example 1: Evaluate the Algebraic Expression
11:50
Example 2: Evaluate the Algebraic Expression
14:38
Example 3: Area of a Triangle
19:11
Example 4: Fahrenheit to Celsius
20:41
Properties of Real Numbers

20m 15s

Intro
0:00
Real Numbers
0:07
Number Line
0:15
Rational Numbers
0:46
Irrational Numbers
2:24
Venn Diagram of Real Numbers
4:03
Irrational Numbers
5:00
Rational Numbers
5:19
Real Number System
5:27
Natural Numbers
5:32
Whole Numbers
5:53
Integers
6:19
Fractions
6:46
Properties of Real Numbers
7:15
Commutative Property
7:34
Associative Property
8:07
Identity Property
9:04
Inverse Property
9:53
Distributive Property
11:03
Example 1: What Set of Numbers?
12:21
Example 2: What Properties Are Used?
13:56
Example 3: Multiplicative Inverse
16:00
Example 4: Simplify Using Properties
17:18
Solving Equations

19m 10s

Intro
0:00
Translations
0:06
Verbal Expressions and Algebraic Expressions
0:13
Example: Sum of Two Numbers
0:19
Example: Square of a Number
1:33
Properties of Equality
3:20
Reflexive Property
3:30
Symmetric Property
3:42
Transitive Property
4:01
Addition Property
5:01
Subtraction Property
5:37
Multiplication Property
6:02
Division Property
6:30
Solving Equations
6:58
Example: Using Properties
7:18
Solving for a Variable
8:25
Example: Solve for Z
8:34
Example 1: Write Algebraic Expression
10:15
Example 2: Write Verbal Expression
11:31
Example 3: Solve the Equation
14:05
Example 4: Simplify Using Properties
17:26
Solving Absolute Value Equations

17m 31s

Intro
0:00
Absolute Value Expressions
0:09
Distance from Zero
0:18
Example: Absolute Value Expression
0:24
Absolute Value Equations
1:50
Example: Absolute Value Equation
2:00
Example: Isolate Expression
3:13
No Solution
3:46
Empty Set
3:58
Example: No Solution
4:12
Number of Solutions
4:46
Check Each Solution
4:57
Example: Two Solutions
5:05
Example: No Solution
6:18
Example: One Solution
6:28
Example 1: Evaluate for X
7:16
Example 2: Write Verbal Expression
9:08
Example 3: Solve the Equation
12:18
Example 4: Simplify Using Properties
13:36
Solving Inequalities

17m 14s

Intro
0:00
Properties of Inequalities
0:08
Addition Property
0:17
Example: Using Numbers
0:30
Subtraction Property
1:03
Example: Using Numbers
1:19
Multiplication Properties
1:44
C>0 (Positive Number)
1:50
Example: Using Numbers
2:05
C<0 (Negative Number)
2:40
Example: Using Numbers
3:10
Division Properties
4:11
C>0 (Positive Number)
4:15
Example: Using Numbers
4:27
C<0 (Negative Number)
5:21
Example: Using Numbers
5:32
Describing the Solution Set
6:10
Example: Set Builder Notation
6:26
Example: Graph (Closed Circle)
7:08
Example: Graph (Open Circle)
7:30
Example 1: Solve the Inequality
7:58
Example 2: Solve the Inequality
9:06
Example 3: Solve the Inequality
10:10
Example 4: Solve the Inequality
13:12
Solving Compound and Absolute Value Inequalities

25m

Intro
0:00
Compound Inequalities
0:08
And and Or
0:13
Example: And
0:22
Example: Or
1:12
And Inequality
1:41
Intersection
1:49
Example: Numbers
2:08
Example: Inequality
2:43
Or Inequality
4:35
Example: Union
4:45
Example: Inequality
5:53
Absolute Value Inequalities
7:19
Definition of Absolute Value
7:33
Examples: Compound Inequalities
8:30
Example: Complex Inequality
12:21
Example 1: Solve the Inequality
12:54
Example 2: Solve the Inequality
17:21
Example 3: Solve the Inequality
18:54
Example 4: Solve the Inequality
22:15
II. Linear Relations and Functions
Relations and Functions

32m 5s

Intro
0:00
Coordinate Plane
0:20
X-Coordinate and Y-Coordinate
0:30
Example: Coordinate Pairs
0:37
Quadrants
1:20
Relations
2:14
Domain and Range
2:19
Set of Ordered Pairs
2:29
As a Table
2:51
Functions
4:21
One Element in Range
4:32
Example: Mapping
4:43
Example: Table and Map
6:26
One-to-One Functions
8:01
Example: One-to-One
8:22
Example: Not One-to-One
9:18
Graphs of Relations
11:01
Discrete and Continuous
11:12
Example: Discrete
11:22
Example: Continous
12:30
Vertical Line Test
14:09
Example: S Curve
14:29
Example: Function
16:15
Equations, Relations, and Functions
17:03
Independent Variable and Dependent Variable
17:16
Function Notation
19:11
Example: Function Notation
19:23
Example 1: Domain and Range
20:51
Example 2: Discrete or Continous
23:03
Example 3: Discrete or Continous
25:53
Example 4: Function Notation
30:05
Linear Equations

14m 46s

Intro
0:00
Linear Equations and Functions
0:07
Linear Equation
0:19
Example: Linear Equation
0:29
Example: Linear Function
1:07
Standard Form
2:02
Integer Constants with No Common Factor
2:08
Example: Standard Form
2:27
Graphing with Intercepts
4:05
X-Intercept and Y-Intercept
4:12
Example: Intercepts
4:26
Example: Graphing
5:14
Example 1: Linear Function
7:53
Example 2: Linear Function
9:10
Example 3: Standard Form
10:04
Example 4: Graph with Intercepts
12:25
Slope

23m 7s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Slope
0:07
Change in Y / Change in X
0:26
Example: Slope of Graph
0:37
Interpretation of Slope
3:07
Horizontal Line (0 Slope)
3:13
Vertical Line (Undefined Slope)
4:52
Rises to Right (Positive Slope)
6:36
Falls to Right (Negative Slope)
6:53
Parallel Lines
7:18
Example: Not Vertical
7:30
Example: Vertical
7:58
Perpendicular Lines
8:31
Example: Perpendicular
8:42
Example 1: Slope of Line
10:32
Example 2: Graph Line
11:45
Example 3: Parallel to Graph
13:37
Example 4: Perpendicular to Graph
17:57
Writing Linear Functions

23m 5s

Intro
0:00
Slope Intercept Form
0:11
m and b
0:28
Example: Graph Using Slope Intercept
0:43
Point Slope Form
2:41
Relation to Slope Formula
3:03
Example: Point Slope Form
4:36
Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
6:28
Review of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
6:31
Example: Parallel
7:50
Example: Perpendicular
9:58
Example 1: Slope Intercept Form
11:07
Example 2: Slope Intercept Form
13:07
Example 3: Parallel
15:49
Example 4: Perpendicular
18:42
Special Functions

31m 5s

Intro
0:00
Step Functions
0:07
Example: Apple Prices
0:30
Absolute Value Function
4:55
Example: Absolute Value
5:05
Piecewise Functions
9:08
Example: Piecewise
9:27
Example 1: Absolute Value Function
14:00
Example 2: Absolute Value Function
20:39
Example 3: Piecewise Function
22:26
Example 4: Step Function
25:25
Graphing Inequalities

21m 42s

Intro
0:00
Graphing Linear Inequalities
0:07
Shaded Region
0:19
Using Test Points
0:32
Graph Corresponding Linear Function
0:46
Dashed or Solid Lines
0:59
Use Test Point
1:21
Example: Linear Inequality
1:58
Graphing Absolute Value Inequalities
4:50
Graph Corresponding Equations
4:59
Use Test Point
5:20
Example: Absolute Value Inequality
5:38
Example 1: Linear Inequality
9:17
Example 2: Linear Inequality
11:56
Example 3: Linear Inequality
14:29
Example 4: Absolute Value Inequality
17:06
III. Systems of Equations and Inequalities
Solving Systems of Equations by Graphing

17m 13s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Equations
0:09
Example: Two Equations
0:24
Solving by Graphing
0:53
Point of Intersection
1:09
Types of Systems
2:29
Independent (Single Solution)
2:34
Dependent (Infinite Solutions)
3:05
Inconsistent (No Solution)
4:23
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
5:20
Example 2: Solve by Graphing
9:10
Example 3: Solve by Graphing
12:27
Example 4: Solve by Graphing
14:54
Solving Systems of Equations Algebraically

23m 53s

Intro
0:00
Solving by Substitution
0:08
Example: System of Equations
0:36
Solving by Multiplication
7:22
Extra Step of Multiplying
7:38
Example: System of Equations
8:00
Inconsistent and Dependent Systems
11:14
Variables Drop Out
11:48
Inconsistent System (Never True)
12:01
Constant Equals Constant
12:53
Dependent System (Always True)
13:11
Example 1: Solve Algebraically
13:58
Example 2: Solve Algebraically
15:52
Example 3: Solve Algebraically
17:54
Example 4: Solve Algebraically
21:40
Solving Systems of Inequalities By Graphing

27m 12s

Intro
0:00
Solving by Graphing
0:08
Graph Each Inequality
0:25
Overlap
0:35
Corresponding Linear Equations
1:03
Test Point
1:23
Example: System of Inequalities
1:51
No Solution
7:06
Empty Set
7:26
Example: No Solution
7:34
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
10:27
Example 2: Solve by Graphing
13:30
Example 3: Solve by Graphing
17:19
Example 4: Solve by Graphing
23:23
Solving Systems of Equations in Three Variables

28m 53s

Intro
0:00
Solving Systems in Three Variables
0:17
Triple of Values
0:31
Example: Three Variables
0:56
Number of Solutions
5:55
One Solution
6:08
No Solution
6:24
Infinite Solutions
7:06
Example 1: Solve 3 Variables
7:59
Example 2: Solve 3 Variables
13:50
Example 3: Solve 3 Variables
19:54
Example 4: Solve 3 Variables
25:50
IV. Matrices
Basic Matrix Concepts

11m 34s

Intro
0:00
What is a Matrix
0:26
Brackets
0:46
Designation
1:21
Element
1:47
Matrix Equations
1:59
Dimensions
2:27
Rows (m) and Columns (n)
2:37
Examples: Dimensions
2:43
Special Matrices
4:22
Row Matrix
4:32
Column Matrix
5:00
Zero Matrix
6:00
Equal Matrices
6:30
Example: Corresponding Elements
6:36
Example 1: Matrix Dimension
8:12
Example 2: Matrix Dimension
9:03
Example 3: Zero Matrix
9:38
Example 4: Row and Column Matrix
10:26
Matrix Operations

21m 36s

Intro
0:00
Matrix Addition
0:18
Same Dimensions
0:25
Example: Adding Matrices
1:04
Matrix Subtraction
3:42
Same Dimensions
3:48
Example: Subtracting Matrices
4:04
Scalar Multiplication
6:08
Scalar Constant
6:24
Example: Multiplying Matrices
6:32
Properties of Matrix Operations
8:23
Commutative Property
8:41
Associative Property
9:08
Distributive Property
9:44
Example 1: Matrix Addition
10:24
Example 2: Matrix Subtraction
11:58
Example 3: Scalar Multiplication
14:23
Example 4: Matrix Properties
16:09
Matrix Multiplication

29m 36s

Intro
0:00
Dimension Requirement
0:17
n = p
0:24
Resulting Product Matrix (m x q)
1:21
Example: Multiplication
1:54
Matrix Multiplication
3:38
Example: Matrix Multiplication
4:07
Properties of Matrix Multiplication
10:46
Associative Property
11:00
Associative Property (Scalar)
11:28
Distributive Property
12:06
Distributive Property (Scalar)
12:30
Example 1: Possible Matrices
13:31
Example 2: Multiplying Matrices
17:08
Example 3: Multiplying Matrices
20:41
Example 4: Matrix Properties
24:41
Determinants

33m 13s

Intro
0:00
What is a Determinant
0:13
Square Matrices
0:23
Vertical Bars
0:41
Determinant of a 2x2 Matrix
1:21
Second Order Determinant
1:37
Formula
1:45
Example: 2x2 Determinant
1:58
Determinant of a 3x3 Matrix
2:50
Expansion by Minors
3:08
Third Order Determinant
3:19
Expanding Row One
4:06
Example: 3x3 Determinant
6:40
Diagonal Method for 3x3 Matrices
13:24
Example: Diagonal Method
13:36
Example 1: Determinant of 2x2
18:59
Example 2: Determinant of 3x3
20:03
Example 3: Determinant of 3x3
25:35
Example 4: Determinant of 3x3
29:22
Cramer's Rule

28m 25s

Intro
0:00
System of Two Equations in Two Variables
0:16
One Variable
0:50
Determinant of Denominator
1:14
Determinants of Numerators
2:23
Example: System of Equations
3:34
System of Three Equations in Three Variables
7:06
Determinant of Denominator
7:17
Determinants of Numerators
7:52
Example 1: Two Equations
8:57
Example 2: Two Equations
13:21
Example 3: Three Equations
17:11
Example 4: Three Equations
23:43
Identity and Inverse Matrices

22m 25s

Intro
0:00
Identity Matrix
0:13
Example: 2x2 Identity Matrix
0:30
Example: 4x4 Identity Matrix
0:50
Properties of Identity Matrices
1:24
Example: Multiplying Identity Matrix
2:52
Matrix Inverses
5:30
Writing Matrix Inverse
6:07
Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix
6:39
Example: 2x2 Matrix
7:31
Example 1: Inverse Matrix
10:18
Example 2: Find the Inverse Matrix
13:04
Example 3: Find the Inverse Matrix
17:53
Example 4: Find the Inverse Matrix
20:44
Solving Systems of Equations Using Matrices

22m 32s

Intro
0:00
Matrix Equations
0:11
Example: System of Equations
0:21
Solving Systems of Equations
4:01
Isolate x
4:16
Example: Using Numbers
5:10
Multiplicative Inverse
5:54
Example 1: Write as Matrix Equation
7:18
Example 2: Use Matrix Equations
9:12
Example 3: Use Matrix Equations
15:06
Example 4: Use Matrix Equations
19:35
V. Quadratic Functions and Inequalities
Graphing Quadratic Functions

31m 48s

Intro
0:00
Quadratic Functions
0:12
A is Zero
0:27
Example: Parabola
0:45
Properties of Parabolas
2:08
Axis of Symmetry
2:11
Vertex
2:32
Example: Parabola
2:48
Minimum and Maximum Values
9:02
Positive or Negative
9:28
Upward or Downward
9:58
Example: Minimum
10:31
Example: Maximum
11:16
Example 1: Axis of Symmetry, Vertex, Graph
12:41
Example 2: Axis of Symmetry, Vertex, Graph
17:25
Example 3: Minimum or Maximum
21:47
Example 4: Minimum or Maximum
27:09
Solving Quadratic Equations by Graphing

27m 3s

Intro
0:00
Quadratic Equations
0:16
Standard Form
0:18
Example: Quadratic Equation
0:47
Solving by Graphing
1:41
Roots (x-Intercepts)
1:48
Example: Number of Solutions
2:12
Estimating Solutions
9:23
Example: Integer Solutions
9:30
Example: Estimating
9:53
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
10:52
Example 2: Solve by Graphing
15:10
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
17:50
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
20:54
Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring

19m 53s

Intro
0:00
Factoring Techniques
0:15
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
0:37
Difference of Two Squares
1:48
Perfect Square Trinomials
2:30
General Trinomials
3:09
Zero Product Rule
5:22
Example: Zero Product
5:53
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
7:46
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
9:48
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
12:34
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
15:28
Imaginary and Complex Numbers

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Properties of Square Roots
0:10
Product Property
0:26
Example: Product Property
0:56
Quotient Property
2:17
Example: Quotient Property
2:35
Imaginary Numbers
3:12
Imaginary i
3:51
Examples: Imaginary Number
4:22
Complex Numbers
7:23
Real Part and Imaginary Part
7:33
Examples: Complex Numbers
7:57
Equality
9:37
Example: Equal Complex Numbers
9:52
Addition and Subtraction
10:12
Examples: Adding Complex Numbers
10:25
Complex Plane
13:32
Horizontal Axis (Real)
13:49
Vertical Axis (Imaginary)
13:59
Example: Labeling
14:11
Multiplication
15:57
Example: FOIL Method
16:03
Division
18:37
Complex Conjugates
18:45
Conjugate Pairs
19:10
Example: Dividing Complex Numbers
20:00
Example 1: Simplify Complex Number
24:50
Example 2: Simplify Complex Number
27:56
Example 3: Multiply Complex Numbers
29:27
Example 3: Dividing Complex Numbers
31:48
Completing the Square

27m 11s

Intro
0:00
Square Root Property
0:12
Example: Perfect Square
0:38
Example: Perfect Square Trinomial
3:00
Completing the Square
4:39
Constant Term
4:50
Example: Complete the Square
5:04
Solve Equations
6:42
Add to Both Sides
6:59
Example: Complete the Square
7:07
Equations Where a Not Equal to 1
10:58
Divide by Coefficient
11:08
Example: Complete the Square
11:24
Complex Solutions
14:05
Real and Imaginary
14:14
Example: Complex Solution
14:35
Example 1: Square Root Property
18:31
Example 2: Complete the Square
19:15
Example 3: Complete the Square
20:40
Example 4: Complete the Square
23:56
Quadratic Formula and the Discriminant

22m 48s

Intro
0:00
Quadratic Formula
0:21
Standard Form
0:29
Example: Quadratic Formula
0:57
One Rational Root
3:00
Example: One Root
3:31
Complex Solutions
6:16
Complex Conjugate
6:28
Example: Complex Solution
7:15
Discriminant
9:42
Positive Discriminant
10:03
Perfect Square (Rational)
10:51
Not Perfect Square (2 Irrational)
11:27
Negative Discriminant
12:28
Zero Discriminant
12:57
Example 1: Quadratic Formula
13:50
Example 2: Quadratic Formula
16:03
Example 3: Quadratic Formula
19:00
Example 4: Discriminant
21:33
Analyzing the Graphs of Quadratic Functions

30m 7s

Intro
0:00
Vertex Form
0:12
H and K
0:32
Axis of Symmetry
0:36
Vertex
0:42
Example: Origin
1:00
Example: k = 2
2:12
Example: h = 1
4:27
Significance of Coefficient a
7:13
Example: |a| > 1
7:25
Example: |a| < 1
8:18
Example: |a| > 0
8:51
Example: |a| < 0
9:05
Writing Quadratic Equations in Vertex Form
10:22
Standard Form to Vertex Form
10:35
Example: Standard Form
11:02
Example: a Term Not 1
14:42
Example 1: Vertex Form
19:47
Example 2: Vertex Form
22:09
Example 3: Vertex Form
24:32
Example 4: Vertex Form
28:23
Graphing and Solving Quadratic Inequalities

27m 5s

Intro
0:00
Graphing Quadratic Inequalities
0:11
Test Point
0:18
Example: Quadratic Inequality
0:29
Solving Quadratic Inequalities
3:57
Example: Parameter
4:24
Example 1: Graph Inequality
11:16
Example 2: Solve Inequality
14:27
Example 3: Graph Inequality
19:14
Example 4: Solve Inequality
23:48
VI. Polynomial Functions
Properties of Exponents

19m 29s

Intro
0:00
Simplifying Exponential Expressions
0:09
Monomial Simplest Form
0:19
Negative Exponents
1:07
Examples: Simple
1:34
Properties of Exponents
3:06
Negative Exponents
3:13
Mutliplying Same Base
3:24
Dividing Same Base
3:45
Raising Power to a Power
4:33
Parentheses (Multiplying)
5:11
Parentheses (Dividing)
5:47
Raising to 0th Power
6:15
Example 1: Simplify Exponents
7:59
Example 2: Simplify Exponents
10:41
Example 3: Simplify Exponents
14:11
Example 4: Simplify Exponents
18:04
Operations on Polynomials

13m 27s

Intro
0:00
Adding and Subtracting Polynomials
0:13
Like Terms and Like Monomials
0:23
Examples: Adding Monomials
1:14
Multiplying Polynomials
3:40
Distributive Property
3:44
Example: Monomial by Polynomial
4:06
Example 1: Simplify Polynomials
5:47
Example 2: Simplify Polynomials
6:28
Example 3: Simplify Polynomials
8:38
Example 4: Simplify Polynomials
10:47
Dividing Polynomials

31m 11s

Intro
0:00
Dividing by a Monomial
0:13
Example: Numbers
0:26
Example: Polynomial by a Monomial
1:18
Long Division
2:28
Remainder Term
2:41
Example: Dividing with Numbers
3:04
Example: With Polynomials
5:01
Example: Missing Terms
7:58
Synthetic Division
11:44
Restriction
12:04
Example: Divisor in Form
12:20
Divisor in Synthetic Division
15:54
Example: Coefficient to 1
16:07
Example 1: Divide Polynomials
17:10
Example 2: Divide Polynomials
19:08
Example 3: Synthetic Division
21:42
Example 4: Synthetic Division
25:09
Polynomial Functions

22m 30s

Intro
0:00
Polynomial in One Variable
0:13
Leading Coefficient
0:27
Example: Polynomial
1:18
Degree
1:31
Polynomial Functions
2:57
Example: Function
3:13
Function Values
3:33
Example: Numerical Values
3:53
Example: Algebraic Expressions
5:11
Zeros of Polynomial Functions
5:50
Odd Degree
6:04
Even Degree
7:29
End Behavior
8:28
Even Degrees
9:09
Example: Leading Coefficient +/-
9:23
Odd Degrees
12:51
Example: Leading Coefficient +/-
13:00
Example 1: Degree and Leading Coefficient
15:03
Example 2: Polynomial Function
15:56
Example 3: Polynomial Function
17:34
Example 4: End Behavior
19:53
Analyzing Graphs of Polynomial Functions

33m 29s

Intro
0:00
Graphing Polynomial Functions
0:11
Example: Table and End Behavior
0:39
Location Principle
4:43
Zero Between Two Points
5:03
Example: Location Principle
5:21
Maximum and Minimum Points
8:40
Relative Maximum and Relative Minimum
9:16
Example: Number of Relative Max/Min
11:11
Example 1: Graph Polynomial Function
11:57
Example 2: Graph Polynomial Function
16:19
Example 3: Graph Polynomial Function
23:27
Example 4: Graph Polynomial Function
28:35
Solving Polynomial Functions

21m 10s

Intro
0:00
Factoring Polynomials
0:06
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
0:25
Difference of Two Squares
1:14
Perfect Square Trinomials
2:07
General Trinomials
2:57
Grouping
4:32
Sum and Difference of Two Cubes
6:03
Examples: Two Cubes
6:14
Quadratic Form
8:22
Example: Quadratic Form
8:44
Example 1: Factor Polynomial
12:03
Example 2: Factor Polynomial
13:54
Example 3: Quadratic Form
15:33
Example 4: Solve Polynomial Function
17:24
Remainder and Factor Theorems

31m 21s

Intro
0:00
Remainder Theorem
0:07
Checking Work
0:22
Dividend and Divisor in Theorem
1:12
Example: f(a)
2:05
Synthetic Substitution
5:43
Example: Polynomial Function
6:15
Factor Theorem
9:54
Example: Numbers
10:16
Example: Confirm Factor
11:27
Factoring Polynomials
14:48
Example: 3rd Degree Polynomial
15:07
Example 1: Remainder Theorem
19:17
Example 2: Other Factors
21:57
Example 3: Remainder Theorem
25:52
Example 4: Other Factors
28:21
Roots and Zeros

31m 27s

Intro
0:00
Number of Roots
0:08
Not Nature of Roots
0:18
Example: Real and Complex Roots
0:25
Descartes' Rule of Signs
2:05
Positive Real Roots
2:21
Example: Positve
2:39
Negative Real Roots
5:44
Example: Negative
6:06
Finding the Roots
9:59
Example: Combination of Real and Complex
10:07
Conjugate Roots
13:18
Example: Conjugate Roots
13:50
Example 1: Solve Polynomial
16:03
Example 2: Solve Polynomial
18:36
Example 3: Possible Combinations
23:13
Example 4: Possible Combinations
27:11
Rational Zero Theorem

31m 16s

Intro
0:00
Equation
0:08
List of Possibilities
0:16
Equation with Constant and Leading Coefficient
1:04
Example: Rational Zero
2:46
Leading Coefficient Equal to One
7:19
Equation with Leading Coefficient of One
7:34
Example: Coefficient Equal to 1
8:45
Finding Rational Zeros
12:58
Division with Remainder Zero
13:32
Example 1: Possible Rational Zeros
14:20
Example 2: Possible Rational Zeros
16:02
Example 3: Possible Rational Zeros
19:58
Example 4: Find All Zeros
22:06
VII. Radical Expressions and Inequalities
Operations on Functions

34m 30s

Intro
0:00
Arithmetic Operations
0:07
Domain
0:16
Intersection
0:24
Denominator is Zero
0:49
Example: Operations
1:02
Composition of Functions
7:18
Notation
7:48
Right to Left
8:18
Example: Composition
8:48
Composition is Not Commutative
17:23
Example: Not Commutative
17:51
Example 1: Function Operations
20:55
Example 2: Function Operations
24:34
Example 3: Compositions
27:51
Example 4: Function Operations
31:09
Inverse Functions and Relations

22m 42s

Intro
0:00
Inverse of a Relation
0:14
Example: Ordered Pairs
0:56
Inverse of a Function
3:24
Domain and Range Switched
3:52
Example: Inverse
4:28
Procedure to Construct an Inverse Function
6:42
f(x) to y
6:42
Interchange x and y
6:59
Solve for y
7:06
Write Inverse f(x) for y
7:14
Example: Inverse Function
7:25
Example: Inverse Function 2
8:48
Inverses and Compositions
10:44
Example: Inverse Composition
11:46
Example 1: Inverse Relation
14:49
Example 2: Inverse of Function
15:40
Example 3: Inverse of Function
17:06
Example 4: Inverse Functions
18:55
Square Root Functions and Inequalities

30m 4s

Intro
0:00
Square Root Functions
0:07
Examples: Square Root Function
0:16
Example: Not Square Root Function
0:46
Radicand
1:12
Example: Restriction
1:31
Graphing Square Root Functions
3:42
Example: Graphing
3:49
Square Root Inequalities
8:47
Same Technique
9:00
Example: Square Root Inequality
9:20
Example 1: Graph Square Root Function
15:19
Example 2: Graph Square Root Function
18:03
Example 3: Graph Square Root Function
22:41
Example 4: Square Root Inequalities
25:37
nth Roots

20m 46s

Intro
0:00
Definition of the nth Root
0:07
Example: 5th Root
0:20
Example: 6th Root
0:51
Principal nth Root
1:39
Example: Principal Roots
2:06
Using Absolute Values
5:58
Example: Square Root
6:18
Example: 6th Root
8:40
Example: Negative
10:15
Example 1: Simplify Radicals
12:23
Example 2: Simplify Radicals
13:29
Example 3: Simplify Radicals
16:07
Example 4: Simplify Radicals
18:18
Operations with Radical Expressions

41m 11s

Intro
0:00
Properties of Radicals
0:16
Quotient Property
0:29
Example: Quotient
1:00
Example: Product Property
1:47
Simplifying Radical Expressions
3:24
Radicand No nth Powers
3:47
Radicand No Fractions
6:33
No Radicals in Denominator
7:16
Rationalizing Denominators
8:27
Example: Radicand nth Power
9:05
Conjugate Radical Expressions
11:47
Conjugates
12:07
Example: Conjugate Radical Expression
13:11
Adding and Subtracting Radicals
16:12
Same Index, Same Radicand
16:20
Example: Like Radicals
16:28
Multiplying Radicals
19:04
Distributive Property
19:10
Example: Multiplying Radicals
19:20
Example 1: Simplify Radical
24:11
Example 2: Simplify Radicals
28:43
Example 3: Simplify Radicals
32:00
Example 4: Simplify Radical
36:34
Rational Exponents

30m 45s

Intro
0:00
Definition 1
0:20
Example: Using Numbers
0:39
Example: Non-Negative
2:46
Example: Odd
3:34
Definition 2
4:32
Restriction
4:52
Example: Relate to Definition 1
5:04
Example: m Not 1
5:31
Simplifying Expressions
7:53
Multiplication
8:31
Division
9:29
Multiply Exponents
10:08
Raised Power
11:05
Zero Power
11:29
Negative Power
11:49
Simplified Form
13:52
Complex Fraction
14:16
Negative Exponents
14:40
Example: More Complicated
15:14
Example 1: Write as Radical
19:03
Example 2: Write with Rational Exponents
20:40
Example 3: Complex Fraction
22:09
Example 4: Complex Fraction
26:22
Solving Radical Equations and Inequalities

31m 27s

Intro
0:00
Radical Equations
0:11
Variables in Radicands
0:22
Example: Radical Equation
1:06
Example: Complex Equation
2:42
Extraneous Roots
7:21
Squaring Technique
7:35
Double Check
7:44
Example: Extraneous
8:21
Eliminating nth Roots
10:04
Isolate and Raise Power
10:14
Example: nth Root
10:27
Radical Inequalities
11:27
Restriction: Index is Even
11:53
Example: Radical Inequality
12:29
Example 1: Solve Radical Equation
15:41
Example 2: Solve Radical Equation
17:44
Example 3: Solve Radical Inequality
20:24
Example 4: Solve Radical Equation
24:34
VIII. Rational Equations and Inequalities
Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions

40m 54s

Intro
0:00
Simplifying Rational Expressions
0:22
Algebraic Fraction
0:29
Examples: Rational Expressions
0:49
Example: GCF
1:33
Example: Simplify Rational Expression
2:26
Factoring -1
4:04
Example: Simplify with -1
4:19
Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions
6:59
Multiplying and Dividing
7:28
Example: Multiplying Rational Expressions
8:36
Example: Dividing Rational Expressions
11:20
Factoring
14:01
Factoring Polynomials
14:19
Example: Factoring
14:35
Complex Fractions
18:22
Example: Numbers
18:37
Example: Algebraic Complex Fractions
19:25
Example 1: Simplify Rational Expression
25:56
Example 2: Simplify Rational Expression
29:34
Example 3: Simplify Rational Expression
31:39
Example 4: Simplify Rational Expression
37:50
Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions

55m 4s

Intro
0:00
Least Common Multiple (LCM)
0:27
Examples: LCM of Numbers
0:43
Example: LCM of Polynomials
4:02
Adding and Subtracting
7:55
Least Common Denominator (LCD)
8:07
Example: Numbers
8:17
Example: Rational Expressions
11:03
Equivalent Fractions
15:22
Simplifying Complex Fractions
21:19
Example: Previous Lessons
21:36
Example: More Complex
22:53
Example 1: Find LCM
28:30
Example 2: Add Rational Expressions
31:44
Example 3: Subtract Rational Expressions
39:18
Example 4: Simplify Rational Expression
38:26
Graphing Rational Functions

57m 13s

Intro
0:00
Rational Functions
0:18
Restriction
0:34
Example: Rational Function
0:51
Breaks in Continuity
2:52
Example: Continuous Function
3:10
Discontinuities
3:30
Example: Excluded Values
4:37
Graphs and Discontinuities
5:02
Common Binomial Factor (Hole)
5:08
Example: Common Factor
5:31
Asymptote
10:06
Example: Vertical Asymptote
11:08
Horizontal Asymptotes
20:00
Example: Horizontal Asymptote
20:25
Example 1: Holes and Vertical Asymptotes
26:12
Example 2: Graph Rational Faction
28:35
Example 3: Graph Rational Faction
39:23
Example 4: Graph Rational Faction
47:28
Direct, Joint, and Inverse Variation

20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Direct Variation
0:07
Constant of Variation
0:25
Graph of Constant Variation
1:26
Slope is Constant k
1:35
Example: Straight Lines
1:41
Joint Variation
2:48
Three Variables
2:52
Inverse Variation
3:38
Rewritten Form
3:52
Examples in Biology
4:22
Graph of Inverse Variation
4:51
Asymptotes are Axes
5:12
Example: Inverse Variation
5:40
Proportions
10:11
Direct Variation
10:25
Inverse Variation
11:32
Example 1: Type of Variation
12:42
Example 2: Direct Variation
14:13
Example 3: Joint Variation
16:24
Example 4: Graph Rational Faction
18:50
Solving Rational Equations and Inequalities

55m 14s

Intro
0:00
Rational Equations
0:15
Example: Algebraic Fraction
0:26
Least Common Denominator
0:49
Example: Simple Rational Equation
1:22
Example: Solve Rational Equation
5:40
Extraneous Solutions
9:31
Doublecheck
10:00
No Solution
10:38
Example: Extraneous
10:44
Rational Inequalities
14:01
Excluded Values
14:31
Solve Related Equation
14:49
Find Intervals
14:58
Use Test Values
15:25
Example: Rational Inequality
15:51
Example: Rational Inequality 2
17:07
Example 1: Rational Equation
28:50
Example 2: Rational Equation
33:51
Example 3: Rational Equation
38:19
Example 4: Rational Inequality
46:49
IX. Exponential and Logarithmic Relations
Exponential Functions

35m 58s

Intro
0:00
What is an Exponential Function?
0:12
Restriction on b
0:31
Base
0:46
Example: Exponents as Bases
0:56
Variables as Exponents
1:12
Example: Exponential Function
1:50
Graphing Exponential Functions
2:33
Example: Using Table
2:49
Properties
11:52
Continuous and One to One
12:00
Domain is All Real Numbers
13:14
X-Axis Asymptote
13:55
Y-Intercept
14:02
Reflection Across Y-Axis
14:31
Growth and Decay
15:06
Exponential Growth
15:10
Real Life Examples
15:41
Example: Growth
15:52
Example: Decay
16:12
Real Life Examples
16:30
Equations
17:32
Bases are Same
18:05
Examples: Variables as Exponents
18:20
Inequalities
21:29
Property
21:51
Example: Inequality
22:37
Example 1: Graph Exponential Function
24:05
Example 2: Growth or Decay
27:50
Example 3: Exponential Equation
29:31
Example 4: Exponential Inequality
32:54
Logarithms and Logarithmic Functions

45m 54s

Intro
0:00
What are Logarithms?
0:08
Restrictions
0:15
Written Form
0:26
Logarithms are Exponents
0:52
Example: Logarithms
1:49
Logarithmic Functions
5:14
Same Restrictions
5:30
Inverses
5:53
Example: Logarithmic Function
6:24
Graph of the Logarithmic Function
9:20
Example: Using Table
9:35
Properties
15:09
Continuous and One to One
15:14
Domain
15:36
Range
15:56
Y-Axis is Asymptote
16:02
X Intercept
16:12
Inverse Property
16:57
Compositions of Functions
17:10
Equations
18:30
Example: Logarithmic Equation
19:13
Inequalities
20:36
Properties
20:47
Example: Logarithmic Inequality
21:40
Equations with Logarithms on Both Sides
24:43
Property
24:51
Example: Both Sides
25:23
Inequalities with Logarithms on Both Sides
26:52
Property
27:02
Example: Both Sides
28:05
Example 1: Solve Log Equation
31:52
Example 2: Solve Log Equation
33:53
Example 3: Solve Log Equation
36:15
Example 4: Solve Log Inequality
39:19
Properties of Logarithms

28m 43s

Intro
0:00
Product Property
0:08
Example: Product
0:46
Quotient Property
2:40
Example: Quotient
2:59
Power Property
3:51
Moved Exponent
4:07
Example: Power
4:37
Equations
5:15
Example: Use Properties
5:58
Example 1: Simplify Log
11:17
Example 2: Single Log
15:54
Example 3: Solve Log Equation
18:48
Example 4: Solve Log Equation
22:13
Common Logarithms

25m 23s

Intro
0:00
What are Common Logarithms?
0:10
Real World Applications
0:16
Base Not Written
0:27
Example: Base 10
0:39
Equations
1:47
Example: Same Base
1:56
Example: Different Base
2:37
Inequalities
6:07
Multiplying/Dividing Inequality
6:21
Example: Log Inequality
6:54
Change of Base
12:45
Base 10
13:24
Example: Change of Base
14:05
Example 1: Log Equation
15:21
Example 2: Common Logs
17:13
Example 3: Log Equation
18:22
Example 4: Log Inequality
21:52
Base e and Natural Logarithms

21m 14s

Intro
0:00
Number e
0:09
Natural Base
0:21
Growth/Decay
0:33
Example: Exponential Function
0:53
Natural Logarithms
1:11
ln x
1:19
Inverse and Identity Function
1:39
Example: Inverse Composition
1:55
Equations and Inequalities
4:39
Extraneous Solutions
5:30
Examples: Natural Log Equations
5:48
Example 1: Natural Log Equation
9:08
Example 2: Natural Log Equation
10:37
Example 3: Natural Log Inequality
16:54
Example 4: Natural Log Inequality
18:16
Exponential Growth and Decay

24m 30s

Intro
0:00
Decay
0:17
Decreases by Fixed Percentage
0:23
Rate of Decay
0:56
Example: Finance
1:34
Scientific Model of Decay
3:37
Exponential Decay
3:45
Radioactive Decay
4:13
Example: Half Life
5:33
Growth
9:06
Increases by Fixed Percentage
9:18
Example: Finance
10:09
Scientific Model of Growth
11:35
Population Growth
12:04
Example: Growth
12:20
Example 1: Computer Price
14:00
Example 2: Stock Price
15:46
Example 3: Medicine Disintegration
19:10
Example 4: Population Growth
22:33
X. Conic Sections
Midpoint and Distance Formulas

32m 42s

Intro
0:00
Midpoint Formula
0:15
Example: Midpoint
0:30
Distance Formula
2:30
Example: Distance
2:52
Example 1: Midpoint and Distance
4:58
Example 2: Midpoint and Distance
8:07
Example 3: Median Length
18:51
Example 4: Perimeter and Area
23:36
Parabolas

41m 27s

Intro
0:00
What is a Parabola?
0:20
Definition of a Parabola
0:29
Focus
0:59
Directrix
1:15
Axis of Symmetry
3:08
Vertex
3:33
Minimum or Maximum
3:44
Standard Form
4:59
Horizontal Parabolas
5:08
Vertex Form
5:19
Upward or Downward
5:41
Example: Standard Form
6:06
Graphing Parabolas
8:31
Shifting
8:51
Example: Completing the Square
9:22
Symmetry and Translation
12:18
Example: Graph Parabola
12:40
Latus Rectum
17:13
Length
18:15
Example: Latus Rectum
18:35
Horizontal Parabolas
18:57
Not Functions
20:08
Example: Horizontal Parabola
21:21
Focus and Directrix
24:11
Horizontal
24:48
Example 1: Parabola Standard Form
25:12
Example 2: Graph Parabola
30:00
Example 3: Graph Parabola
33:13
Example 4: Parabola Equation
37:28
Circles

21m 3s

Intro
0:00
What are Circles?
0:08
Example: Equidistant
0:17
Radius
0:32
Equation of a Circle
0:44
Example: Standard Form
1:11
Graphing Circles
1:47
Example: Circle
1:56
Center Not at Origin
3:07
Example: Completing the Square
3:51
Example 1: Equation of Circle
6:44
Example 2: Center and Radius
11:51
Example 3: Radius
15:08
Example 4: Equation of Circle
16:57
Ellipses

46m 51s

Intro
0:00
What Are Ellipses?
0:11
Foci
0:23
Properties of Ellipses
1:43
Major Axis, Minor Axis
1:47
Center
1:54
Length of Major Axis and Minor Axis
3:21
Standard Form
5:33
Example: Standard Form of Ellipse
6:09
Vertical Major Axis
9:14
Example: Vertical Major Axis
9:46
Graphing Ellipses
12:51
Complete the Square and Symmetry
13:00
Example: Graphing Ellipse
13:16
Equation with Center at (h, k)
19:57
Horizontal and Vertical
20:14
Difference
20:27
Example: Center at (h, k)
20:55
Example 1: Equation of Ellipse
24:05
Example 2: Equation of Ellipse
27:57
Example 3: Equation of Ellipse
32:32
Example 4: Graph Ellipse
38:27
Hyperbolas

38m 15s

Intro
0:00
What are Hyperbolas?
0:12
Two Branches
0:18
Foci
0:38
Properties
2:00
Transverse Axis and Conjugate Axis
2:06
Vertices
2:46
Length of Transverse Axis
3:14
Distance Between Foci
3:31
Length of Conjugate Axis
3:38
Standard Form
5:45
Vertex Location
6:36
Known Points
6:52
Vertical Transverse Axis
7:26
Vertex Location
7:50
Asymptotes
8:36
Vertex Location
8:56
Rectangle
9:28
Diagonals
10:29
Graphing Hyperbolas
12:58
Example: Hyperbola
13:16
Equation with Center at (h, k)
16:32
Example: Center at (h, k)
17:21
Example 1: Equation of Hyperbola
19:20
Example 2: Equation of Hyperbola
22:48
Example 3: Graph Hyperbola
26:05
Example 4: Equation of Hyperbola
36:29
Conic Sections

18m 43s

Intro
0:00
Conic Sections
0:16
Double Cone Sections
0:24
Standard Form
1:27
General Form
1:37
Identify Conic Sections
2:16
B = 0
2:50
X and Y
3:22
Identify Conic Sections, Cont.
4:46
Parabola
5:17
Circle
5:51
Ellipse
6:31
Hyperbola
7:10
Example 1: Identify Conic Section
8:01
Example 2: Identify Conic Section
11:03
Example 3: Identify Conic Section
11:38
Example 4: Identify Conic Section
14:50
Solving Quadratic Systems

47m 4s

Intro
0:00
Linear Quadratic Systems
0:22
Example: Linear Quadratic System
0:45
Solutions
2:49
Graphs of Possible Solutions
3:10
Quadratic Quadratic System
4:10
Example: Elimination
4:21
Solutions
11:39
Example: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Solutions
11:50
Systems of Quadratic Inequalities
12:48
Example: Quadratic Inequality
13:09
Example 1: Solve Quadratic System
21:42
Example 2: Solve Quadratic System
29:13
Example 3: Solve Quadratic System
35:02
Example 4: Solve Quadratic Inequality
40:29
XI. Sequences and Series
Arithmetic Sequences

21m 16s

Intro
0:00
Sequences
0:10
General Form of Sequence
0:16
Example: Finite/Infinite Sequences
0:33
Arithmetic Sequences
0:28
Common Difference
2:41
Example: Arithmetic Sequence
2:50
Formula for the nth Term
3:51
Example: nth Term
4:32
Equation for the nth Term
6:37
Example: Using Formula
6:56
Arithmetic Means
9:47
Example: Arithmetic Means
10:16
Example 1: nth Term
12:38
Example 2: Arithmetic Means
13:49
Example 3: Arithmetic Means
16:12
Example 4: nth Term
18:26
Arithmetic Series

21m 36s

Intro
0:00
What are Arithmetic Series?
0:11
Common Difference
0:28
Example: Arithmetic Sequence
0:43
Example: Arithmetic Series
1:09
Finite/Infinite Series
1:36
Sum of Arithmetic Series
2:27
Example: Sum
3:21
Sigma Notation
5:53
Index
6:14
Example: Sigma Notation
7:14
Example 1: First Term
9:00
Example 2: Three Terms
10:52
Example 3: Sum of Series
14:14
Example 4: Sum of Series
18:13
Geometric Sequences

23m 3s

Intro
0:00
Geometric Sequences
0:11
Common Difference
0:38
Common Ratio
1:08
Example: Geometric Sequence
2:38
nth Term of a Geometric Sequence
4:41
Example: nth Term
4:56
Geometric Means
6:51
Example: Geometric Mean
7:09
Example 1: 9th Term
12:04
Example 2: Geometric Means
15:18
Example 3: nth Term
18:32
Example 4: Three Terms
20:59
Geometric Series

22m 43s

Intro
0:00
What are Geometric Series?
0:11
List of Numbers
0:24
Example: Geometric Series
1:12
Sum of Geometric Series
2:16
Example: Sum of Geometric Series
2:41
Sigma Notation
4:21
Lower Index, Upper Index
4:38
Example: Sigma Notation
4:57
Another Sum Formula
6:08
Example: n Unknown
6:28
Specific Terms
7:41
Sum Formula
7:56
Example: Specific Term
8:11
Example 1: Sum of Geometric Series
10:02
Example 2: Sum of 8 Terms
14:15
Example 3: Sum of Geometric Series
18:23
Example 4: First Term
20:16
Infinite Geometric Series

18m 32s

Intro
0:00
What are Infinite Geometric Series
0:10
Example: Finite
0:29
Example: Infinite
0:51
Partial Sums
1:09
Formula
1:37
Sum of an Infinite Geometric Series
2:39
Convergent Series
2:58
Example: Sum of Convergent Series
3:28
Sigma Notation
7:31
Example: Sigma
8:17
Repeating Decimals
8:42
Example: Repeating Decimal
8:53
Example 1: Sum of Infinite Geometric Series
12:15
Example 2: Repeating Decimal
13:24
Example 3: Sum of Infinite Geometric Series
15:14
Example 4: Repeating Decimal
16:48
Recursion and Special Sequences

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Fibonacci Sequence
0:05
Background of Fibonacci
0:23
Recursive Formula
0:37
Fibonacci Sequence
0:52
Example: Recursive Formula
2:18
Iteration
3:49
Example: Iteration
4:30
Example 1: Five Terms
7:08
Example 2: Three Terms
9:00
Example 3: Five Terms
10:38
Example 4: Three Iterates
12:41
Binomial Theorem

48m 30s

Intro
0:00
Pascal's Triangle
0:06
Expand Binomial
0:13
Pascal's Triangle
4:26
Properties
6:52
Example: Properties of Binomials
6:58
Factorials
9:11
Product
9:28
Example: Factorial
9:45
Binomial Theorem
11:08
Example: Binomial Theorem
13:48
Finding a Specific Term
18:36
Example: Specific Term
19:26
Example 1: Expand
24:39
Example 2: Fourth Term
30:26
Example 3: Five Terms
36:13
Example 4: Three Iterates
45:07
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Fri Jun 8, 2018 11:31 PM

Post by John Stedge on June 5 at 11:30:29 AM

In example one when you re-wrote the polynomial you dropped on of the operational signs; you wrote -12x^4-11x^3-7x^23x+9 not -12x^4-11x^3-7x^2+3x+9. The way you wrote it, it seems that the "3x" is multiplying the "-7x^2".

Polynomial Functions

  • A polynomial function can be evaluated for an algebraic expression.
  • Graphs of polynomial functions of degree n suggest that the maximum number of real zeros of such a function is n.
  • The end behavior of a polynomial function depends on the sign of the leading coefficient and whether its degree is even or odd.

Polynomial Functions

What is the degree and leading coefficient of 5x − 11x2 + 25 − x3 − 7x4?
  • Write the polynomial in standard form, in other words, descending order.
  • − 7x4 − x3 − 11x2 + 5x + 25
  • Degree − 4
Leading Coefficient: − 7
What is the degree and leading coefficient of x − x2 + 25 + 10x5?
  • Write the polynomial in standard form, in other words, descending order.
  • 10x5 − x2 + x + 25
  • Degree: 5
Leading Coefficient: 10
What is the degree and leading coefficient of − 5x + x3 + 2 − 5x7?
  • Write the polynomial in standard form, in other words, descending order.
  • − 5x7 + x3 − 5x + 2
  • Degree: 7
Leading Coefficient: − 5
Let f(x) = 2x3 − x2 + x − 1 find f(2a2)
  • Substitute 2a2 everywhere you see an x
  • f(2a2) = 2(2a2)3 − (2a2)2 + (2a2) − 1
  • Simplify using Power of Power Rule of Exponents
  • f(2a2) = 2(23a6) − (22a4) + (2a2) − 1
  • Simplify
f(2a2) = 2(8a6) − (4a4) + (2a2) − 1 = 16a6 − 4a4 + 2a2 − 1
Let f(x) = x3 + x2 + x + 1 find f( − a3)
  • Substitute − a3 everywhere you see an x
  • f( − a3) = ( − a3)3 + ( − a3)2 + ( − a3) + 1
  • Simplify using Power of Power Rule of Exponents.
  • To better work with the negative and exponents, subsitute a − 1 to make arithmetic easy to work with.
  • Warning - You may not factor out a negative out, that will lead to wrong results.
  • f( − a3) = ( − 1*a3)3 + ( − 1*a3)2 + ( − a3) + 1 = ( − 1)3a9 + ( − 1)2a6 − a3 + 1
  • Simplify. Notice how a negative number raised to an odd power is always negative.
  • On the other hand, a negative number raised to an even power is always positive.
  • f( − a3) = ( − 1)3a9 + ( − 1)2a6 − a3 + 1 = − 1*a9 + 1*a6 − a3 + 1
f( − a3) = − a9 + a6 − a3 + 1
Let f(x) = x5 + x3 + x find f( − a2)
  • Substitute − a2 everywhere you see an x
  • f( − a2) = ( − a3)5 + ( − a2)3 + ( − a3)
  • Simplify using Power of Power Rule of Exponents.
  • To better work with the negative and exponents, subsitute a − 1 to make arithmetic easy to work with.
  • Warning - You may not factor out a negative out, that will lead to wrong results.
  • f( − a2) = ( − a3)5 + ( − a2)3 + ( − a3) = ( − 1*a3)5 + ( − 1*a2)3 + ( − a3) = ( − 1)5a15 + ( − 1)3a6 − a3
  • Simplify. Notice how a negative number raised to an odd power is always negative.
  • On the other hand, a negative number raised to an even power is always positive.
  • f( − a2) = ( − 1)5a15 + ( − 1)3a6 − a3 = − 1*a15 − 1*a6 − a3
f( − a2) = − a15 − a6 − a2
Let f(x) = x2 + x + 5. Find f(2b − 1)
  • Substitute 2b − 1 everywhere you see an x.
  • f(2b − 1) = (2b − 1)2 + (2b − 1) + 5
  • Be careful, you cannot use the properties of exponents in this step. In other words, you cannot do
  • (2b − 1)2 = 22b2 − 12. Doing this will lead to wrong results.
  • Multiply using FOIL, or anyother method of your preference.
  • f(2b − 1) = (2b − 1)2 + (2b − 1) + 5
  • = (2b − 1)(2b − 1) + (2b − 1) + 5
  • = 4b2 − 4b + 1 + (2b − 1) + 5
  • Combine like terms
f(2b − 1) = 4b2 − 2b + 6
Let f(x) = 2x2 − 3x + 7. Find f(3b + 2)
  • Substitute 3b + 2 everywhere you see an x.
  • f(3b + 2) = 2(3b + 2)2 − 3(3b + 2) + 7
  • Be careful, you cannot use the properties of exponents in this step. In other words, you cannot do
  • (3b + 2)2 = 32b2 + 22. Doing this will lead to wrong results.
  • Multiply using FOIL, or anyother method of your preference.
  • f(3b + 2) = 2(3b + 2)2 − 3(3b + 2) + 7
  • = 2(3b + 2)(3b + 2) − 3(3b + 2) + 7
  • = (6b + 4)(3b + 2) − 9b − 6 + 7
  • = 18b2 + 24b + 8 − 9b − 6 + 7
  • Combine like terms
f(2b − 1) = 18b2 + 15b + 9
Let f(x) = − 2x6 − x4 + 2x2 − 5x + 1. Describe the end behavior.
  • To answer this question, you need two pieces of information and the following table.
  • 1)Degree of the polynomial
  • 2)Sign of the leading coefficient
  • End Behavior ChartEven DegreeOdd Degree
    + leading coefficient1. As x approaches +∞, y approaches +∞1. As x approaches +∞, y approaches +∞
     2. As x approaches -∞, y approaches +∞2. As x approaches -∞, y approaches -∞
    - leading coefficient1. As x approaches +∞, y approaches -∞1. As x approaches +∞, y approaches -∞
     2. As x approaches -∞, y approaches -∞2. As x approaches -∞, y approaches +∞
  • In this problem, the Degree is 6 and the leading coefficient is negative. Therefore:
As x gets really big approaching positive infinity,y is going to get really small approaching negative infinity.

As x gets really small approaching negative infinity, y is going to get really small approaching negative infinity.
Let f(x) = 2x9 + x5 + 2x3 − 5x2 + x − 10. Describe the end behavior.
  • To answer this question, you need two pieces of information and the following table.
  • 1)Degree of the polynomial
  • 2)Sign of the leading coefficient
  • End Behavior ChartEven DegreeOdd Degree
    + leading coefficient1. As x approaches +∞, y approaches +∞1. As x approaches +∞, y approaches +∞
     2. As x approaches -∞, y approaches +∞2. As x approaches -∞, y approaches -∞
    - leading coefficient1. As x approaches +∞, y approaches -∞1. As x approaches +∞, y approaches -∞
     2. As x approaches -∞, y approaches -∞2. As x approaches -∞, y approaches +∞
  • In this problem, the Degree is 9 (odd) and the leading coefficient is 2 (positive). Therefore:
As x gets really big approaching positive infinity, y is going to get really big approaching positive infinity.

As x gets really small approaching negative infinity, y is going to get really small approaching negative infinity.

*These practice questions are only helpful when you work on them offline on a piece of paper and then use the solution steps function to check your answer.

Answer

Polynomial Functions

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Polynomial in One Variable 0:13
    • Leading Coefficient
    • Example: Polynomial
    • Degree
  • Polynomial Functions 2:57
    • Example: Function
  • Function Values 3:33
    • Example: Numerical Values
    • Example: Algebraic Expressions
  • Zeros of Polynomial Functions 5:50
    • Odd Degree
    • Even Degree
  • End Behavior 8:28
    • Even Degrees
    • Example: Leading Coefficient +/-
    • Odd Degrees
    • Example: Leading Coefficient +/-
  • Example 1: Degree and Leading Coefficient 15:03
  • Example 2: Polynomial Function 15:56
  • Example 3: Polynomial Function 17:34
  • Example 4: End Behavior 19:53

Transcription: Polynomial Functions

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

Today, we are going to talk about polynomial functions, starting with some review,0002

and then going on to discuss the topic of analyzing the graphs of polynomial functions.0006

OK, a polynomial in one variable is what we are going to start out with; and a polynomial of the degree n,0013

in one variable x, is an expression in this following form.0021

an, the leading coefficient, cannot be 0, because if it was to be 0, this would drop out;0028

and then you would actually have a lower-degree polynomial.0033

And n is a non-negative number; these are not going to have a negative coefficient up here.0036

This first coefficient is called the leading coefficient.0046

A polynomial is just an expression in which the terms are monomials; and a restriction on this is that there cannot be variables in the denominator.0052

If there were variables, it would not be in this form; if that were the case, you would have something else.0062

You would have a rational expression, not a polynomial.0065

Now, let's talk about degree, using numbers instead of just n.0070

If you have something such as 3x4 (a polynomial) + x3 - 4x2 - x + 4,0074

the degree of the polynomial is the degree of the variable that is the highest power.0092

So, right here, the highest power I have is 4; therefore, the degree equals 4.0100

And the leading coefficient is the coefficient for the variable that is raised to the highest power.0109

One thing to be aware of is that you might look at a polynomial, and it could be written like this:0115

2x2 - 6x5 + 4x3 + 9.0121

And when you look at this, you have to realize that these are not written in descending order.0131

So, you can't just look at the first one and say, "Oh, this is degree 2."0136

Before you figure out what the degree of a polynomial is, or what the leading coefficient is, you first need to write it in descending order.0140

So, that would be -6x5 + 4x3 + 2x2 + 9.0148

Here, the degree is actually 5, and the leading coefficient is -6.0156

Just make sure that the terms are in descending order before you determine the degree and the leading coefficient.0170

Now, polynomial functions: we just saw this form, but now we are talking about it as a function.0177

A polynomial function of degree n is a function in this form.0184

You may see this written as f(x), like this; you may also see p(x); that is sometimes used for a polynomial function.0189

And just to give you an example, I am going to call it f(x) (but it could have been called p(x)) = 2x3 - 4x2 + 8x - 5.0199

This is a polynomial function; and with polynomial functions, we can evaluate the function for both numerical values and algebraic expressions.0210

You are probably familiar with evaluating functions for numerical values.0220

But evaluating them for algebraic expressions may be something new.0227

So, first, just looking at a function: f(x) = 4x3 - 3x2 + x - 1: if I am asked to find f(2),0231

the strategy is just going to be to replace all of these x's with 2's.0244

which is going to give me...2 times 2 is 4, times 2 is 8; so it is 4 times 8 (23 is 8) minus 3 times 2 (is 6), plus 2, minus 1.0256

This is 32 minus...actually, correction: this is an extra place with 2...2 times 2 is 4, because that is squared; so it is going to give me 3 times 4.0267

So, I am going to end up with 4 times 8, minus 3 times 4, plus 2, minus 1.0283

This is going to give me 32 - 12 + 2 - 1; simplifying that, 32 - 12 is 20, plus 2 is 22, minus 1--that is 21, so f(2) is 21.0289

That is straightforward, but something you may be less familiar with is the idea of something like this: f(a + 3).0306

Again, I am going to substitute this expression for the x's--the same idea, only now I have a variable in here.0316

Wherever there is an x, I am going to put in a + 3 instead.0326

Now, you could do the algebra and work this out to figure out the value; but the important part0333

is just knowing how to set this up by substituting this algebraic expression for the variable in the function.0338

OK, a point at which the graph of a function intersects with the x-axis is called a zero of the function.0348

And previously, we have referred to x-intercepts: this is the same thing, only a different term.0355

And the degree of the function can tell you something about the zeroes.0363

If a polynomial function has an odd degree, there is at least one zero.0370

For example, if I have something like f(x) = 6x3 - 5x2 + 8x, the degree here is 3, and it is odd.0374

So, I know that it has at least one zero.0388

Now, just showing you examples of zeroes: we talked about linear functions, which graph as a line,0392

and then quadratic functions (which are polynomial functions) are parabolas; you can also have0402

more elaborate shapes, such as this, with a polynomial.0407

And everywhere that intersects with the x-axis, those are all zeroes; so this actually has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 zeroes.0411

And let's say this is 2, 4, 6, 8, 10; -2, -4, -6, -8, -10; you could find the values for these.0423

For example, one of the zeroes is at 4; so you could find the values for these zeroes.0435

OK, so you always have at least one zero, if the degree of the polynomial function is odd.0443

If the degree is even, it may or may not have a zero (it may or may not intersect with the x-axis).0449

So, something like this might have a zero and might not.0456

The degree equals 4; it is even; it may or may not have a zero.0466

Thinking back to quadratic equations (their degree is 2--something like x2 + 2x - 1--quadratic functions),0473

recall that these parabolas sometimes have a zero; they sometimes intersect with the x-axis.0481

They can have one or two zeroes (this one has two), or they may not intersect.0487

We saw situations where parabolas did not intersect, and those have even degrees.0493

And the same is true of a polynomial function with a greater degree that is even.0498

When we talk about functions, we sometimes talk about end behavior.0510

And the end behavior of a function refers to what the graph does as x gets very large or very small.0514

So, instead of in the middle (which is often what we have been focusing on with graphing), now we are thinking about the ends--0520

way out here when x is very positive, or way out here when x is very negative.0527

And you can predict some of this end behavior by looking at the degree of the polynomial function and the sign of its leading coefficient.0533

So, let's break this down into first talking about even degrees.0545

And then, we will talk about odd degrees; polynomials of even degrees first.0554

For example, x4 - 2x3 + x - 8: this has a degree of 4--it is even.0563

We can divide this into two categories: those that have a leading coefficient that is positive...0577

if the leading coefficient, an, is greater than 0, both ends of the graph go upward.0589

Now, let's think about what that means.0605

For example, if I have some polynomial function, and it is even (so it may or may not have a zero,0607

but I am going to show it as having zeroes), both ends are up; so this is even,0612

and an is greater than 0; both of these ends go up.0622

What this is saying is that, when x is very large, over here, or x is very small, way out here, f(x) is large.0626

So, end behavior--what is happening way out here at the extremes--when x is very large0648

or when x is very small, you see that y is going to go up, up, up and be very large.0653

So, that is an even degree; both ends are up; and it is a positive leading coefficient,0659

so both ends are up; there are very large y's, or function values, at the extreme values of x.0665

Now, the other possibility (that is one possibility for even) is that the leading coefficient is less than 0.0672

I have a negative leading coefficient--something like -4x2 + 3x - 1; and this is actually a quadratic function.0680

And if you recall, this is going to be a parabola that faces downward.0693

Let's look at this: here, this could have had a higher even degree, like 4 or 6 or 8; but let's just look at the parabola.0700

Here, both ends face downward; and what this tells me is that, when x is large, or when x is small0711

(very small or very large), f(x) is small--it has small values.0734

So, at the ends here, when x is these small values or very large values, the y is going to have very small values.0742

OK, so these are even degrees; and to help you remember this, just think back to quadratic equations,0754

because we already talked about quadratic functions and the fact that, if their leading coefficient is positive, they face upward.0758

If their leading coefficient is negative, they face downward.0764

And it is the same idea here, except you might have more ups and downs in between.0767

Now, if you have a polynomial with an odd degree, again, we have two possibilities.0771

If I have a polynomial that has an odd degree, and the leading coefficient is positive (a is greater than 0),0779

then what I am going to have is a graph that is going to go up to the right; that is this case right here.0791

What this is saying is that, when x is large, y is large (or f(x) is large--either way you want to say it).0808

And when x is small, y gets very small.0822

So, I just think of it as "x and y are going in the same directions."0830

Now, if the leading coefficient is negative, we have the opposite situation; here you would have something like this, where...0833

this is odd degree, and it is an a that is negative; here I see that it is starting up here, and it is going down to the right.0845

The graph goes down to the right.0864

So, with even degrees, both ends face up, or both ends face down; with odd degrees, one end goes up; the other goes down.0870

If it is a positive leading coefficient, it goes up to the right; if it is a negative leading coefficient, it goes down to the right.0879

And you also saw that with linear equations--going up or down to the right.0885

What this tells me is that, when x is very large, y is very small; and when x is very small, y is very large.0891

x and y are going the opposite ways.0898

OK, first looking at this polynomial: what is the degree and leading coefficient?0903

I am going to start out by putting this in descending order; this is my largest degree here, so look at that first.0909

Then, I have x3; I have -7x2; 3x; and finally, the constant.0917

OK, so now that I have this in descending order, I can easily see that the degree equals 4.0925

And the leading coefficient is going to be the coefficient for that variable, raised to the largest power.0932

The leading coefficient is -12; and if I didn't put these in the right order, and just looked at it, I might have said, "Oh, the leading coefficient is 3."0941

So, always put your polynomial in descending order first.0951

OK, given this function, find f(3a4).0957

This is an algebraic term, and we need to find the function value for it; so I am going to substitute 3a4 everywhere there is an x.0965

I am going to use my rule here of raising a power to a power; that tells me that, when I raise a power to a power, I need to multiply the exponents.0980

So, first, I have my 3 here; let's keep that out here; and I have to remember to raise 3 to 3, also.0988

So, this is 3 times 3 is 9, times 3 is 27; so that is 27a; and that is 4 times 3, so that is a12.0998

And then here, I have 32, which is 9; a4...OK, that is 4 times 2, which is 8.1010

And then, this just stays like this.1020

Next, I have 3 times 27, which is actually 81; a12; -2 times 9 gives me -18a8;1023

plus 3a4, minus 7; and I always double-check and make sure I can't do any further simplification.1035

And I can't; I don't have any like terms that I can combine.1042

So again, evaluating a function for an algebraic expression just involves substituting that expression in for the variables.1045

OK, again, evaluating this function for an algebraic expression means I am going to substitute in 3b - 2 wherever I see an x.1054

Writing this out: this is a squared binomial...using the FOIL method, First is 3b times 3b, is 9b2.1074

The Outer terms--that gives me -6b; the Inner terms multiply to -6b; and the Last terms: -2 times -2 is 4.1093

Now, using the distributive property, and multiplying each term within the parentheses by 2,1106

is going to give me...2 times 9b2 is 18b2; 2 times -6b is -12b; and this is -12b;1111

I also could have just added these first, and then done the distributive property; it is going to come out the same either way.1124

2 times 4 is 8; now, the distributive property again here: -3 times 3b is going to give me -9b.1130

-3 times -2 is going to give me + 6; and then the 9.1143

Adding like terms: -12b and -12b is -24b; and I also have some more simplifying I can do out here.1148

This is 18b2; -24b and -9b is going to give me -33b; 8 and 6, plus 9 (that is 15 + 8) is 23.1160

OK, so evaluating this function for 3b - 2 gives this result.1177

We are simply substituting in 3b - 2 for all the x's, using the distributive property, and then simplifying by adding like terms.1184

OK, in Example 4, we are given this polynomial function and asked to describe the end behavior.1195

We are starting out by looking and making sure that this is written in descending order (which it is),1201

because I need to find the degree and the leading coefficient.1206

The degree is 6; I know that this is an even number, so it may or may not have zeroes, just as an aside.1210

Now, talking about the leading coefficient and the degree in a little more detail:1228

the degree being even tells me that both ends will be up, or both ends will be down.1243

OK, so I know that both ends are going to go in the same direction with this polynomial.1251

The leading coefficient here is 5, and that is positive; so since it is positive, both ends of the graph go upward,1256

just like with a parabola with a positive leading coefficient in the quadratic function.1278

This is to the sixth, so it is going to be more complex, and it may or may not have zeroes; but just schematically,1283

the idea is that both ends will face up.1295

Now, what does that tell me about the end behavior?1299

What this tells me about end behavior is that, when x is large, way out here, y is large (or the function is large).1301

When x is very small (way out here)--it has small values--y is large.1315

So, at both ends (where x is very large or x is very small), the function has large values.1323

And that tells me about the end behavior; and I was able to figure that out by realizing this is an even degree, and it has a positive leading coefficient.1330

That concludes this lesson of Educator.com on graphing and polynomials.1345

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