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INSTRUCTORS Carleen Eaton Grant Fraser
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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Arithmetic Sequences

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Table of Contents

I. Equations and Inequalities
Expressions and Formulas

22m 23s

Intro
0:00
Order of Operations
0:19
Variable
0:27
Algebraic Expression
0:46
Term
0:57
Example: Algebraic Expression
1:25
Evaluate Inside Grouping Symbols
1:55
Evaluate Powers
2:30
Multiply/Divide Left to Right
2:55
Add/Subtract Left to Right
3:35
Monomials
4:40
Examples of Monomials
4:52
Constant
5:27
Coefficient
5:46
Degree
6:25
Power
7:15
Polynomials
8:02
Examples of Polynomials
8:24
Binomials, Trinomials, Monomials
8:53
Term
9:21
Like Terms
10:02
Formulas
11:00
Example: Pythagorean Theorem
11:15
Example 1: Evaluate the Algebraic Expression
11:50
Example 2: Evaluate the Algebraic Expression
14:38
Example 3: Area of a Triangle
19:11
Example 4: Fahrenheit to Celsius
20:41
Properties of Real Numbers

20m 15s

Intro
0:00
Real Numbers
0:07
Number Line
0:15
Rational Numbers
0:46
Irrational Numbers
2:24
Venn Diagram of Real Numbers
4:03
Irrational Numbers
5:00
Rational Numbers
5:19
Real Number System
5:27
Natural Numbers
5:32
Whole Numbers
5:53
Integers
6:19
Fractions
6:46
Properties of Real Numbers
7:15
Commutative Property
7:34
Associative Property
8:07
Identity Property
9:04
Inverse Property
9:53
Distributive Property
11:03
Example 1: What Set of Numbers?
12:21
Example 2: What Properties Are Used?
13:56
Example 3: Multiplicative Inverse
16:00
Example 4: Simplify Using Properties
17:18
Solving Equations

19m 10s

Intro
0:00
Translations
0:06
Verbal Expressions and Algebraic Expressions
0:13
Example: Sum of Two Numbers
0:19
Example: Square of a Number
1:33
Properties of Equality
3:20
Reflexive Property
3:30
Symmetric Property
3:42
Transitive Property
4:01
Addition Property
5:01
Subtraction Property
5:37
Multiplication Property
6:02
Division Property
6:30
Solving Equations
6:58
Example: Using Properties
7:18
Solving for a Variable
8:25
Example: Solve for Z
8:34
Example 1: Write Algebraic Expression
10:15
Example 2: Write Verbal Expression
11:31
Example 3: Solve the Equation
14:05
Example 4: Simplify Using Properties
17:26
Solving Absolute Value Equations

17m 31s

Intro
0:00
Absolute Value Expressions
0:09
Distance from Zero
0:18
Example: Absolute Value Expression
0:24
Absolute Value Equations
1:50
Example: Absolute Value Equation
2:00
Example: Isolate Expression
3:13
No Solution
3:46
Empty Set
3:58
Example: No Solution
4:12
Number of Solutions
4:46
Check Each Solution
4:57
Example: Two Solutions
5:05
Example: No Solution
6:18
Example: One Solution
6:28
Example 1: Evaluate for X
7:16
Example 2: Write Verbal Expression
9:08
Example 3: Solve the Equation
12:18
Example 4: Simplify Using Properties
13:36
Solving Inequalities

17m 14s

Intro
0:00
Properties of Inequalities
0:08
Addition Property
0:17
Example: Using Numbers
0:30
Subtraction Property
1:03
Example: Using Numbers
1:19
Multiplication Properties
1:44
C>0 (Positive Number)
1:50
Example: Using Numbers
2:05
C<0 (Negative Number)
2:40
Example: Using Numbers
3:10
Division Properties
4:11
C>0 (Positive Number)
4:15
Example: Using Numbers
4:27
C<0 (Negative Number)
5:21
Example: Using Numbers
5:32
Describing the Solution Set
6:10
Example: Set Builder Notation
6:26
Example: Graph (Closed Circle)
7:08
Example: Graph (Open Circle)
7:30
Example 1: Solve the Inequality
7:58
Example 2: Solve the Inequality
9:06
Example 3: Solve the Inequality
10:10
Example 4: Solve the Inequality
13:12
Solving Compound and Absolute Value Inequalities

25m

Intro
0:00
Compound Inequalities
0:08
And and Or
0:13
Example: And
0:22
Example: Or
1:12
And Inequality
1:41
Intersection
1:49
Example: Numbers
2:08
Example: Inequality
2:43
Or Inequality
4:35
Example: Union
4:45
Example: Inequality
5:53
Absolute Value Inequalities
7:19
Definition of Absolute Value
7:33
Examples: Compound Inequalities
8:30
Example: Complex Inequality
12:21
Example 1: Solve the Inequality
12:54
Example 2: Solve the Inequality
17:21
Example 3: Solve the Inequality
18:54
Example 4: Solve the Inequality
22:15
II. Linear Relations and Functions
Relations and Functions

32m 5s

Intro
0:00
Coordinate Plane
0:20
X-Coordinate and Y-Coordinate
0:30
Example: Coordinate Pairs
0:37
Quadrants
1:20
Relations
2:14
Domain and Range
2:19
Set of Ordered Pairs
2:29
As a Table
2:51
Functions
4:21
One Element in Range
4:32
Example: Mapping
4:43
Example: Table and Map
6:26
One-to-One Functions
8:01
Example: One-to-One
8:22
Example: Not One-to-One
9:18
Graphs of Relations
11:01
Discrete and Continuous
11:12
Example: Discrete
11:22
Example: Continous
12:30
Vertical Line Test
14:09
Example: S Curve
14:29
Example: Function
16:15
Equations, Relations, and Functions
17:03
Independent Variable and Dependent Variable
17:16
Function Notation
19:11
Example: Function Notation
19:23
Example 1: Domain and Range
20:51
Example 2: Discrete or Continous
23:03
Example 3: Discrete or Continous
25:53
Example 4: Function Notation
30:05
Linear Equations

14m 46s

Intro
0:00
Linear Equations and Functions
0:07
Linear Equation
0:19
Example: Linear Equation
0:29
Example: Linear Function
1:07
Standard Form
2:02
Integer Constants with No Common Factor
2:08
Example: Standard Form
2:27
Graphing with Intercepts
4:05
X-Intercept and Y-Intercept
4:12
Example: Intercepts
4:26
Example: Graphing
5:14
Example 1: Linear Function
7:53
Example 2: Linear Function
9:10
Example 3: Standard Form
10:04
Example 4: Graph with Intercepts
12:25
Slope

23m 7s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Slope
0:07
Change in Y / Change in X
0:26
Example: Slope of Graph
0:37
Interpretation of Slope
3:07
Horizontal Line (0 Slope)
3:13
Vertical Line (Undefined Slope)
4:52
Rises to Right (Positive Slope)
6:36
Falls to Right (Negative Slope)
6:53
Parallel Lines
7:18
Example: Not Vertical
7:30
Example: Vertical
7:58
Perpendicular Lines
8:31
Example: Perpendicular
8:42
Example 1: Slope of Line
10:32
Example 2: Graph Line
11:45
Example 3: Parallel to Graph
13:37
Example 4: Perpendicular to Graph
17:57
Writing Linear Functions

23m 5s

Intro
0:00
Slope Intercept Form
0:11
m and b
0:28
Example: Graph Using Slope Intercept
0:43
Point Slope Form
2:41
Relation to Slope Formula
3:03
Example: Point Slope Form
4:36
Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
6:28
Review of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
6:31
Example: Parallel
7:50
Example: Perpendicular
9:58
Example 1: Slope Intercept Form
11:07
Example 2: Slope Intercept Form
13:07
Example 3: Parallel
15:49
Example 4: Perpendicular
18:42
Special Functions

31m 5s

Intro
0:00
Step Functions
0:07
Example: Apple Prices
0:30
Absolute Value Function
4:55
Example: Absolute Value
5:05
Piecewise Functions
9:08
Example: Piecewise
9:27
Example 1: Absolute Value Function
14:00
Example 2: Absolute Value Function
20:39
Example 3: Piecewise Function
22:26
Example 4: Step Function
25:25
Graphing Inequalities

21m 42s

Intro
0:00
Graphing Linear Inequalities
0:07
Shaded Region
0:19
Using Test Points
0:32
Graph Corresponding Linear Function
0:46
Dashed or Solid Lines
0:59
Use Test Point
1:21
Example: Linear Inequality
1:58
Graphing Absolute Value Inequalities
4:50
Graph Corresponding Equations
4:59
Use Test Point
5:20
Example: Absolute Value Inequality
5:38
Example 1: Linear Inequality
9:17
Example 2: Linear Inequality
11:56
Example 3: Linear Inequality
14:29
Example 4: Absolute Value Inequality
17:06
III. Systems of Equations and Inequalities
Solving Systems of Equations by Graphing

17m 13s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Equations
0:09
Example: Two Equations
0:24
Solving by Graphing
0:53
Point of Intersection
1:09
Types of Systems
2:29
Independent (Single Solution)
2:34
Dependent (Infinite Solutions)
3:05
Inconsistent (No Solution)
4:23
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
5:20
Example 2: Solve by Graphing
9:10
Example 3: Solve by Graphing
12:27
Example 4: Solve by Graphing
14:54
Solving Systems of Equations Algebraically

23m 53s

Intro
0:00
Solving by Substitution
0:08
Example: System of Equations
0:36
Solving by Multiplication
7:22
Extra Step of Multiplying
7:38
Example: System of Equations
8:00
Inconsistent and Dependent Systems
11:14
Variables Drop Out
11:48
Inconsistent System (Never True)
12:01
Constant Equals Constant
12:53
Dependent System (Always True)
13:11
Example 1: Solve Algebraically
13:58
Example 2: Solve Algebraically
15:52
Example 3: Solve Algebraically
17:54
Example 4: Solve Algebraically
21:40
Solving Systems of Inequalities By Graphing

27m 12s

Intro
0:00
Solving by Graphing
0:08
Graph Each Inequality
0:25
Overlap
0:35
Corresponding Linear Equations
1:03
Test Point
1:23
Example: System of Inequalities
1:51
No Solution
7:06
Empty Set
7:26
Example: No Solution
7:34
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
10:27
Example 2: Solve by Graphing
13:30
Example 3: Solve by Graphing
17:19
Example 4: Solve by Graphing
23:23
Solving Systems of Equations in Three Variables

28m 53s

Intro
0:00
Solving Systems in Three Variables
0:17
Triple of Values
0:31
Example: Three Variables
0:56
Number of Solutions
5:55
One Solution
6:08
No Solution
6:24
Infinite Solutions
7:06
Example 1: Solve 3 Variables
7:59
Example 2: Solve 3 Variables
13:50
Example 3: Solve 3 Variables
19:54
Example 4: Solve 3 Variables
25:50
IV. Matrices
Basic Matrix Concepts

11m 34s

Intro
0:00
What is a Matrix
0:26
Brackets
0:46
Designation
1:21
Element
1:47
Matrix Equations
1:59
Dimensions
2:27
Rows (m) and Columns (n)
2:37
Examples: Dimensions
2:43
Special Matrices
4:22
Row Matrix
4:32
Column Matrix
5:00
Zero Matrix
6:00
Equal Matrices
6:30
Example: Corresponding Elements
6:36
Example 1: Matrix Dimension
8:12
Example 2: Matrix Dimension
9:03
Example 3: Zero Matrix
9:38
Example 4: Row and Column Matrix
10:26
Matrix Operations

21m 36s

Intro
0:00
Matrix Addition
0:18
Same Dimensions
0:25
Example: Adding Matrices
1:04
Matrix Subtraction
3:42
Same Dimensions
3:48
Example: Subtracting Matrices
4:04
Scalar Multiplication
6:08
Scalar Constant
6:24
Example: Multiplying Matrices
6:32
Properties of Matrix Operations
8:23
Commutative Property
8:41
Associative Property
9:08
Distributive Property
9:44
Example 1: Matrix Addition
10:24
Example 2: Matrix Subtraction
11:58
Example 3: Scalar Multiplication
14:23
Example 4: Matrix Properties
16:09
Matrix Multiplication

29m 36s

Intro
0:00
Dimension Requirement
0:17
n = p
0:24
Resulting Product Matrix (m x q)
1:21
Example: Multiplication
1:54
Matrix Multiplication
3:38
Example: Matrix Multiplication
4:07
Properties of Matrix Multiplication
10:46
Associative Property
11:00
Associative Property (Scalar)
11:28
Distributive Property
12:06
Distributive Property (Scalar)
12:30
Example 1: Possible Matrices
13:31
Example 2: Multiplying Matrices
17:08
Example 3: Multiplying Matrices
20:41
Example 4: Matrix Properties
24:41
Determinants

33m 13s

Intro
0:00
What is a Determinant
0:13
Square Matrices
0:23
Vertical Bars
0:41
Determinant of a 2x2 Matrix
1:21
Second Order Determinant
1:37
Formula
1:45
Example: 2x2 Determinant
1:58
Determinant of a 3x3 Matrix
2:50
Expansion by Minors
3:08
Third Order Determinant
3:19
Expanding Row One
4:06
Example: 3x3 Determinant
6:40
Diagonal Method for 3x3 Matrices
13:24
Example: Diagonal Method
13:36
Example 1: Determinant of 2x2
18:59
Example 2: Determinant of 3x3
20:03
Example 3: Determinant of 3x3
25:35
Example 4: Determinant of 3x3
29:22
Cramer's Rule

28m 25s

Intro
0:00
System of Two Equations in Two Variables
0:16
One Variable
0:50
Determinant of Denominator
1:14
Determinants of Numerators
2:23
Example: System of Equations
3:34
System of Three Equations in Three Variables
7:06
Determinant of Denominator
7:17
Determinants of Numerators
7:52
Example 1: Two Equations
8:57
Example 2: Two Equations
13:21
Example 3: Three Equations
17:11
Example 4: Three Equations
23:43
Identity and Inverse Matrices

22m 25s

Intro
0:00
Identity Matrix
0:13
Example: 2x2 Identity Matrix
0:30
Example: 4x4 Identity Matrix
0:50
Properties of Identity Matrices
1:24
Example: Multiplying Identity Matrix
2:52
Matrix Inverses
5:30
Writing Matrix Inverse
6:07
Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix
6:39
Example: 2x2 Matrix
7:31
Example 1: Inverse Matrix
10:18
Example 2: Find the Inverse Matrix
13:04
Example 3: Find the Inverse Matrix
17:53
Example 4: Find the Inverse Matrix
20:44
Solving Systems of Equations Using Matrices

22m 32s

Intro
0:00
Matrix Equations
0:11
Example: System of Equations
0:21
Solving Systems of Equations
4:01
Isolate x
4:16
Example: Using Numbers
5:10
Multiplicative Inverse
5:54
Example 1: Write as Matrix Equation
7:18
Example 2: Use Matrix Equations
9:12
Example 3: Use Matrix Equations
15:06
Example 4: Use Matrix Equations
19:35
V. Quadratic Functions and Inequalities
Graphing Quadratic Functions

31m 48s

Intro
0:00
Quadratic Functions
0:12
A is Zero
0:27
Example: Parabola
0:45
Properties of Parabolas
2:08
Axis of Symmetry
2:11
Vertex
2:32
Example: Parabola
2:48
Minimum and Maximum Values
9:02
Positive or Negative
9:28
Upward or Downward
9:58
Example: Minimum
10:31
Example: Maximum
11:16
Example 1: Axis of Symmetry, Vertex, Graph
12:41
Example 2: Axis of Symmetry, Vertex, Graph
17:25
Example 3: Minimum or Maximum
21:47
Example 4: Minimum or Maximum
27:09
Solving Quadratic Equations by Graphing

27m 3s

Intro
0:00
Quadratic Equations
0:16
Standard Form
0:18
Example: Quadratic Equation
0:47
Solving by Graphing
1:41
Roots (x-Intercepts)
1:48
Example: Number of Solutions
2:12
Estimating Solutions
9:23
Example: Integer Solutions
9:30
Example: Estimating
9:53
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
10:52
Example 2: Solve by Graphing
15:10
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
17:50
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
20:54
Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring

19m 53s

Intro
0:00
Factoring Techniques
0:15
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
0:37
Difference of Two Squares
1:48
Perfect Square Trinomials
2:30
General Trinomials
3:09
Zero Product Rule
5:22
Example: Zero Product
5:53
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
7:46
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
9:48
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
12:34
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
15:28
Imaginary and Complex Numbers

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Properties of Square Roots
0:10
Product Property
0:26
Example: Product Property
0:56
Quotient Property
2:17
Example: Quotient Property
2:35
Imaginary Numbers
3:12
Imaginary i
3:51
Examples: Imaginary Number
4:22
Complex Numbers
7:23
Real Part and Imaginary Part
7:33
Examples: Complex Numbers
7:57
Equality
9:37
Example: Equal Complex Numbers
9:52
Addition and Subtraction
10:12
Examples: Adding Complex Numbers
10:25
Complex Plane
13:32
Horizontal Axis (Real)
13:49
Vertical Axis (Imaginary)
13:59
Example: Labeling
14:11
Multiplication
15:57
Example: FOIL Method
16:03
Division
18:37
Complex Conjugates
18:45
Conjugate Pairs
19:10
Example: Dividing Complex Numbers
20:00
Example 1: Simplify Complex Number
24:50
Example 2: Simplify Complex Number
27:56
Example 3: Multiply Complex Numbers
29:27
Example 3: Dividing Complex Numbers
31:48
Completing the Square

27m 11s

Intro
0:00
Square Root Property
0:12
Example: Perfect Square
0:38
Example: Perfect Square Trinomial
3:00
Completing the Square
4:39
Constant Term
4:50
Example: Complete the Square
5:04
Solve Equations
6:42
Add to Both Sides
6:59
Example: Complete the Square
7:07
Equations Where a Not Equal to 1
10:58
Divide by Coefficient
11:08
Example: Complete the Square
11:24
Complex Solutions
14:05
Real and Imaginary
14:14
Example: Complex Solution
14:35
Example 1: Square Root Property
18:31
Example 2: Complete the Square
19:15
Example 3: Complete the Square
20:40
Example 4: Complete the Square
23:56
Quadratic Formula and the Discriminant

22m 48s

Intro
0:00
Quadratic Formula
0:21
Standard Form
0:29
Example: Quadratic Formula
0:57
One Rational Root
3:00
Example: One Root
3:31
Complex Solutions
6:16
Complex Conjugate
6:28
Example: Complex Solution
7:15
Discriminant
9:42
Positive Discriminant
10:03
Perfect Square (Rational)
10:51
Not Perfect Square (2 Irrational)
11:27
Negative Discriminant
12:28
Zero Discriminant
12:57
Example 1: Quadratic Formula
13:50
Example 2: Quadratic Formula
16:03
Example 3: Quadratic Formula
19:00
Example 4: Discriminant
21:33
Analyzing the Graphs of Quadratic Functions

30m 7s

Intro
0:00
Vertex Form
0:12
H and K
0:32
Axis of Symmetry
0:36
Vertex
0:42
Example: Origin
1:00
Example: k = 2
2:12
Example: h = 1
4:27
Significance of Coefficient a
7:13
Example: |a| > 1
7:25
Example: |a| < 1
8:18
Example: |a| > 0
8:51
Example: |a| < 0
9:05
Writing Quadratic Equations in Vertex Form
10:22
Standard Form to Vertex Form
10:35
Example: Standard Form
11:02
Example: a Term Not 1
14:42
Example 1: Vertex Form
19:47
Example 2: Vertex Form
22:09
Example 3: Vertex Form
24:32
Example 4: Vertex Form
28:23
Graphing and Solving Quadratic Inequalities

27m 5s

Intro
0:00
Graphing Quadratic Inequalities
0:11
Test Point
0:18
Example: Quadratic Inequality
0:29
Solving Quadratic Inequalities
3:57
Example: Parameter
4:24
Example 1: Graph Inequality
11:16
Example 2: Solve Inequality
14:27
Example 3: Graph Inequality
19:14
Example 4: Solve Inequality
23:48
VI. Polynomial Functions
Properties of Exponents

19m 29s

Intro
0:00
Simplifying Exponential Expressions
0:09
Monomial Simplest Form
0:19
Negative Exponents
1:07
Examples: Simple
1:34
Properties of Exponents
3:06
Negative Exponents
3:13
Mutliplying Same Base
3:24
Dividing Same Base
3:45
Raising Power to a Power
4:33
Parentheses (Multiplying)
5:11
Parentheses (Dividing)
5:47
Raising to 0th Power
6:15
Example 1: Simplify Exponents
7:59
Example 2: Simplify Exponents
10:41
Example 3: Simplify Exponents
14:11
Example 4: Simplify Exponents
18:04
Operations on Polynomials

13m 27s

Intro
0:00
Adding and Subtracting Polynomials
0:13
Like Terms and Like Monomials
0:23
Examples: Adding Monomials
1:14
Multiplying Polynomials
3:40
Distributive Property
3:44
Example: Monomial by Polynomial
4:06
Example 1: Simplify Polynomials
5:47
Example 2: Simplify Polynomials
6:28
Example 3: Simplify Polynomials
8:38
Example 4: Simplify Polynomials
10:47
Dividing Polynomials

31m 11s

Intro
0:00
Dividing by a Monomial
0:13
Example: Numbers
0:26
Example: Polynomial by a Monomial
1:18
Long Division
2:28
Remainder Term
2:41
Example: Dividing with Numbers
3:04
Example: With Polynomials
5:01
Example: Missing Terms
7:58
Synthetic Division
11:44
Restriction
12:04
Example: Divisor in Form
12:20
Divisor in Synthetic Division
15:54
Example: Coefficient to 1
16:07
Example 1: Divide Polynomials
17:10
Example 2: Divide Polynomials
19:08
Example 3: Synthetic Division
21:42
Example 4: Synthetic Division
25:09
Polynomial Functions

22m 30s

Intro
0:00
Polynomial in One Variable
0:13
Leading Coefficient
0:27
Example: Polynomial
1:18
Degree
1:31
Polynomial Functions
2:57
Example: Function
3:13
Function Values
3:33
Example: Numerical Values
3:53
Example: Algebraic Expressions
5:11
Zeros of Polynomial Functions
5:50
Odd Degree
6:04
Even Degree
7:29
End Behavior
8:28
Even Degrees
9:09
Example: Leading Coefficient +/-
9:23
Odd Degrees
12:51
Example: Leading Coefficient +/-
13:00
Example 1: Degree and Leading Coefficient
15:03
Example 2: Polynomial Function
15:56
Example 3: Polynomial Function
17:34
Example 4: End Behavior
19:53
Analyzing Graphs of Polynomial Functions

33m 29s

Intro
0:00
Graphing Polynomial Functions
0:11
Example: Table and End Behavior
0:39
Location Principle
4:43
Zero Between Two Points
5:03
Example: Location Principle
5:21
Maximum and Minimum Points
8:40
Relative Maximum and Relative Minimum
9:16
Example: Number of Relative Max/Min
11:11
Example 1: Graph Polynomial Function
11:57
Example 2: Graph Polynomial Function
16:19
Example 3: Graph Polynomial Function
23:27
Example 4: Graph Polynomial Function
28:35
Solving Polynomial Functions

21m 10s

Intro
0:00
Factoring Polynomials
0:06
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
0:25
Difference of Two Squares
1:14
Perfect Square Trinomials
2:07
General Trinomials
2:57
Grouping
4:32
Sum and Difference of Two Cubes
6:03
Examples: Two Cubes
6:14
Quadratic Form
8:22
Example: Quadratic Form
8:44
Example 1: Factor Polynomial
12:03
Example 2: Factor Polynomial
13:54
Example 3: Quadratic Form
15:33
Example 4: Solve Polynomial Function
17:24
Remainder and Factor Theorems

31m 21s

Intro
0:00
Remainder Theorem
0:07
Checking Work
0:22
Dividend and Divisor in Theorem
1:12
Example: f(a)
2:05
Synthetic Substitution
5:43
Example: Polynomial Function
6:15
Factor Theorem
9:54
Example: Numbers
10:16
Example: Confirm Factor
11:27
Factoring Polynomials
14:48
Example: 3rd Degree Polynomial
15:07
Example 1: Remainder Theorem
19:17
Example 2: Other Factors
21:57
Example 3: Remainder Theorem
25:52
Example 4: Other Factors
28:21
Roots and Zeros

31m 27s

Intro
0:00
Number of Roots
0:08
Not Nature of Roots
0:18
Example: Real and Complex Roots
0:25
Descartes' Rule of Signs
2:05
Positive Real Roots
2:21
Example: Positve
2:39
Negative Real Roots
5:44
Example: Negative
6:06
Finding the Roots
9:59
Example: Combination of Real and Complex
10:07
Conjugate Roots
13:18
Example: Conjugate Roots
13:50
Example 1: Solve Polynomial
16:03
Example 2: Solve Polynomial
18:36
Example 3: Possible Combinations
23:13
Example 4: Possible Combinations
27:11
Rational Zero Theorem

31m 16s

Intro
0:00
Equation
0:08
List of Possibilities
0:16
Equation with Constant and Leading Coefficient
1:04
Example: Rational Zero
2:46
Leading Coefficient Equal to One
7:19
Equation with Leading Coefficient of One
7:34
Example: Coefficient Equal to 1
8:45
Finding Rational Zeros
12:58
Division with Remainder Zero
13:32
Example 1: Possible Rational Zeros
14:20
Example 2: Possible Rational Zeros
16:02
Example 3: Possible Rational Zeros
19:58
Example 4: Find All Zeros
22:06
VII. Radical Expressions and Inequalities
Operations on Functions

34m 30s

Intro
0:00
Arithmetic Operations
0:07
Domain
0:16
Intersection
0:24
Denominator is Zero
0:49
Example: Operations
1:02
Composition of Functions
7:18
Notation
7:48
Right to Left
8:18
Example: Composition
8:48
Composition is Not Commutative
17:23
Example: Not Commutative
17:51
Example 1: Function Operations
20:55
Example 2: Function Operations
24:34
Example 3: Compositions
27:51
Example 4: Function Operations
31:09
Inverse Functions and Relations

22m 42s

Intro
0:00
Inverse of a Relation
0:14
Example: Ordered Pairs
0:56
Inverse of a Function
3:24
Domain and Range Switched
3:52
Example: Inverse
4:28
Procedure to Construct an Inverse Function
6:42
f(x) to y
6:42
Interchange x and y
6:59
Solve for y
7:06
Write Inverse f(x) for y
7:14
Example: Inverse Function
7:25
Example: Inverse Function 2
8:48
Inverses and Compositions
10:44
Example: Inverse Composition
11:46
Example 1: Inverse Relation
14:49
Example 2: Inverse of Function
15:40
Example 3: Inverse of Function
17:06
Example 4: Inverse Functions
18:55
Square Root Functions and Inequalities

30m 4s

Intro
0:00
Square Root Functions
0:07
Examples: Square Root Function
0:16
Example: Not Square Root Function
0:46
Radicand
1:12
Example: Restriction
1:31
Graphing Square Root Functions
3:42
Example: Graphing
3:49
Square Root Inequalities
8:47
Same Technique
9:00
Example: Square Root Inequality
9:20
Example 1: Graph Square Root Function
15:19
Example 2: Graph Square Root Function
18:03
Example 3: Graph Square Root Function
22:41
Example 4: Square Root Inequalities
25:37
nth Roots

20m 46s

Intro
0:00
Definition of the nth Root
0:07
Example: 5th Root
0:20
Example: 6th Root
0:51
Principal nth Root
1:39
Example: Principal Roots
2:06
Using Absolute Values
5:58
Example: Square Root
6:18
Example: 6th Root
8:40
Example: Negative
10:15
Example 1: Simplify Radicals
12:23
Example 2: Simplify Radicals
13:29
Example 3: Simplify Radicals
16:07
Example 4: Simplify Radicals
18:18
Operations with Radical Expressions

41m 11s

Intro
0:00
Properties of Radicals
0:16
Quotient Property
0:29
Example: Quotient
1:00
Example: Product Property
1:47
Simplifying Radical Expressions
3:24
Radicand No nth Powers
3:47
Radicand No Fractions
6:33
No Radicals in Denominator
7:16
Rationalizing Denominators
8:27
Example: Radicand nth Power
9:05
Conjugate Radical Expressions
11:47
Conjugates
12:07
Example: Conjugate Radical Expression
13:11
Adding and Subtracting Radicals
16:12
Same Index, Same Radicand
16:20
Example: Like Radicals
16:28
Multiplying Radicals
19:04
Distributive Property
19:10
Example: Multiplying Radicals
19:20
Example 1: Simplify Radical
24:11
Example 2: Simplify Radicals
28:43
Example 3: Simplify Radicals
32:00
Example 4: Simplify Radical
36:34
Rational Exponents

30m 45s

Intro
0:00
Definition 1
0:20
Example: Using Numbers
0:39
Example: Non-Negative
2:46
Example: Odd
3:34
Definition 2
4:32
Restriction
4:52
Example: Relate to Definition 1
5:04
Example: m Not 1
5:31
Simplifying Expressions
7:53
Multiplication
8:31
Division
9:29
Multiply Exponents
10:08
Raised Power
11:05
Zero Power
11:29
Negative Power
11:49
Simplified Form
13:52
Complex Fraction
14:16
Negative Exponents
14:40
Example: More Complicated
15:14
Example 1: Write as Radical
19:03
Example 2: Write with Rational Exponents
20:40
Example 3: Complex Fraction
22:09
Example 4: Complex Fraction
26:22
Solving Radical Equations and Inequalities

31m 27s

Intro
0:00
Radical Equations
0:11
Variables in Radicands
0:22
Example: Radical Equation
1:06
Example: Complex Equation
2:42
Extraneous Roots
7:21
Squaring Technique
7:35
Double Check
7:44
Example: Extraneous
8:21
Eliminating nth Roots
10:04
Isolate and Raise Power
10:14
Example: nth Root
10:27
Radical Inequalities
11:27
Restriction: Index is Even
11:53
Example: Radical Inequality
12:29
Example 1: Solve Radical Equation
15:41
Example 2: Solve Radical Equation
17:44
Example 3: Solve Radical Inequality
20:24
Example 4: Solve Radical Equation
24:34
VIII. Rational Equations and Inequalities
Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions

40m 54s

Intro
0:00
Simplifying Rational Expressions
0:22
Algebraic Fraction
0:29
Examples: Rational Expressions
0:49
Example: GCF
1:33
Example: Simplify Rational Expression
2:26
Factoring -1
4:04
Example: Simplify with -1
4:19
Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions
6:59
Multiplying and Dividing
7:28
Example: Multiplying Rational Expressions
8:36
Example: Dividing Rational Expressions
11:20
Factoring
14:01
Factoring Polynomials
14:19
Example: Factoring
14:35
Complex Fractions
18:22
Example: Numbers
18:37
Example: Algebraic Complex Fractions
19:25
Example 1: Simplify Rational Expression
25:56
Example 2: Simplify Rational Expression
29:34
Example 3: Simplify Rational Expression
31:39
Example 4: Simplify Rational Expression
37:50
Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions

55m 4s

Intro
0:00
Least Common Multiple (LCM)
0:27
Examples: LCM of Numbers
0:43
Example: LCM of Polynomials
4:02
Adding and Subtracting
7:55
Least Common Denominator (LCD)
8:07
Example: Numbers
8:17
Example: Rational Expressions
11:03
Equivalent Fractions
15:22
Simplifying Complex Fractions
21:19
Example: Previous Lessons
21:36
Example: More Complex
22:53
Example 1: Find LCM
28:30
Example 2: Add Rational Expressions
31:44
Example 3: Subtract Rational Expressions
39:18
Example 4: Simplify Rational Expression
38:26
Graphing Rational Functions

57m 13s

Intro
0:00
Rational Functions
0:18
Restriction
0:34
Example: Rational Function
0:51
Breaks in Continuity
2:52
Example: Continuous Function
3:10
Discontinuities
3:30
Example: Excluded Values
4:37
Graphs and Discontinuities
5:02
Common Binomial Factor (Hole)
5:08
Example: Common Factor
5:31
Asymptote
10:06
Example: Vertical Asymptote
11:08
Horizontal Asymptotes
20:00
Example: Horizontal Asymptote
20:25
Example 1: Holes and Vertical Asymptotes
26:12
Example 2: Graph Rational Faction
28:35
Example 3: Graph Rational Faction
39:23
Example 4: Graph Rational Faction
47:28
Direct, Joint, and Inverse Variation

20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Direct Variation
0:07
Constant of Variation
0:25
Graph of Constant Variation
1:26
Slope is Constant k
1:35
Example: Straight Lines
1:41
Joint Variation
2:48
Three Variables
2:52
Inverse Variation
3:38
Rewritten Form
3:52
Examples in Biology
4:22
Graph of Inverse Variation
4:51
Asymptotes are Axes
5:12
Example: Inverse Variation
5:40
Proportions
10:11
Direct Variation
10:25
Inverse Variation
11:32
Example 1: Type of Variation
12:42
Example 2: Direct Variation
14:13
Example 3: Joint Variation
16:24
Example 4: Graph Rational Faction
18:50
Solving Rational Equations and Inequalities

55m 14s

Intro
0:00
Rational Equations
0:15
Example: Algebraic Fraction
0:26
Least Common Denominator
0:49
Example: Simple Rational Equation
1:22
Example: Solve Rational Equation
5:40
Extraneous Solutions
9:31
Doublecheck
10:00
No Solution
10:38
Example: Extraneous
10:44
Rational Inequalities
14:01
Excluded Values
14:31
Solve Related Equation
14:49
Find Intervals
14:58
Use Test Values
15:25
Example: Rational Inequality
15:51
Example: Rational Inequality 2
17:07
Example 1: Rational Equation
28:50
Example 2: Rational Equation
33:51
Example 3: Rational Equation
38:19
Example 4: Rational Inequality
46:49
IX. Exponential and Logarithmic Relations
Exponential Functions

35m 58s

Intro
0:00
What is an Exponential Function?
0:12
Restriction on b
0:31
Base
0:46
Example: Exponents as Bases
0:56
Variables as Exponents
1:12
Example: Exponential Function
1:50
Graphing Exponential Functions
2:33
Example: Using Table
2:49
Properties
11:52
Continuous and One to One
12:00
Domain is All Real Numbers
13:14
X-Axis Asymptote
13:55
Y-Intercept
14:02
Reflection Across Y-Axis
14:31
Growth and Decay
15:06
Exponential Growth
15:10
Real Life Examples
15:41
Example: Growth
15:52
Example: Decay
16:12
Real Life Examples
16:30
Equations
17:32
Bases are Same
18:05
Examples: Variables as Exponents
18:20
Inequalities
21:29
Property
21:51
Example: Inequality
22:37
Example 1: Graph Exponential Function
24:05
Example 2: Growth or Decay
27:50
Example 3: Exponential Equation
29:31
Example 4: Exponential Inequality
32:54
Logarithms and Logarithmic Functions

45m 54s

Intro
0:00
What are Logarithms?
0:08
Restrictions
0:15
Written Form
0:26
Logarithms are Exponents
0:52
Example: Logarithms
1:49
Logarithmic Functions
5:14
Same Restrictions
5:30
Inverses
5:53
Example: Logarithmic Function
6:24
Graph of the Logarithmic Function
9:20
Example: Using Table
9:35
Properties
15:09
Continuous and One to One
15:14
Domain
15:36
Range
15:56
Y-Axis is Asymptote
16:02
X Intercept
16:12
Inverse Property
16:57
Compositions of Functions
17:10
Equations
18:30
Example: Logarithmic Equation
19:13
Inequalities
20:36
Properties
20:47
Example: Logarithmic Inequality
21:40
Equations with Logarithms on Both Sides
24:43
Property
24:51
Example: Both Sides
25:23
Inequalities with Logarithms on Both Sides
26:52
Property
27:02
Example: Both Sides
28:05
Example 1: Solve Log Equation
31:52
Example 2: Solve Log Equation
33:53
Example 3: Solve Log Equation
36:15
Example 4: Solve Log Inequality
39:19
Properties of Logarithms

28m 43s

Intro
0:00
Product Property
0:08
Example: Product
0:46
Quotient Property
2:40
Example: Quotient
2:59
Power Property
3:51
Moved Exponent
4:07
Example: Power
4:37
Equations
5:15
Example: Use Properties
5:58
Example 1: Simplify Log
11:17
Example 2: Single Log
15:54
Example 3: Solve Log Equation
18:48
Example 4: Solve Log Equation
22:13
Common Logarithms

25m 23s

Intro
0:00
What are Common Logarithms?
0:10
Real World Applications
0:16
Base Not Written
0:27
Example: Base 10
0:39
Equations
1:47
Example: Same Base
1:56
Example: Different Base
2:37
Inequalities
6:07
Multiplying/Dividing Inequality
6:21
Example: Log Inequality
6:54
Change of Base
12:45
Base 10
13:24
Example: Change of Base
14:05
Example 1: Log Equation
15:21
Example 2: Common Logs
17:13
Example 3: Log Equation
18:22
Example 4: Log Inequality
21:52
Base e and Natural Logarithms

21m 14s

Intro
0:00
Number e
0:09
Natural Base
0:21
Growth/Decay
0:33
Example: Exponential Function
0:53
Natural Logarithms
1:11
ln x
1:19
Inverse and Identity Function
1:39
Example: Inverse Composition
1:55
Equations and Inequalities
4:39
Extraneous Solutions
5:30
Examples: Natural Log Equations
5:48
Example 1: Natural Log Equation
9:08
Example 2: Natural Log Equation
10:37
Example 3: Natural Log Inequality
16:54
Example 4: Natural Log Inequality
18:16
Exponential Growth and Decay

24m 30s

Intro
0:00
Decay
0:17
Decreases by Fixed Percentage
0:23
Rate of Decay
0:56
Example: Finance
1:34
Scientific Model of Decay
3:37
Exponential Decay
3:45
Radioactive Decay
4:13
Example: Half Life
5:33
Growth
9:06
Increases by Fixed Percentage
9:18
Example: Finance
10:09
Scientific Model of Growth
11:35
Population Growth
12:04
Example: Growth
12:20
Example 1: Computer Price
14:00
Example 2: Stock Price
15:46
Example 3: Medicine Disintegration
19:10
Example 4: Population Growth
22:33
X. Conic Sections
Midpoint and Distance Formulas

32m 42s

Intro
0:00
Midpoint Formula
0:15
Example: Midpoint
0:30
Distance Formula
2:30
Example: Distance
2:52
Example 1: Midpoint and Distance
4:58
Example 2: Midpoint and Distance
8:07
Example 3: Median Length
18:51
Example 4: Perimeter and Area
23:36
Parabolas

41m 27s

Intro
0:00
What is a Parabola?
0:20
Definition of a Parabola
0:29
Focus
0:59
Directrix
1:15
Axis of Symmetry
3:08
Vertex
3:33
Minimum or Maximum
3:44
Standard Form
4:59
Horizontal Parabolas
5:08
Vertex Form
5:19
Upward or Downward
5:41
Example: Standard Form
6:06
Graphing Parabolas
8:31
Shifting
8:51
Example: Completing the Square
9:22
Symmetry and Translation
12:18
Example: Graph Parabola
12:40
Latus Rectum
17:13
Length
18:15
Example: Latus Rectum
18:35
Horizontal Parabolas
18:57
Not Functions
20:08
Example: Horizontal Parabola
21:21
Focus and Directrix
24:11
Horizontal
24:48
Example 1: Parabola Standard Form
25:12
Example 2: Graph Parabola
30:00
Example 3: Graph Parabola
33:13
Example 4: Parabola Equation
37:28
Circles

21m 3s

Intro
0:00
What are Circles?
0:08
Example: Equidistant
0:17
Radius
0:32
Equation of a Circle
0:44
Example: Standard Form
1:11
Graphing Circles
1:47
Example: Circle
1:56
Center Not at Origin
3:07
Example: Completing the Square
3:51
Example 1: Equation of Circle
6:44
Example 2: Center and Radius
11:51
Example 3: Radius
15:08
Example 4: Equation of Circle
16:57
Ellipses

46m 51s

Intro
0:00
What Are Ellipses?
0:11
Foci
0:23
Properties of Ellipses
1:43
Major Axis, Minor Axis
1:47
Center
1:54
Length of Major Axis and Minor Axis
3:21
Standard Form
5:33
Example: Standard Form of Ellipse
6:09
Vertical Major Axis
9:14
Example: Vertical Major Axis
9:46
Graphing Ellipses
12:51
Complete the Square and Symmetry
13:00
Example: Graphing Ellipse
13:16
Equation with Center at (h, k)
19:57
Horizontal and Vertical
20:14
Difference
20:27
Example: Center at (h, k)
20:55
Example 1: Equation of Ellipse
24:05
Example 2: Equation of Ellipse
27:57
Example 3: Equation of Ellipse
32:32
Example 4: Graph Ellipse
38:27
Hyperbolas

38m 15s

Intro
0:00
What are Hyperbolas?
0:12
Two Branches
0:18
Foci
0:38
Properties
2:00
Transverse Axis and Conjugate Axis
2:06
Vertices
2:46
Length of Transverse Axis
3:14
Distance Between Foci
3:31
Length of Conjugate Axis
3:38
Standard Form
5:45
Vertex Location
6:36
Known Points
6:52
Vertical Transverse Axis
7:26
Vertex Location
7:50
Asymptotes
8:36
Vertex Location
8:56
Rectangle
9:28
Diagonals
10:29
Graphing Hyperbolas
12:58
Example: Hyperbola
13:16
Equation with Center at (h, k)
16:32
Example: Center at (h, k)
17:21
Example 1: Equation of Hyperbola
19:20
Example 2: Equation of Hyperbola
22:48
Example 3: Graph Hyperbola
26:05
Example 4: Equation of Hyperbola
36:29
Conic Sections

18m 43s

Intro
0:00
Conic Sections
0:16
Double Cone Sections
0:24
Standard Form
1:27
General Form
1:37
Identify Conic Sections
2:16
B = 0
2:50
X and Y
3:22
Identify Conic Sections, Cont.
4:46
Parabola
5:17
Circle
5:51
Ellipse
6:31
Hyperbola
7:10
Example 1: Identify Conic Section
8:01
Example 2: Identify Conic Section
11:03
Example 3: Identify Conic Section
11:38
Example 4: Identify Conic Section
14:50
Solving Quadratic Systems

47m 4s

Intro
0:00
Linear Quadratic Systems
0:22
Example: Linear Quadratic System
0:45
Solutions
2:49
Graphs of Possible Solutions
3:10
Quadratic Quadratic System
4:10
Example: Elimination
4:21
Solutions
11:39
Example: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Solutions
11:50
Systems of Quadratic Inequalities
12:48
Example: Quadratic Inequality
13:09
Example 1: Solve Quadratic System
21:42
Example 2: Solve Quadratic System
29:13
Example 3: Solve Quadratic System
35:02
Example 4: Solve Quadratic Inequality
40:29
XI. Sequences and Series
Arithmetic Sequences

21m 16s

Intro
0:00
Sequences
0:10
General Form of Sequence
0:16
Example: Finite/Infinite Sequences
0:33
Arithmetic Sequences
0:28
Common Difference
2:41
Example: Arithmetic Sequence
2:50
Formula for the nth Term
3:51
Example: nth Term
4:32
Equation for the nth Term
6:37
Example: Using Formula
6:56
Arithmetic Means
9:47
Example: Arithmetic Means
10:16
Example 1: nth Term
12:38
Example 2: Arithmetic Means
13:49
Example 3: Arithmetic Means
16:12
Example 4: nth Term
18:26
Arithmetic Series

21m 36s

Intro
0:00
What are Arithmetic Series?
0:11
Common Difference
0:28
Example: Arithmetic Sequence
0:43
Example: Arithmetic Series
1:09
Finite/Infinite Series
1:36
Sum of Arithmetic Series
2:27
Example: Sum
3:21
Sigma Notation
5:53
Index
6:14
Example: Sigma Notation
7:14
Example 1: First Term
9:00
Example 2: Three Terms
10:52
Example 3: Sum of Series
14:14
Example 4: Sum of Series
18:13
Geometric Sequences

23m 3s

Intro
0:00
Geometric Sequences
0:11
Common Difference
0:38
Common Ratio
1:08
Example: Geometric Sequence
2:38
nth Term of a Geometric Sequence
4:41
Example: nth Term
4:56
Geometric Means
6:51
Example: Geometric Mean
7:09
Example 1: 9th Term
12:04
Example 2: Geometric Means
15:18
Example 3: nth Term
18:32
Example 4: Three Terms
20:59
Geometric Series

22m 43s

Intro
0:00
What are Geometric Series?
0:11
List of Numbers
0:24
Example: Geometric Series
1:12
Sum of Geometric Series
2:16
Example: Sum of Geometric Series
2:41
Sigma Notation
4:21
Lower Index, Upper Index
4:38
Example: Sigma Notation
4:57
Another Sum Formula
6:08
Example: n Unknown
6:28
Specific Terms
7:41
Sum Formula
7:56
Example: Specific Term
8:11
Example 1: Sum of Geometric Series
10:02
Example 2: Sum of 8 Terms
14:15
Example 3: Sum of Geometric Series
18:23
Example 4: First Term
20:16
Infinite Geometric Series

18m 32s

Intro
0:00
What are Infinite Geometric Series
0:10
Example: Finite
0:29
Example: Infinite
0:51
Partial Sums
1:09
Formula
1:37
Sum of an Infinite Geometric Series
2:39
Convergent Series
2:58
Example: Sum of Convergent Series
3:28
Sigma Notation
7:31
Example: Sigma
8:17
Repeating Decimals
8:42
Example: Repeating Decimal
8:53
Example 1: Sum of Infinite Geometric Series
12:15
Example 2: Repeating Decimal
13:24
Example 3: Sum of Infinite Geometric Series
15:14
Example 4: Repeating Decimal
16:48
Recursion and Special Sequences

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Fibonacci Sequence
0:05
Background of Fibonacci
0:23
Recursive Formula
0:37
Fibonacci Sequence
0:52
Example: Recursive Formula
2:18
Iteration
3:49
Example: Iteration
4:30
Example 1: Five Terms
7:08
Example 2: Three Terms
9:00
Example 3: Five Terms
10:38
Example 4: Three Iterates
12:41
Binomial Theorem

48m 30s

Intro
0:00
Pascal's Triangle
0:06
Expand Binomial
0:13
Pascal's Triangle
4:26
Properties
6:52
Example: Properties of Binomials
6:58
Factorials
9:11
Product
9:28
Example: Factorial
9:45
Binomial Theorem
11:08
Example: Binomial Theorem
13:48
Finding a Specific Term
18:36
Example: Specific Term
19:26
Example 1: Expand
24:39
Example 2: Fourth Term
30:26
Example 3: Five Terms
36:13
Example 4: Three Iterates
45:07
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Lecture Comments (3)

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Tue Sep 24, 2013 8:23 PM

Post by dayan assaf on September 21, 2013

how would you find the a1 when you have the two terms a6= 10 and a21= 55?

0 answers

Post by Ming Jin on July 31, 2013

This is wonderful!

Arithmetic Sequences

  • If you are given several terms of a sequence, use the formula for the nth term to find an algebraic expression for the nth term.
  • When finding arithmetic means, first use the formula for the nth term to find d. Then add d to the value before the unknown arithmetic means repeatedly to find the missing means.

Arithmetic Sequences

Write an equation for the nth term of 19,27,35,43...
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find the common difference
  • d = 27 − 19 =
  • d = 27 − 19 = 8
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = 19 + (n − 1)8
  • Step 3 - Simplify
  • an = 19 + 8n − 8
an = 11 + 8n
Write an equation for the nth term of 11,31,51,71...
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find the common difference
  • d = 31 − 11 =
  • d = 31 − 11 = 20
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = 11 + (n − 1)20
  • Step 3 - Simplify
  • an = 11 + 20n − 20
an = − 9 + 20n
Write an equation for the nth term of − 26, − 46, − 66, − 86...
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find the common difference
  • d = − 46 − ( − 26) =
  • d = − 46 − ( − 26) = − 46 + 26 = − 20
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = − 26 + (n − 1) − 20
  • Step 3 - Simplify
  • an = − 26 − 20n + 20
an = − 6 − 20n
Write an equation for the nth term of 11, − 89, − 189, − 289...
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find the common difference
  • d = − 89 − (11) =
  • d = − 89 − (11) = − 100
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = 11 + (n − 1) − 100
  • Step 3 - Simplify
  • an = 11 − 100n + 100
an = 111 − 100n
Write an equation for the nth term of 11,1, − 9, − 19...
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find the common difference
  • d = 1 − (11) =
  • d = 1 − (11) = − 10
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = 11 + (n − 1) − 10
  • Step 3 − Simplify
  • an = 11 − 10n + 10
an = 21 − 10n
Which term is 892 in the arithmetic sequence − 25, − 18, − 11, − 4...
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find the common difference
  • d = − 18 − ( − 25) =
  • d = − 18 − ( − 25) = − 18 + 25 = 7
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = − 25 + (n − 1)7
  • Step 3 - Simplify
  • an = − 25 + 7n − 7
  • an = − 32 + 7n
  • Step 4 = Find the value of n (the nth term) for which it equals an = 892
  • 892 = − 32 + 7n
  • 924 = 7n
  • n = 132
892 is the 132th term
Which term is − 1772 in the arithmetic sequence 19,10,1, − 8...
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find the common difference
  • d = 10 − (19) =
  • d = 10 − (19) = − 9
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = 19 + (n − 1) − 9
  • Step 3 - Simplify
  • an = 19 − 9n + 9
  • an = 28 − 9n
  • Step 4 = Find the value of n (the nth term) for which it equals an = − 1772
  • − 1772 = 28 − 9n
  • − 1800 = − 9n
  • n = 200
− 1772 is the 200th term
Find an equation of the nth term of the arithmetic sequence with
a38 = 207 d = 6
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find first term given the 38th term and the common difference 6
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • 207 = a1 + (38 − 1)6
  • 207 = a1 + (38 − 1)6
  • 207 = a1 + (37)6
  • 207 = a1 + 222
  • a1 = − 15
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = − 15 + (n − 1)6
  • Step 3 - Simplify
  • an = − 15 + 6n − 6
an = − 21 + 6n
Find an equation of the nth term of the arithmetic sequence with
a20 = − 3828
d = − 200
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find first term given the 30th term and the common difference − 200
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • − 3828 = a1 + (20 − 1)( − 200)
  • − 3828 = a1 + (19)( − 200)
  • − 3828 = a1 + − 3800
  • a1 = − 28
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = − 28 + (n − 1)( − 200)
  • Step 3 - Simplify
  • an = − 28 − 200n + 200
an = 172 − 200n
Find an equation of the nth term of the arithmetic sequence with
a29 = 5560
d = 200
  • Recall that the equation for the common term is an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • where a1 is the first term and d is the common difference
  • Step 1 - Find first term given the 30th term and the common difference − 200
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • 5560 = a1 + (29 − 1)(200)
  • 5560 = a1 + (28)(200)
  • 5560 = a1 + 5600
  • a1 = − 40
  • Step 2 - Plug in into the formula d and the first term in the sequence
  • an = a1 + (n − 1)d
  • an = − 40 + (n − 1)(200)
  • Step 3 - Simplify
  • an = − 40 + 200n − 200
an = − 240 + 200n

*These practice questions are only helpful when you work on them offline on a piece of paper and then use the solution steps function to check your answer.

Answer

Arithmetic Sequences

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Sequences 0:10
    • General Form of Sequence
    • Example: Finite/Infinite Sequences
  • Arithmetic Sequences 0:28
    • Common Difference
    • Example: Arithmetic Sequence
  • Formula for the nth Term 3:51
    • Example: nth Term
  • Equation for the nth Term 6:37
    • Example: Using Formula
  • Arithmetic Means 9:47
    • Example: Arithmetic Means
  • Example 1: nth Term 12:38
  • Example 2: Arithmetic Means 13:49
  • Example 3: Arithmetic Means 16:12
  • Example 4: nth Term 18:26

Transcription: Arithmetic Sequences

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

Today, we are going to start a series of lectures on sequences and series, starting with arithmetic sequences.0002

A sequence is a list of numbers given in a certain number; and each of these numbers is called a term.0010

So, the general form that a sequence is written in is this: a1,0016

or just a, is the first term; a2 is the second term, and on and on.0021

Each term is given by a; and then n is the term number.0026

For example, a typical sequence would be something like 5, 10, 15, 20; and this type of sequence is called a finite sequence.0032

Another type of sequence is one like this: 3, 9, 27, 81...and then it has the three dots, the ellipses, at the end,0052

indicating that it goes on forever: this is called an infinite sequence.0064

Looking back at this second function, looking a little bit more deeply, we could actually rewrite this second function as an = 3n.0074

I will go into more detail about this in a few minutes.0089

But just in general, sequences in general (not just limiting ourselves to arithmetic sequences)...0092

The idea, then, would be: if I was looking for the first term, a1 (here n = 1--it is the first term),0099

I would then substitute in 1 where the n was; so that gives me 3.0106

So, the first term is 3: a2 is 3 to the second power, 9; a3 is 3 to the third power, which is 27; and so on.0112

So, you can develop an equation for this sequence that will tell you what a particular term is--what the value of that term is.0126

If I wanted to know the 17th term, then it would simply be 317, whatever that comes out to.0134

So, this is just sequences in general; but today we are focusing on arithmetic sequences.0142

In an arithmetic sequence, each term after the first one is obtained by adding a constant--0149

not multiplying by a number or anything--it is just by adding; that is limiting this to arithmetic sequences.0154

The constant that you add to obtain the subsequent term is called the common difference.0162

In the previous slide, I showed you a typical sequence: 5, 10, 15, 12 and this is an arithmetic sequence.0171

The common difference, which is often just called d, is 5; so this is the common difference.0181

Therefore, I can start with the first term; and to get the second term, I am going to add 5 to that.0191

So, a2 = 10; a3, 10 + 5, equals 15; and so on.0199

One thing to be aware of is that the common difference can be negative; it also can be a fraction.0211

So, the common difference can be a positive whole number; it could be a fraction; or it could be an integer that is negative.0218

And we are going to see examples of all of those in a few minutes.0227

If you want to find the value of a particular term in an arithmetic sequence, you can use the formula for the nth term.0233

Here, this is called the formula for the general term sometimes (either for the nth term or the general term).0242

an = the first term, plus (n - 1) times the common difference.0249

So, if I know the first term and the common difference, and I am looking for a particular term (let's say the 20th term),0257

then I would know n, so I can find the value of a20.0266

Looking at a little bit different sequence here: 5, 3, 1, -1, -3, and continuing on--looking at this,0273

I can see that the numbers are getting smaller.0286

Since the numbers are getting smaller, I know that the common difference is negative.0289

And I can easily find that common difference by taking one of the terms and subtracting the previous term.0292

So, I will go ahead and take 3; I will subtract the previous term; and that is going to be equal to -2, so the common difference is -2.0299

All right, so if I have this common difference, then if I wanted to look for a particular term, I could find it.0312

For example, I may want to find a10: then I could use this formula.0321

a10 would equal the first term, 5, plus 10 minus 1, times the common difference, which is -2.0336

So, a10 = 5 + (10 - 1)...is 9...times -2 (that is times -2, actually, making that clear).0349

a10 = 5 + -18, or a10 = -13.0365

Therefore, by having this formula, I can find any term in here, without going through the cumbersome of just subtracting 2, subtracting 2, and so on.0376

I knew the first term; I knew n; and I knew the common difference; the rest is just calculating.0386

OK, the equation for the nth term: you can use the formula that I just gave in order to find the equation for the nth term.0397

And I gave an example of applying that general equation.0404

Let's talk about using that formula to find a specific equation again.0409

So, looking at another example: 9, 12, 15, and so on--I have been given some terms in the sequence.0416

And I think back to my formula: an = a1 + (n - 1)d.0431

I want to find an equation for the nth term specific to this sequence.0441

So, I am going to look at what I have: I have a1...I have the first term, often just called a; that equals 9.0446

I need to find the common difference: I can find the common difference by saying 12 - 9 = 3.0453

Therefore, I can write a general equation: the general term, or the nth term, an, equals 90459

(9 is the first term), plus (n - 1), times the common difference, which is 3.0472

So, an = 9 + 3n - 3; an = 6 + 3n.0479

Now, I have a formula that I can use; so if I wanted to find any term, such as a21, I could use this.0493

a21 = 6 + 3(21); so, a21 would then equal 63 + 6, which equals 69.0504

OK, so again, I have my general equation here; and then I said, "All right, I have my general formula; I can write a specific equation for this situation."0532

The first term is 9; and the common difference is 3; that comes out to 9 + 3n - 3; 9 - 3 is 6, so it is 6 + 3n.0544

Now, if I want to find the 21st term, then I will say, "OK, I am going to go ahead and use my specific equation0558

for this scenario, for this sequence," which is a21 = 6 + 3(21).0570

That gives me 63 + 6; a21 is 69.0582

Arithmetic means: arithmetic means does not mean finding the mean of the sequence or anything; this is totally different.0588

Arithmetic means are actually the terms between two non-successive terms of an arithmetic sequence.0595

And you can actually use the formula that we learned for the nth term to find the common difference, d.0603

Once you know the common difference, d, you can use d to find the arithmetic means between terms.0610

For example, if I were given a sequence, -3...and then there were some missing terms: one term is missing,0616

two terms are missing, three, four, and then they give me the last one; I have my first term, a1;0625

and I have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 terms in this; so a1 = -3, a6 = 17.0634

Then, I look back to that formula for the general term, an = the first term, plus (n - 1) times the common difference.0645

In this case, I am going to be using the formula, not to find an yet; first I need to find the common difference.0654

I then use the common difference to find these terms.0661

Let's go ahead and find the common difference.0664

If a6 is 17, and I put that here; -3 is the first term, and I am working with a6;0666

so in this case, there are 6 terms, a6...6 - 1 times the common difference, which is what I am looking for.0675

Now, it is just a matter of solving for that: this gives me 17 = -3 + 5d; add 3 to both sides; that is going to give me 20 = 5d.0685

And then, I am going to divide 20 by 5 to give me 4 = the common difference.0699

So now that I have a common difference of 4, all I have to do is find a2; that is going to equal -3 + 4, so that is going to equal 1.0706

To find a3, it is going to be 1 + 4 = 5; a4 = 5 + 4; that is 9.0715

And a5 = 9 + 4, which is 13.0726

OK, we have -3; and now, our missing terms: 1, 5, 9, and 13; and then I have 17, which was already given.0732

So, I found the arithmetic means, or the missing terms, by using the formula for the nth term0746

to find the common difference, and then taking that common difference and adding it to each term to find the next term.0750

Example 1: Write an equation for the nth term of this sequence.0758

Recall that the equation for the nth term, just the general formula, is an, the general term,0764

equals the first term, plus (n - 1) times the common difference.0774

Therefore, we need to find the common difference; and you can find that by taking any term and subtracting the one just before it.0779

Therefore, 26 - 19 = 7; so the common difference is 7.0786

an equals the first term; well, I also have the first term--that is -2.0797

So, that is -2 + (n - 1) times 7, so an = -2 + 7n - 7; an =...-2 + -7 is -9, so 7n - 9.0801

So, this is the equation to find any term of this sequence.0822

Example 2: Find the arithmetic means: this time, we need to find the missing terms.0829

And we can do that because we, again, have that equation for the nth term,0834

which is an = the first term + (n - 1) times the common difference.0840

In order to do this, though, I need to find the common difference; and I can do that because I have the first term,0846

which is -7; I also have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7...I also have the seventh term, which is equal to 11.0854

And in this case, n = 7; so I just go ahead and use these values to find d.0863

Therefore, I am going to end up with 11 = the first term, which is -7, plus n, which is 7, minus 1, times d.0872

Therefore, 11 = -7 + 6d; I am going to add 7 to both sides to simplify--that gives me 18 = 6d.0887

Divide both sides by 6; I end up with d = 3.0896

Now that I have this, all I need to do is say, "OK, for the second term" (I have the first term),0900

"I am going to take the first term, -7, and just add 3 to that to get -4."0908

For a3, I am going to take -4 and add 3 to that to get -1.0914

a4 = -1 + 3, so that is going to give me 2.0925

a5 = 2 + 3, which is actually equal to 5; and then, a6, which is also missing, is going to be 5 + 3, or 8.0933

Therefore, the term I was given was -7; and then, I found the missing terms, -4, -1, 2, 5, and 8; these were the missing terms, the arithmetic means.0943

And I was given the last term, 11.0960

And the key thing is to find the common difference, using this general equation, and then to take that common difference and use it to fill in the missing terms.0962

Which term is 763 in the arithmetic sequence (and the arithmetic sequence is given)?0974

So, you have a term, an = 763; and what this is really asking is what place that is.0983

Is it the fifth term? Is it the seventeenth term? What number term is this?0991

I know that its value is 763; and let's look at what else I know.0997

Well, I know that the first term is -7; and I can easily find the common difference.1002

I can just take 15 - 4, for example, which is 11; so knowing this value, the first term, and the common difference,1009

I can go back to my equation for the nth term, an1017

equals the first term, plus n - 1 times the common difference.1022

What I am looking for is n, the term number: for an = 763, what is n?1027

I can put in 763 = -7 +...n is my unknown, so I have (n - 1) times this common difference of 11.1037

So, 763 = -7 + 11n - 11; adding 7 to both sides is going to give me 770 = 11n - 1.1047

Now, adding 11 to both sides gives me 781 = 11n; and the last step is just to divide both sides by 11.1065

And if you figure that out, it comes out to n = 71.1074

Therefore, the term number equals 71, or a71 = 763.1078

So, this time, I was given a term, and was asked to figure out which term it is in the sequence.1090

Where does it land in this sequence?--I could do that because I had the first term; I had the common difference; and I had the value of that term.1097

All right, find an equation for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence with a101 = 100 and a common difference of 7.1106

Well, to figure out this equation for the nth term, I need the first term.1118

So, I have the common difference; but the thing that is missing here is the first term.1125

So, how do I figure that out? Well, I do know another term; I know an an.1138

Since I know an, or a101, and I know that n is 101 in that case, and I know the common difference, I can solve.1143

So, I am going to first solve for the first term.1151

Then I will go back and use that first term to develop an equation for the nth term for this sequence.1156

So, I have a1 = 100, and I don't know my first term; I know my n for this term is 101,1163

and I am going to say minus 1, times the common difference, which is 7: this gives me 100 = a1 + 100 times 7.1176

100 = a1 + 700; subtract 700 from both sides; that is going to give me...actually, let's see:1187

yes, it is going to give me -600 equals this first term.1202

So, I am just rewriting it in a more standard form: the first term equals -600.1207

Now that I know the first term, I go back again and look at that general equation for the nth term.1212

And recall that I am asked to find a specific equation for the nth term for this sequence.1220

And I can do that, because I know that the first term is -600, and the common difference, d, is equal to 7.1226

So, an = -600 + 7n - 7; this equals an = 7n - 607, just simplifying.1236

I had to take an extra step here, because I wasn't given the first term.1251

But since I was given another term, I could find the first term.1254

And then, I went ahead, and I used that to find the equation for the nth term for this sequence, which is an = 7n - 607.1258

This concludes the lesson on arithmetic sequences on Educator.com; thanks for visiting!1269

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