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INSTRUCTORS  Carleen Eaton Grant Fraser
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Base e and Natural Logarithms

Slide Duration:

Section 1: Equations and Inequalities
Expressions and Formulas

22m 23s

Intro
0:00
Order of Operations
0:19
Variable
0:27
Algebraic Expression
0:46
Term
0:57
Example: Algebraic Expression
1:25
Evaluate Inside Grouping Symbols
1:55
Evaluate Powers
2:30
Multiply/Divide Left to Right
2:55
3:35
Monomials
4:40
Examples of Monomials
4:52
Constant
5:27
Coefficient
5:46
Degree
6:25
Power
7:15
Polynomials
8:02
Examples of Polynomials
8:24
Binomials, Trinomials, Monomials
8:53
Term
9:21
Like Terms
10:02
Formulas
11:00
Example: Pythagorean Theorem
11:15
Example 1: Evaluate the Algebraic Expression
11:50
Example 2: Evaluate the Algebraic Expression
14:38
Example 3: Area of a Triangle
19:11
Example 4: Fahrenheit to Celsius
20:41
Properties of Real Numbers

20m 15s

Intro
0:00
Real Numbers
0:07
Number Line
0:15
Rational Numbers
0:46
Irrational Numbers
2:24
Venn Diagram of Real Numbers
4:03
Irrational Numbers
5:00
Rational Numbers
5:19
Real Number System
5:27
Natural Numbers
5:32
Whole Numbers
5:53
Integers
6:19
Fractions
6:46
Properties of Real Numbers
7:15
Commutative Property
7:34
Associative Property
8:07
Identity Property
9:04
Inverse Property
9:53
Distributive Property
11:03
Example 1: What Set of Numbers?
12:21
Example 2: What Properties Are Used?
13:56
Example 3: Multiplicative Inverse
16:00
Example 4: Simplify Using Properties
17:18
Solving Equations

19m 10s

Intro
0:00
Translations
0:06
Verbal Expressions and Algebraic Expressions
0:13
Example: Sum of Two Numbers
0:19
Example: Square of a Number
1:33
Properties of Equality
3:20
Reflexive Property
3:30
Symmetric Property
3:42
Transitive Property
4:01
5:01
Subtraction Property
5:37
Multiplication Property
6:02
Division Property
6:30
Solving Equations
6:58
Example: Using Properties
7:18
Solving for a Variable
8:25
Example: Solve for Z
8:34
Example 1: Write Algebraic Expression
10:15
Example 2: Write Verbal Expression
11:31
Example 3: Solve the Equation
14:05
Example 4: Simplify Using Properties
17:26
Solving Absolute Value Equations

17m 31s

Intro
0:00
Absolute Value Expressions
0:09
Distance from Zero
0:18
Example: Absolute Value Expression
0:24
Absolute Value Equations
1:50
Example: Absolute Value Equation
2:00
Example: Isolate Expression
3:13
No Solution
3:46
Empty Set
3:58
Example: No Solution
4:12
Number of Solutions
4:46
Check Each Solution
4:57
Example: Two Solutions
5:05
Example: No Solution
6:18
Example: One Solution
6:28
Example 1: Evaluate for X
7:16
Example 2: Write Verbal Expression
9:08
Example 3: Solve the Equation
12:18
Example 4: Simplify Using Properties
13:36
Solving Inequalities

17m 14s

Intro
0:00
Properties of Inequalities
0:08
0:17
Example: Using Numbers
0:30
Subtraction Property
1:03
Example: Using Numbers
1:19
Multiplication Properties
1:44
C>0 (Positive Number)
1:50
Example: Using Numbers
2:05
C<0 (Negative Number)
2:40
Example: Using Numbers
3:10
Division Properties
4:11
C>0 (Positive Number)
4:15
Example: Using Numbers
4:27
C<0 (Negative Number)
5:21
Example: Using Numbers
5:32
Describing the Solution Set
6:10
Example: Set Builder Notation
6:26
Example: Graph (Closed Circle)
7:08
Example: Graph (Open Circle)
7:30
Example 1: Solve the Inequality
7:58
Example 2: Solve the Inequality
9:06
Example 3: Solve the Inequality
10:10
Example 4: Solve the Inequality
13:12
Solving Compound and Absolute Value Inequalities

25m

Intro
0:00
Compound Inequalities
0:08
And and Or
0:13
Example: And
0:22
Example: Or
1:12
And Inequality
1:41
Intersection
1:49
Example: Numbers
2:08
Example: Inequality
2:43
Or Inequality
4:35
Example: Union
4:45
Example: Inequality
5:53
Absolute Value Inequalities
7:19
Definition of Absolute Value
7:33
Examples: Compound Inequalities
8:30
Example: Complex Inequality
12:21
Example 1: Solve the Inequality
12:54
Example 2: Solve the Inequality
17:21
Example 3: Solve the Inequality
18:54
Example 4: Solve the Inequality
22:15
Section 2: Linear Relations and Functions
Relations and Functions

32m 5s

Intro
0:00
Coordinate Plane
0:20
X-Coordinate and Y-Coordinate
0:30
Example: Coordinate Pairs
0:37
1:20
Relations
2:14
Domain and Range
2:19
Set of Ordered Pairs
2:29
As a Table
2:51
Functions
4:21
One Element in Range
4:32
Example: Mapping
4:43
Example: Table and Map
6:26
One-to-One Functions
8:01
Example: One-to-One
8:22
Example: Not One-to-One
9:18
Graphs of Relations
11:01
Discrete and Continuous
11:12
Example: Discrete
11:22
Example: Continous
12:30
Vertical Line Test
14:09
Example: S Curve
14:29
Example: Function
16:15
Equations, Relations, and Functions
17:03
Independent Variable and Dependent Variable
17:16
Function Notation
19:11
Example: Function Notation
19:23
Example 1: Domain and Range
20:51
Example 2: Discrete or Continous
23:03
Example 3: Discrete or Continous
25:53
Example 4: Function Notation
30:05
Linear Equations

14m 46s

Intro
0:00
Linear Equations and Functions
0:07
Linear Equation
0:19
Example: Linear Equation
0:29
Example: Linear Function
1:07
Standard Form
2:02
Integer Constants with No Common Factor
2:08
Example: Standard Form
2:27
Graphing with Intercepts
4:05
X-Intercept and Y-Intercept
4:12
Example: Intercepts
4:26
Example: Graphing
5:14
Example 1: Linear Function
7:53
Example 2: Linear Function
9:10
Example 3: Standard Form
10:04
Example 4: Graph with Intercepts
12:25
Slope

23m 7s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Slope
0:07
Change in Y / Change in X
0:26
Example: Slope of Graph
0:37
Interpretation of Slope
3:07
Horizontal Line (0 Slope)
3:13
Vertical Line (Undefined Slope)
4:52
Rises to Right (Positive Slope)
6:36
Falls to Right (Negative Slope)
6:53
Parallel Lines
7:18
Example: Not Vertical
7:30
Example: Vertical
7:58
Perpendicular Lines
8:31
Example: Perpendicular
8:42
Example 1: Slope of Line
10:32
Example 2: Graph Line
11:45
Example 3: Parallel to Graph
13:37
Example 4: Perpendicular to Graph
17:57
Writing Linear Functions

23m 5s

Intro
0:00
Slope Intercept Form
0:11
m and b
0:28
Example: Graph Using Slope Intercept
0:43
Point Slope Form
2:41
Relation to Slope Formula
3:03
Example: Point Slope Form
4:36
Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
6:28
Review of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
6:31
Example: Parallel
7:50
Example: Perpendicular
9:58
Example 1: Slope Intercept Form
11:07
Example 2: Slope Intercept Form
13:07
Example 3: Parallel
15:49
Example 4: Perpendicular
18:42
Special Functions

31m 5s

Intro
0:00
Step Functions
0:07
Example: Apple Prices
0:30
Absolute Value Function
4:55
Example: Absolute Value
5:05
Piecewise Functions
9:08
Example: Piecewise
9:27
Example 1: Absolute Value Function
14:00
Example 2: Absolute Value Function
20:39
Example 3: Piecewise Function
22:26
Example 4: Step Function
25:25
Graphing Inequalities

21m 42s

Intro
0:00
Graphing Linear Inequalities
0:07
0:19
Using Test Points
0:32
Graph Corresponding Linear Function
0:46
Dashed or Solid Lines
0:59
Use Test Point
1:21
Example: Linear Inequality
1:58
Graphing Absolute Value Inequalities
4:50
Graph Corresponding Equations
4:59
Use Test Point
5:20
Example: Absolute Value Inequality
5:38
Example 1: Linear Inequality
9:17
Example 2: Linear Inequality
11:56
Example 3: Linear Inequality
14:29
Example 4: Absolute Value Inequality
17:06
Section 3: Systems of Equations and Inequalities
Solving Systems of Equations by Graphing

17m 13s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Equations
0:09
Example: Two Equations
0:24
Solving by Graphing
0:53
Point of Intersection
1:09
Types of Systems
2:29
Independent (Single Solution)
2:34
Dependent (Infinite Solutions)
3:05
Inconsistent (No Solution)
4:23
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
5:20
Example 2: Solve by Graphing
9:10
Example 3: Solve by Graphing
12:27
Example 4: Solve by Graphing
14:54
Solving Systems of Equations Algebraically

23m 53s

Intro
0:00
Solving by Substitution
0:08
Example: System of Equations
0:36
Solving by Multiplication
7:22
Extra Step of Multiplying
7:38
Example: System of Equations
8:00
Inconsistent and Dependent Systems
11:14
Variables Drop Out
11:48
Inconsistent System (Never True)
12:01
Constant Equals Constant
12:53
Dependent System (Always True)
13:11
Example 1: Solve Algebraically
13:58
Example 2: Solve Algebraically
15:52
Example 3: Solve Algebraically
17:54
Example 4: Solve Algebraically
21:40
Solving Systems of Inequalities By Graphing

27m 12s

Intro
0:00
Solving by Graphing
0:08
Graph Each Inequality
0:25
Overlap
0:35
Corresponding Linear Equations
1:03
Test Point
1:23
Example: System of Inequalities
1:51
No Solution
7:06
Empty Set
7:26
Example: No Solution
7:34
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
10:27
Example 2: Solve by Graphing
13:30
Example 3: Solve by Graphing
17:19
Example 4: Solve by Graphing
23:23
Solving Systems of Equations in Three Variables

28m 53s

Intro
0:00
Solving Systems in Three Variables
0:17
Triple of Values
0:31
Example: Three Variables
0:56
Number of Solutions
5:55
One Solution
6:08
No Solution
6:24
Infinite Solutions
7:06
Example 1: Solve 3 Variables
7:59
Example 2: Solve 3 Variables
13:50
Example 3: Solve 3 Variables
19:54
Example 4: Solve 3 Variables
25:50
Section 4: Matrices
Basic Matrix Concepts

11m 34s

Intro
0:00
What is a Matrix
0:26
Brackets
0:46
Designation
1:21
Element
1:47
Matrix Equations
1:59
Dimensions
2:27
Rows (m) and Columns (n)
2:37
Examples: Dimensions
2:43
Special Matrices
4:22
Row Matrix
4:32
Column Matrix
5:00
Zero Matrix
6:00
Equal Matrices
6:30
Example: Corresponding Elements
6:36
Example 1: Matrix Dimension
8:12
Example 2: Matrix Dimension
9:03
Example 3: Zero Matrix
9:38
Example 4: Row and Column Matrix
10:26
Matrix Operations

21m 36s

Intro
0:00
0:18
Same Dimensions
0:25
1:04
Matrix Subtraction
3:42
Same Dimensions
3:48
Example: Subtracting Matrices
4:04
Scalar Multiplication
6:08
Scalar Constant
6:24
Example: Multiplying Matrices
6:32
Properties of Matrix Operations
8:23
Commutative Property
8:41
Associative Property
9:08
Distributive Property
9:44
10:24
Example 2: Matrix Subtraction
11:58
Example 3: Scalar Multiplication
14:23
Example 4: Matrix Properties
16:09
Matrix Multiplication

29m 36s

Intro
0:00
Dimension Requirement
0:17
n = p
0:24
Resulting Product Matrix (m x q)
1:21
Example: Multiplication
1:54
Matrix Multiplication
3:38
Example: Matrix Multiplication
4:07
Properties of Matrix Multiplication
10:46
Associative Property
11:00
Associative Property (Scalar)
11:28
Distributive Property
12:06
Distributive Property (Scalar)
12:30
Example 1: Possible Matrices
13:31
Example 2: Multiplying Matrices
17:08
Example 3: Multiplying Matrices
20:41
Example 4: Matrix Properties
24:41
Determinants

33m 13s

Intro
0:00
What is a Determinant
0:13
Square Matrices
0:23
Vertical Bars
0:41
Determinant of a 2x2 Matrix
1:21
Second Order Determinant
1:37
Formula
1:45
Example: 2x2 Determinant
1:58
Determinant of a 3x3 Matrix
2:50
Expansion by Minors
3:08
Third Order Determinant
3:19
Expanding Row One
4:06
Example: 3x3 Determinant
6:40
Diagonal Method for 3x3 Matrices
13:24
Example: Diagonal Method
13:36
Example 1: Determinant of 2x2
18:59
Example 2: Determinant of 3x3
20:03
Example 3: Determinant of 3x3
25:35
Example 4: Determinant of 3x3
29:22
Cramer's Rule

28m 25s

Intro
0:00
System of Two Equations in Two Variables
0:16
One Variable
0:50
Determinant of Denominator
1:14
Determinants of Numerators
2:23
Example: System of Equations
3:34
System of Three Equations in Three Variables
7:06
Determinant of Denominator
7:17
Determinants of Numerators
7:52
Example 1: Two Equations
8:57
Example 2: Two Equations
13:21
Example 3: Three Equations
17:11
Example 4: Three Equations
23:43
Identity and Inverse Matrices

22m 25s

Intro
0:00
Identity Matrix
0:13
Example: 2x2 Identity Matrix
0:30
Example: 4x4 Identity Matrix
0:50
Properties of Identity Matrices
1:24
Example: Multiplying Identity Matrix
2:52
Matrix Inverses
5:30
Writing Matrix Inverse
6:07
Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix
6:39
Example: 2x2 Matrix
7:31
Example 1: Inverse Matrix
10:18
Example 2: Find the Inverse Matrix
13:04
Example 3: Find the Inverse Matrix
17:53
Example 4: Find the Inverse Matrix
20:44
Solving Systems of Equations Using Matrices

22m 32s

Intro
0:00
Matrix Equations
0:11
Example: System of Equations
0:21
Solving Systems of Equations
4:01
Isolate x
4:16
Example: Using Numbers
5:10
Multiplicative Inverse
5:54
Example 1: Write as Matrix Equation
7:18
Example 2: Use Matrix Equations
9:12
Example 3: Use Matrix Equations
15:06
Example 4: Use Matrix Equations
19:35
Section 5: Quadratic Functions and Inequalities

31m 48s

Intro
0:00
0:12
A is Zero
0:27
Example: Parabola
0:45
Properties of Parabolas
2:08
Axis of Symmetry
2:11
Vertex
2:32
Example: Parabola
2:48
Minimum and Maximum Values
9:02
Positive or Negative
9:28
Upward or Downward
9:58
Example: Minimum
10:31
Example: Maximum
11:16
Example 1: Axis of Symmetry, Vertex, Graph
12:41
Example 2: Axis of Symmetry, Vertex, Graph
17:25
Example 3: Minimum or Maximum
21:47
Example 4: Minimum or Maximum
27:09

27m 3s

Intro
0:00
0:16
Standard Form
0:18
0:47
Solving by Graphing
1:41
Roots (x-Intercepts)
1:48
Example: Number of Solutions
2:12
Estimating Solutions
9:23
Example: Integer Solutions
9:30
Example: Estimating
9:53
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
10:52
Example 2: Solve by Graphing
15:10
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
17:50
Example 1: Solve by Graphing
20:54

19m 53s

Intro
0:00
Factoring Techniques
0:15
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
0:37
Difference of Two Squares
1:48
Perfect Square Trinomials
2:30
General Trinomials
3:09
Zero Product Rule
5:22
Example: Zero Product
5:53
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
7:46
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
9:48
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
12:34
Example 1: Solve by Factoring
15:28
Imaginary and Complex Numbers

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Properties of Square Roots
0:10
Product Property
0:26
Example: Product Property
0:56
Quotient Property
2:17
Example: Quotient Property
2:35
Imaginary Numbers
3:12
Imaginary i
3:51
Examples: Imaginary Number
4:22
Complex Numbers
7:23
Real Part and Imaginary Part
7:33
Examples: Complex Numbers
7:57
Equality
9:37
Example: Equal Complex Numbers
9:52
10:12
10:25
Complex Plane
13:32
Horizontal Axis (Real)
13:49
Vertical Axis (Imaginary)
13:59
Example: Labeling
14:11
Multiplication
15:57
Example: FOIL Method
16:03
Division
18:37
Complex Conjugates
18:45
Conjugate Pairs
19:10
Example: Dividing Complex Numbers
20:00
Example 1: Simplify Complex Number
24:50
Example 2: Simplify Complex Number
27:56
Example 3: Multiply Complex Numbers
29:27
Example 3: Dividing Complex Numbers
31:48
Completing the Square

27m 11s

Intro
0:00
Square Root Property
0:12
Example: Perfect Square
0:38
Example: Perfect Square Trinomial
3:00
Completing the Square
4:39
Constant Term
4:50
Example: Complete the Square
5:04
Solve Equations
6:42
6:59
Example: Complete the Square
7:07
Equations Where a Not Equal to 1
10:58
Divide by Coefficient
11:08
Example: Complete the Square
11:24
Complex Solutions
14:05
Real and Imaginary
14:14
Example: Complex Solution
14:35
Example 1: Square Root Property
18:31
Example 2: Complete the Square
19:15
Example 3: Complete the Square
20:40
Example 4: Complete the Square
23:56

22m 48s

Intro
0:00
0:21
Standard Form
0:29
0:57
One Rational Root
3:00
Example: One Root
3:31
Complex Solutions
6:16
Complex Conjugate
6:28
Example: Complex Solution
7:15
Discriminant
9:42
Positive Discriminant
10:03
Perfect Square (Rational)
10:51
Not Perfect Square (2 Irrational)
11:27
Negative Discriminant
12:28
Zero Discriminant
12:57
13:50
16:03
19:00
Example 4: Discriminant
21:33
Analyzing the Graphs of Quadratic Functions

30m 7s

Intro
0:00
Vertex Form
0:12
H and K
0:32
Axis of Symmetry
0:36
Vertex
0:42
Example: Origin
1:00
Example: k = 2
2:12
Example: h = 1
4:27
Significance of Coefficient a
7:13
Example: |a| > 1
7:25
Example: |a| < 1
8:18
Example: |a| > 0
8:51
Example: |a| < 0
9:05
Writing Quadratic Equations in Vertex Form
10:22
Standard Form to Vertex Form
10:35
Example: Standard Form
11:02
Example: a Term Not 1
14:42
Example 1: Vertex Form
19:47
Example 2: Vertex Form
22:09
Example 3: Vertex Form
24:32
Example 4: Vertex Form
28:23

27m 5s

Intro
0:00
0:11
Test Point
0:18
0:29
3:57
Example: Parameter
4:24
Example 1: Graph Inequality
11:16
Example 2: Solve Inequality
14:27
Example 3: Graph Inequality
19:14
Example 4: Solve Inequality
23:48
Section 6: Polynomial Functions
Properties of Exponents

19m 29s

Intro
0:00
Simplifying Exponential Expressions
0:09
Monomial Simplest Form
0:19
Negative Exponents
1:07
Examples: Simple
1:34
Properties of Exponents
3:06
Negative Exponents
3:13
Mutliplying Same Base
3:24
Dividing Same Base
3:45
Raising Power to a Power
4:33
Parentheses (Multiplying)
5:11
Parentheses (Dividing)
5:47
Raising to 0th Power
6:15
Example 1: Simplify Exponents
7:59
Example 2: Simplify Exponents
10:41
Example 3: Simplify Exponents
14:11
Example 4: Simplify Exponents
18:04
Operations on Polynomials

13m 27s

Intro
0:00
0:13
Like Terms and Like Monomials
0:23
1:14
Multiplying Polynomials
3:40
Distributive Property
3:44
Example: Monomial by Polynomial
4:06
Example 1: Simplify Polynomials
5:47
Example 2: Simplify Polynomials
6:28
Example 3: Simplify Polynomials
8:38
Example 4: Simplify Polynomials
10:47
Dividing Polynomials

31m 11s

Intro
0:00
Dividing by a Monomial
0:13
Example: Numbers
0:26
Example: Polynomial by a Monomial
1:18
Long Division
2:28
Remainder Term
2:41
Example: Dividing with Numbers
3:04
Example: With Polynomials
5:01
Example: Missing Terms
7:58
Synthetic Division
11:44
Restriction
12:04
Example: Divisor in Form
12:20
Divisor in Synthetic Division
15:54
Example: Coefficient to 1
16:07
Example 1: Divide Polynomials
17:10
Example 2: Divide Polynomials
19:08
Example 3: Synthetic Division
21:42
Example 4: Synthetic Division
25:09
Polynomial Functions

22m 30s

Intro
0:00
Polynomial in One Variable
0:13
0:27
Example: Polynomial
1:18
Degree
1:31
Polynomial Functions
2:57
Example: Function
3:13
Function Values
3:33
Example: Numerical Values
3:53
Example: Algebraic Expressions
5:11
Zeros of Polynomial Functions
5:50
Odd Degree
6:04
Even Degree
7:29
End Behavior
8:28
Even Degrees
9:09
9:23
Odd Degrees
12:51
13:00
Example 1: Degree and Leading Coefficient
15:03
Example 2: Polynomial Function
15:56
Example 3: Polynomial Function
17:34
Example 4: End Behavior
19:53
Analyzing Graphs of Polynomial Functions

33m 29s

Intro
0:00
Graphing Polynomial Functions
0:11
Example: Table and End Behavior
0:39
Location Principle
4:43
Zero Between Two Points
5:03
Example: Location Principle
5:21
Maximum and Minimum Points
8:40
Relative Maximum and Relative Minimum
9:16
Example: Number of Relative Max/Min
11:11
Example 1: Graph Polynomial Function
11:57
Example 2: Graph Polynomial Function
16:19
Example 3: Graph Polynomial Function
23:27
Example 4: Graph Polynomial Function
28:35
Solving Polynomial Functions

21m 10s

Intro
0:00
Factoring Polynomials
0:06
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
0:25
Difference of Two Squares
1:14
Perfect Square Trinomials
2:07
General Trinomials
2:57
Grouping
4:32
Sum and Difference of Two Cubes
6:03
Examples: Two Cubes
6:14
8:22
8:44
Example 1: Factor Polynomial
12:03
Example 2: Factor Polynomial
13:54
15:33
Example 4: Solve Polynomial Function
17:24
Remainder and Factor Theorems

31m 21s

Intro
0:00
Remainder Theorem
0:07
Checking Work
0:22
Dividend and Divisor in Theorem
1:12
Example: f(a)
2:05
Synthetic Substitution
5:43
Example: Polynomial Function
6:15
Factor Theorem
9:54
Example: Numbers
10:16
Example: Confirm Factor
11:27
Factoring Polynomials
14:48
Example: 3rd Degree Polynomial
15:07
Example 1: Remainder Theorem
19:17
Example 2: Other Factors
21:57
Example 3: Remainder Theorem
25:52
Example 4: Other Factors
28:21
Roots and Zeros

31m 27s

Intro
0:00
Number of Roots
0:08
Not Nature of Roots
0:18
Example: Real and Complex Roots
0:25
Descartes' Rule of Signs
2:05
Positive Real Roots
2:21
Example: Positve
2:39
Negative Real Roots
5:44
Example: Negative
6:06
Finding the Roots
9:59
Example: Combination of Real and Complex
10:07
Conjugate Roots
13:18
Example: Conjugate Roots
13:50
Example 1: Solve Polynomial
16:03
Example 2: Solve Polynomial
18:36
Example 3: Possible Combinations
23:13
Example 4: Possible Combinations
27:11
Rational Zero Theorem

31m 16s

Intro
0:00
Equation
0:08
List of Possibilities
0:16
Equation with Constant and Leading Coefficient
1:04
Example: Rational Zero
2:46
7:19
Equation with Leading Coefficient of One
7:34
Example: Coefficient Equal to 1
8:45
Finding Rational Zeros
12:58
Division with Remainder Zero
13:32
Example 1: Possible Rational Zeros
14:20
Example 2: Possible Rational Zeros
16:02
Example 3: Possible Rational Zeros
19:58
Example 4: Find All Zeros
22:06
Section 7: Radical Expressions and Inequalities
Operations on Functions

34m 30s

Intro
0:00
Arithmetic Operations
0:07
Domain
0:16
Intersection
0:24
Denominator is Zero
0:49
Example: Operations
1:02
Composition of Functions
7:18
Notation
7:48
Right to Left
8:18
Example: Composition
8:48
Composition is Not Commutative
17:23
Example: Not Commutative
17:51
Example 1: Function Operations
20:55
Example 2: Function Operations
24:34
Example 3: Compositions
27:51
Example 4: Function Operations
31:09
Inverse Functions and Relations

22m 42s

Intro
0:00
Inverse of a Relation
0:14
Example: Ordered Pairs
0:56
Inverse of a Function
3:24
Domain and Range Switched
3:52
Example: Inverse
4:28
Procedure to Construct an Inverse Function
6:42
f(x) to y
6:42
Interchange x and y
6:59
Solve for y
7:06
Write Inverse f(x) for y
7:14
Example: Inverse Function
7:25
Example: Inverse Function 2
8:48
Inverses and Compositions
10:44
Example: Inverse Composition
11:46
Example 1: Inverse Relation
14:49
Example 2: Inverse of Function
15:40
Example 3: Inverse of Function
17:06
Example 4: Inverse Functions
18:55
Square Root Functions and Inequalities

30m 4s

Intro
0:00
Square Root Functions
0:07
Examples: Square Root Function
0:16
Example: Not Square Root Function
0:46
1:12
Example: Restriction
1:31
Graphing Square Root Functions
3:42
Example: Graphing
3:49
Square Root Inequalities
8:47
Same Technique
9:00
Example: Square Root Inequality
9:20
Example 1: Graph Square Root Function
15:19
Example 2: Graph Square Root Function
18:03
Example 3: Graph Square Root Function
22:41
Example 4: Square Root Inequalities
25:37
nth Roots

20m 46s

Intro
0:00
Definition of the nth Root
0:07
Example: 5th Root
0:20
Example: 6th Root
0:51
Principal nth Root
1:39
Example: Principal Roots
2:06
Using Absolute Values
5:58
Example: Square Root
6:18
Example: 6th Root
8:40
Example: Negative
10:15
12:23
13:29
16:07
18:18

41m 11s

Intro
0:00
0:16
Quotient Property
0:29
Example: Quotient
1:00
Example: Product Property
1:47
3:24
3:47
6:33
7:16
Rationalizing Denominators
8:27
9:05
11:47
Conjugates
12:07
13:11
16:12
16:20
16:28
19:04
Distributive Property
19:10
19:20
24:11
28:43
32:00
36:34
Rational Exponents

30m 45s

Intro
0:00
Definition 1
0:20
Example: Using Numbers
0:39
Example: Non-Negative
2:46
Example: Odd
3:34
Definition 2
4:32
Restriction
4:52
Example: Relate to Definition 1
5:04
Example: m Not 1
5:31
Simplifying Expressions
7:53
Multiplication
8:31
Division
9:29
Multiply Exponents
10:08
Raised Power
11:05
Zero Power
11:29
Negative Power
11:49
Simplified Form
13:52
Complex Fraction
14:16
Negative Exponents
14:40
Example: More Complicated
15:14
19:03
Example 2: Write with Rational Exponents
20:40
Example 3: Complex Fraction
22:09
Example 4: Complex Fraction
26:22

31m 27s

Intro
0:00
0:11
0:22
1:06
Example: Complex Equation
2:42
Extraneous Roots
7:21
Squaring Technique
7:35
Double Check
7:44
Example: Extraneous
8:21
Eliminating nth Roots
10:04
Isolate and Raise Power
10:14
Example: nth Root
10:27
11:27
Restriction: Index is Even
11:53
12:29
15:41
17:44
20:24
24:34
Section 8: Rational Equations and Inequalities
Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions

40m 54s

Intro
0:00
Simplifying Rational Expressions
0:22
Algebraic Fraction
0:29
Examples: Rational Expressions
0:49
Example: GCF
1:33
Example: Simplify Rational Expression
2:26
Factoring -1
4:04
Example: Simplify with -1
4:19
Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions
6:59
Multiplying and Dividing
7:28
Example: Multiplying Rational Expressions
8:36
Example: Dividing Rational Expressions
11:20
Factoring
14:01
Factoring Polynomials
14:19
Example: Factoring
14:35
Complex Fractions
18:22
Example: Numbers
18:37
Example: Algebraic Complex Fractions
19:25
Example 1: Simplify Rational Expression
25:56
Example 2: Simplify Rational Expression
29:34
Example 3: Simplify Rational Expression
31:39
Example 4: Simplify Rational Expression
37:50

55m 4s

Intro
0:00
Least Common Multiple (LCM)
0:27
Examples: LCM of Numbers
0:43
Example: LCM of Polynomials
4:02
7:55
Least Common Denominator (LCD)
8:07
Example: Numbers
8:17
Example: Rational Expressions
11:03
Equivalent Fractions
15:22
Simplifying Complex Fractions
21:19
Example: Previous Lessons
21:36
Example: More Complex
22:53
Example 1: Find LCM
28:30
31:44
Example 3: Subtract Rational Expressions
39:18
Example 4: Simplify Rational Expression
38:26
Graphing Rational Functions

57m 13s

Intro
0:00
Rational Functions
0:18
Restriction
0:34
Example: Rational Function
0:51
Breaks in Continuity
2:52
Example: Continuous Function
3:10
Discontinuities
3:30
Example: Excluded Values
4:37
Graphs and Discontinuities
5:02
Common Binomial Factor (Hole)
5:08
Example: Common Factor
5:31
Asymptote
10:06
Example: Vertical Asymptote
11:08
Horizontal Asymptotes
20:00
Example: Horizontal Asymptote
20:25
Example 1: Holes and Vertical Asymptotes
26:12
Example 2: Graph Rational Faction
28:35
Example 3: Graph Rational Faction
39:23
Example 4: Graph Rational Faction
47:28
Direct, Joint, and Inverse Variation

20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Direct Variation
0:07
Constant of Variation
0:25
Graph of Constant Variation
1:26
Slope is Constant k
1:35
Example: Straight Lines
1:41
Joint Variation
2:48
Three Variables
2:52
Inverse Variation
3:38
Rewritten Form
3:52
Examples in Biology
4:22
Graph of Inverse Variation
4:51
Asymptotes are Axes
5:12
Example: Inverse Variation
5:40
Proportions
10:11
Direct Variation
10:25
Inverse Variation
11:32
Example 1: Type of Variation
12:42
Example 2: Direct Variation
14:13
Example 3: Joint Variation
16:24
Example 4: Graph Rational Faction
18:50
Solving Rational Equations and Inequalities

55m 14s

Intro
0:00
Rational Equations
0:15
Example: Algebraic Fraction
0:26
Least Common Denominator
0:49
Example: Simple Rational Equation
1:22
Example: Solve Rational Equation
5:40
Extraneous Solutions
9:31
Doublecheck
10:00
No Solution
10:38
Example: Extraneous
10:44
Rational Inequalities
14:01
Excluded Values
14:31
Solve Related Equation
14:49
Find Intervals
14:58
Use Test Values
15:25
Example: Rational Inequality
15:51
Example: Rational Inequality 2
17:07
Example 1: Rational Equation
28:50
Example 2: Rational Equation
33:51
Example 3: Rational Equation
38:19
Example 4: Rational Inequality
46:49
Section 9: Exponential and Logarithmic Relations
Exponential Functions

35m 58s

Intro
0:00
What is an Exponential Function?
0:12
Restriction on b
0:31
Base
0:46
Example: Exponents as Bases
0:56
Variables as Exponents
1:12
Example: Exponential Function
1:50
Graphing Exponential Functions
2:33
Example: Using Table
2:49
Properties
11:52
Continuous and One to One
12:00
Domain is All Real Numbers
13:14
X-Axis Asymptote
13:55
Y-Intercept
14:02
Reflection Across Y-Axis
14:31
Growth and Decay
15:06
Exponential Growth
15:10
Real Life Examples
15:41
Example: Growth
15:52
Example: Decay
16:12
Real Life Examples
16:30
Equations
17:32
Bases are Same
18:05
Examples: Variables as Exponents
18:20
Inequalities
21:29
Property
21:51
Example: Inequality
22:37
Example 1: Graph Exponential Function
24:05
Example 2: Growth or Decay
27:50
Example 3: Exponential Equation
29:31
Example 4: Exponential Inequality
32:54
Logarithms and Logarithmic Functions

45m 54s

Intro
0:00
What are Logarithms?
0:08
Restrictions
0:15
Written Form
0:26
Logarithms are Exponents
0:52
Example: Logarithms
1:49
Logarithmic Functions
5:14
Same Restrictions
5:30
Inverses
5:53
Example: Logarithmic Function
6:24
Graph of the Logarithmic Function
9:20
Example: Using Table
9:35
Properties
15:09
Continuous and One to One
15:14
Domain
15:36
Range
15:56
Y-Axis is Asymptote
16:02
X Intercept
16:12
Inverse Property
16:57
Compositions of Functions
17:10
Equations
18:30
Example: Logarithmic Equation
19:13
Inequalities
20:36
Properties
20:47
Example: Logarithmic Inequality
21:40
Equations with Logarithms on Both Sides
24:43
Property
24:51
Example: Both Sides
25:23
Inequalities with Logarithms on Both Sides
26:52
Property
27:02
Example: Both Sides
28:05
Example 1: Solve Log Equation
31:52
Example 2: Solve Log Equation
33:53
Example 3: Solve Log Equation
36:15
39:19
Properties of Logarithms

28m 43s

Intro
0:00
Product Property
0:08
Example: Product
0:46
Quotient Property
2:40
Example: Quotient
2:59
Power Property
3:51
Moved Exponent
4:07
Example: Power
4:37
Equations
5:15
Example: Use Properties
5:58
Example 1: Simplify Log
11:17
Example 2: Single Log
15:54
Example 3: Solve Log Equation
18:48
Example 4: Solve Log Equation
22:13
Common Logarithms

25m 23s

Intro
0:00
What are Common Logarithms?
0:10
Real World Applications
0:16
Base Not Written
0:27
Example: Base 10
0:39
Equations
1:47
Example: Same Base
1:56
Example: Different Base
2:37
Inequalities
6:07
Multiplying/Dividing Inequality
6:21
6:54
Change of Base
12:45
Base 10
13:24
Example: Change of Base
14:05
Example 1: Log Equation
15:21
Example 2: Common Logs
17:13
Example 3: Log Equation
18:22
21:52
Base e and Natural Logarithms

21m 14s

Intro
0:00
Number e
0:09
Natural Base
0:21
Growth/Decay
0:33
Example: Exponential Function
0:53
Natural Logarithms
1:11
ln x
1:19
Inverse and Identity Function
1:39
Example: Inverse Composition
1:55
Equations and Inequalities
4:39
Extraneous Solutions
5:30
Examples: Natural Log Equations
5:48
Example 1: Natural Log Equation
9:08
Example 2: Natural Log Equation
10:37
16:54
18:16
Exponential Growth and Decay

24m 30s

Intro
0:00
Decay
0:17
Decreases by Fixed Percentage
0:23
Rate of Decay
0:56
Example: Finance
1:34
Scientific Model of Decay
3:37
Exponential Decay
3:45
4:13
Example: Half Life
5:33
Growth
9:06
Increases by Fixed Percentage
9:18
Example: Finance
10:09
Scientific Model of Growth
11:35
Population Growth
12:04
Example: Growth
12:20
Example 1: Computer Price
14:00
Example 2: Stock Price
15:46
Example 3: Medicine Disintegration
19:10
Example 4: Population Growth
22:33
Section 10: Conic Sections
Midpoint and Distance Formulas

32m 42s

Intro
0:00
Midpoint Formula
0:15
Example: Midpoint
0:30
Distance Formula
2:30
Example: Distance
2:52
Example 1: Midpoint and Distance
4:58
Example 2: Midpoint and Distance
8:07
Example 3: Median Length
18:51
Example 4: Perimeter and Area
23:36
Parabolas

41m 27s

Intro
0:00
What is a Parabola?
0:20
Definition of a Parabola
0:29
Focus
0:59
Directrix
1:15
Axis of Symmetry
3:08
Vertex
3:33
Minimum or Maximum
3:44
Standard Form
4:59
Horizontal Parabolas
5:08
Vertex Form
5:19
Upward or Downward
5:41
Example: Standard Form
6:06
Graphing Parabolas
8:31
Shifting
8:51
Example: Completing the Square
9:22
Symmetry and Translation
12:18
Example: Graph Parabola
12:40
Latus Rectum
17:13
Length
18:15
Example: Latus Rectum
18:35
Horizontal Parabolas
18:57
Not Functions
20:08
Example: Horizontal Parabola
21:21
Focus and Directrix
24:11
Horizontal
24:48
Example 1: Parabola Standard Form
25:12
Example 2: Graph Parabola
30:00
Example 3: Graph Parabola
33:13
Example 4: Parabola Equation
37:28
Circles

21m 3s

Intro
0:00
What are Circles?
0:08
Example: Equidistant
0:17
0:32
Equation of a Circle
0:44
Example: Standard Form
1:11
Graphing Circles
1:47
Example: Circle
1:56
Center Not at Origin
3:07
Example: Completing the Square
3:51
Example 1: Equation of Circle
6:44
11:51
15:08
Example 4: Equation of Circle
16:57
Ellipses

46m 51s

Intro
0:00
What Are Ellipses?
0:11
Foci
0:23
Properties of Ellipses
1:43
Major Axis, Minor Axis
1:47
Center
1:54
Length of Major Axis and Minor Axis
3:21
Standard Form
5:33
Example: Standard Form of Ellipse
6:09
Vertical Major Axis
9:14
Example: Vertical Major Axis
9:46
Graphing Ellipses
12:51
Complete the Square and Symmetry
13:00
Example: Graphing Ellipse
13:16
Equation with Center at (h, k)
19:57
Horizontal and Vertical
20:14
Difference
20:27
Example: Center at (h, k)
20:55
Example 1: Equation of Ellipse
24:05
Example 2: Equation of Ellipse
27:57
Example 3: Equation of Ellipse
32:32
Example 4: Graph Ellipse
38:27
Hyperbolas

38m 15s

Intro
0:00
What are Hyperbolas?
0:12
Two Branches
0:18
Foci
0:38
Properties
2:00
Transverse Axis and Conjugate Axis
2:06
Vertices
2:46
Length of Transverse Axis
3:14
Distance Between Foci
3:31
Length of Conjugate Axis
3:38
Standard Form
5:45
Vertex Location
6:36
Known Points
6:52
Vertical Transverse Axis
7:26
Vertex Location
7:50
Asymptotes
8:36
Vertex Location
8:56
Rectangle
9:28
Diagonals
10:29
Graphing Hyperbolas
12:58
Example: Hyperbola
13:16
Equation with Center at (h, k)
16:32
Example: Center at (h, k)
17:21
Example 1: Equation of Hyperbola
19:20
Example 2: Equation of Hyperbola
22:48
Example 3: Graph Hyperbola
26:05
Example 4: Equation of Hyperbola
36:29
Conic Sections

18m 43s

Intro
0:00
Conic Sections
0:16
Double Cone Sections
0:24
Standard Form
1:27
General Form
1:37
Identify Conic Sections
2:16
B = 0
2:50
X and Y
3:22
Identify Conic Sections, Cont.
4:46
Parabola
5:17
Circle
5:51
Ellipse
6:31
Hyperbola
7:10
Example 1: Identify Conic Section
8:01
Example 2: Identify Conic Section
11:03
Example 3: Identify Conic Section
11:38
Example 4: Identify Conic Section
14:50

47m 4s

Intro
0:00
0:22
0:45
Solutions
2:49
Graphs of Possible Solutions
3:10
4:10
Example: Elimination
4:21
Solutions
11:39
Example: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Solutions
11:50
12:48
13:09
21:42
29:13
35:02
40:29
Section 11: Sequences and Series
Arithmetic Sequences

21m 16s

Intro
0:00
Sequences
0:10
General Form of Sequence
0:16
Example: Finite/Infinite Sequences
0:33
Arithmetic Sequences
0:28
Common Difference
2:41
Example: Arithmetic Sequence
2:50
Formula for the nth Term
3:51
Example: nth Term
4:32
Equation for the nth Term
6:37
Example: Using Formula
6:56
Arithmetic Means
9:47
Example: Arithmetic Means
10:16
Example 1: nth Term
12:38
Example 2: Arithmetic Means
13:49
Example 3: Arithmetic Means
16:12
Example 4: nth Term
18:26
Arithmetic Series

21m 36s

Intro
0:00
What are Arithmetic Series?
0:11
Common Difference
0:28
Example: Arithmetic Sequence
0:43
Example: Arithmetic Series
1:09
Finite/Infinite Series
1:36
Sum of Arithmetic Series
2:27
Example: Sum
3:21
Sigma Notation
5:53
Index
6:14
Example: Sigma Notation
7:14
Example 1: First Term
9:00
Example 2: Three Terms
10:52
Example 3: Sum of Series
14:14
Example 4: Sum of Series
18:13
Geometric Sequences

23m 3s

Intro
0:00
Geometric Sequences
0:11
Common Difference
0:38
Common Ratio
1:08
Example: Geometric Sequence
2:38
nth Term of a Geometric Sequence
4:41
Example: nth Term
4:56
Geometric Means
6:51
Example: Geometric Mean
7:09
Example 1: 9th Term
12:04
Example 2: Geometric Means
15:18
Example 3: nth Term
18:32
Example 4: Three Terms
20:59
Geometric Series

22m 43s

Intro
0:00
What are Geometric Series?
0:11
List of Numbers
0:24
Example: Geometric Series
1:12
Sum of Geometric Series
2:16
Example: Sum of Geometric Series
2:41
Sigma Notation
4:21
Lower Index, Upper Index
4:38
Example: Sigma Notation
4:57
Another Sum Formula
6:08
Example: n Unknown
6:28
Specific Terms
7:41
Sum Formula
7:56
Example: Specific Term
8:11
Example 1: Sum of Geometric Series
10:02
Example 2: Sum of 8 Terms
14:15
Example 3: Sum of Geometric Series
18:23
Example 4: First Term
20:16
Infinite Geometric Series

18m 32s

Intro
0:00
What are Infinite Geometric Series
0:10
Example: Finite
0:29
Example: Infinite
0:51
Partial Sums
1:09
Formula
1:37
Sum of an Infinite Geometric Series
2:39
Convergent Series
2:58
Example: Sum of Convergent Series
3:28
Sigma Notation
7:31
Example: Sigma
8:17
Repeating Decimals
8:42
Example: Repeating Decimal
8:53
Example 1: Sum of Infinite Geometric Series
12:15
Example 2: Repeating Decimal
13:24
Example 3: Sum of Infinite Geometric Series
15:14
Example 4: Repeating Decimal
16:48
Recursion and Special Sequences

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Fibonacci Sequence
0:05
Background of Fibonacci
0:23
Recursive Formula
0:37
Fibonacci Sequence
0:52
Example: Recursive Formula
2:18
Iteration
3:49
Example: Iteration
4:30
Example 1: Five Terms
7:08
Example 2: Three Terms
9:00
Example 3: Five Terms
10:38
Example 4: Three Iterates
12:41
Binomial Theorem

48m 30s

Intro
0:00
Pascal's Triangle
0:06
Expand Binomial
0:13
Pascal's Triangle
4:26
Properties
6:52
Example: Properties of Binomials
6:58
Factorials
9:11
Product
9:28
Example: Factorial
9:45
Binomial Theorem
11:08
Example: Binomial Theorem
13:48
Finding a Specific Term
18:36
Example: Specific Term
19:26
Example 1: Expand
24:39
Example 2: Fourth Term
30:26
Example 3: Five Terms
36:13
Example 4: Three Iterates
45:07

• ## Related Books

 0 answersPost by julius mogyorossy on February 20, 2014I had a dream about a church where people went to worship mathematics. 0 answersPost by Kenneth Montfort on February 27, 2013I forgot to mention I was talking about example 2 1 answerLast reply by: Dr Carleen EatonFri Mar 1, 2013 11:23 PMPost by Kenneth Montfort on February 27, 2013How come at the beginning you didn't just take all the natural logs to the inverse e? I tried and the solutions came out as complex numbers...How do you know when to use properties and when not to use properties? 1 answerLast reply by: Dr Carleen EatonWed Jan 30, 2013 12:13 AMPost by Jeff Mitchell on January 29, 2013at ~13:30 you stated that (x^2+12 / x/8) is the same as (x^2+12)/(8x).is it? I tried plugging a value of 3 for x just to test and U get;3^2+12 / (3/8) = 21 / (3/8) = 56 (first equation)3^2+12 / (8x) = 21 / 24 = < 1wouldn't (x^2 + 12) / (x/8) = (x^2 + 12)*8 / x

### Base e and Natural Logarithms

• To solve exponential equations or inequalities involving base e, take the natural log (ln) of both sides.
• To solve natural log equations or inequalities, write each side as a power of e. Always check for extraneous solutions – values which result in taking the logarithm of a non-positive value in the original equation or inequality. Exclude such values from the solution set.

### Base e and Natural Logarithms

Solve 6e2x − 36 = 0
• Step 1) Add 36 to both sides
• 6e2x = 36
• Step 2) Divide both sides by 6
• e2x = 6
• Step3 - Take the natural log of both sides
• ln(e2x) = ln6
• Step 4 ) Simplify the left side
• 2x = ln6
• Step 5) Solve
x = [ln6/2] = 0.8959
Solve 5e3x − 55 = 0
• Step 1) Add 55 to both sides
• 5e3x = 55
• Step 2) Divide both sides by 5
• e3x = 11
• Step3 - Take the natural log of both sides
• ln(e3x) = ln11
• Step 4 ) Simplify the left side
• 3x = ln11
• Step 5) Solve
x = [ln11/3] = 0.7993
Solve ln(x2 + 24) − lnx − ln10 = 0
• Step 1) Re - write the left side of the eq. using prop. of logs
• ln(x2 + 24) − lnx − ln10 = 0
• ln([(x2 + 24)/x]) − ln10 = 0
• ln([([(x2 + 24)/x])/10]) = 0
• ln([(x2 + 24)/10x]) = 0
• Step 2)Raise both sides to e and simplify
• en([(x2 + 24)/10x]) = e0
• [(x2 + 24)/10x] = 1
• x2 + 24 = 10x
• x2 − 10x + 24 = 0
• Step 3)Solve by factoring and Zero Product Property
• x2 − 10x + 24 = 0
• (x − 4)(x − 6) − 0
• x − 4 = 0
• x = 4
• x − 6 = 0
• x = 6
• Step 4 ) Check your solutions
• By inspection you can see that neither x = 4 or x = 6 will give you a negative inside any of the natural logs.
• Therefore, both solutions are valid.
x = 4;x = 6
Solve ln(x2 + 7) − lnx − ln8 = 0
• Step 1) Re - write the left side of the eq. using prop. of logs
• ln(x2 + 7) − lnx − ln8 = 0
• ln([(x2 + 7)/x]) − ln8 = 0
• ln([([(x2 + 7)/x])/8]) = 0
• ln([(x2 + 7)/8x]) = 0
• Step 2)Raise both sides to e and simplify
• en([(x2 + 7)/8x]) = e0
• [(x2 + 7)/8x] = 1
• x2 + 7 = 8x
• x2 − 8x + 7 = 0
• Step 3)Solve by factoring and Zero Product Property
• x2 − 8x + 7 = 0
• (x − 1)(x − 7) = 0
• x − 1 = 0
• x = 1
• x − 7 = 0
• x = 7
• Step 4 ) Check your solutions
• By inspection you can see that neither x = 1 or x = 7 will give you a negative inside any of the natural logs.
• Therefore, both solutions are valid.
x = 1;x = 7
Solve ln(x2 + 12) − lnx − ln(7) = 0
• Step 1) Re - write the left side of the eq. using prop. of logs
• ln(x2 + 12) − lnx − ln7 = 0
• ln([(x2 + 12)/x]) − ln7 = 0
• ln([([(x2 + 12)/x])/7]) = 0
• ln([(x2 + 12)/7x]) = 0
• Step 2)Raise both sides to e and simplify
• eln([(x2 + 12)/7x]) = e0
• [(x2 + 12)/7x] = 1
• x2 + 12 = 7x
• x2 − 7x + 12 = 0
• Step 3)Solve by factoring and Zero Product Property
• x2 − 7x + 12 = 0
• (x − 3)(x − 4) = 0
• x − 3 = 0
• x = 3
• x − 4 = 0
• x = 4
• Step 4 ) Check your solutions
• By inspection you can see that neither x = 3 or x = 4 will give you a negative inside any of the natural logs.
• Therefore, both solutions are valid.
x = 3;x = 4
Solve e − 6x − 8 < 28
• Step 1) Add 8 to both sides
• e − 6x< 36
• Step 2) Take the ln of both sides and simplify
• lne − 6x< ln36
• − 6x < ln36
• x > [ln36/( − 6)]
x >− 0.5973
Solve e2x + 3 − 10 < 15
• Step 1) Add 10 to both sides
• e2x + 3< 25
• Step 2) Take the ln of both sides and simplify
• lne2x + 3< ln25
• 2x + 3 < ln25
• 2x < ln25 − 3
• x < [(ln25 − 3)/2]
x < 0.1094
Solve eex + 2e − 3e > 5p
• Step 1) Add 3e to both sides
• eex + 2e> 5p + 3e
• Step 2) Take the ln of both sides and simplify
• lneex + 2e> ln(5p + 3e)
• ex + 2e > ln(5p + 3e)
• ex > ln(5p + 3e) − 2e
• x > [(ln(5p + 3e) − 2e)/e]
x >− 0.8330
Solve 5ln(5x − 5) ≤ 25
• Step 1) Divide both sides by 5
• ln(5x − 5) ≤ 5
• Step 2) Take the e of both sides and simplify
• eln(5x − 5) ≤ e5
• 5x − 5 ≤ e5
• 5x ≤ e5 + 5
• x ≤ [(e5 + 5)/5]
• x ≤ 30.6826
• Step 3) Since you cannot have a negative inside the natural log, identify values of x that are not acceptabe
• 5x − 5 > 0
• 5x > 5
• x > 1
• Final solution would be
1 < x ≤ 30.6826
Write using common logarithms:
log12100
• We're going to use the change of base formula which states that
• logax = [(logbx)/(logba)]
• log10100 = [(log12100)/(log1210)]
• Since the 10 is not written
log100 = [(log12100)/(log1210)]

*These practice questions are only helpful when you work on them offline on a piece of paper and then use the solution steps function to check your answer.

### Base e and Natural Logarithms

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

• Intro 0:00
• Number e 0:09
• Natural Base
• Growth/Decay
• Example: Exponential Function
• Natural Logarithms 1:11
• ln x
• Inverse and Identity Function
• Example: Inverse Composition
• Equations and Inequalities 4:39
• Extraneous Solutions
• Examples: Natural Log Equations
• Example 1: Natural Log Equation 9:08
• Example 2: Natural Log Equation 10:37

### Transcription: Base e and Natural Logarithms

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

Today we are going to talk about base e and natural logarithms.0002

And these are frequently used in real-world applications.0006

So, first, the number e: the number e is an irrational number that is approximately equal to 2.71828; it is called the natural base.0010

Exponential functions that use the base e are called natural exponential functions.0024

And these are used to model processes that grow or decay.0029

For example, something like population growth might involve the use of base e.0033

You can treat these like other exponents and other exponential equations, just recalling that it has a specific value.0040

And so, it is structured similarly to other exponential functions.0047

For example, f(x) = e3x - 1 could be an exponential function using base e, or something like f(x) = 4(ex).0053

When we work with logarithms to the base e, these are written with a special notation, ln(x).0071

We don't use log(x) in this case; we use ln(x); and this is called the natural logarithm.0078

So, when you see ln(x), really, the base is e.0083

But we don't write it that way; it is just written as ln(x).0089

And this is the inverse of the function f(x) = ex.0100

Therefore, since these are inverses, you end up with the identity functions.0107

Again, this is a composition of functions; if I am going to let...let's let f(x) equal ln(x), and I am going to rename this g(x) to keep things clear.0111

So, according to composition of functions, if these two are inverses, f composed with g should give me back x.0130

So, f composed with g would be f(g(x)), which would then equal f(ex); and this is ln(x), so it would be ln(ex).0140

And the natural logarithm of x, and e to the x power, essentially cancel each other out, and we just end up with x, the natural log and this base e.0156

g composed with x should do the same thing--should give me g(f(x)), which is going to equal g(ln(x)), which equals eln(x).0169

And the base e and the natural log will cancel out; I will end up getting x back (it is the identity function).0189

And we are going to use this property as we solve equations involving base e and natural logs.0195

Briefly reviewing what the graph is going to look like: if I look at the graph of f(x),0202

this is going to look like the typical graph of a logarithmic function,0207

where it is going to increase as x becomes more positive, and the y-axis is going to function as an asymptote.0211

Therefore, this graph is going to approach x = 0, but it is never actually going to reach it; and so that domain is going to be restricted to positive numbers.0240

Whereas, if we are looking at the graph of g(x), this is going to look like the graph of a typical exponential function.0251

And it is going to increase: as x becomes positive, y will increase, and here the x-axis is functioning as an asymptote.0260

So, g(x) = ex.0273

When we are working with equations and inequalities involving powers of e, we can proceed as follows.0280

If we are working with the powers of e in an equation or inequality, we are going to use natural logs to solve them.0288

We talked earlier about using logarithms to solve exponential equations that have different bases.0294

We would find the common log of both sides; here, if the base is e, then you use the natural log.0303

If you have an equation or inequality that involves natural log, you can use powers of e.0311

If you have powers of e, use natural logs to solve; if you have natural logs, use powers of e.0317

All the properties we discussed previously for logarithms are valid (like the product property, the quotient property, and the power property).0323

In addition, when you are working with logarithms, you always have to be careful for extraneous solutions.0331

So again, we are going to talk about extraneous solutions and make sure that we are looking out for those0336

and that we check for those before we decide that the solution that we found is valid.0342

For example, if I am working with 2x + 6, and that equals 73x - 2,0349

earlier on in the course, we said that we would just find the common log of both sides;0361

and that is going to give me log7(3x - 2).0370

And then, from there, we went about isolating x and went on down.0376

We are doing the same thing here; only now we are going to talk about natural logs.0383

For example, e5x - 3 = 9: since I am talking about powers, I am going to use natural logs to solve.0388

So, I am going to take ln(e5x - 3) = ln(9), the natural log of 9.0397

Remember that using the inverse property, if I am taking ln(e to some power), I am going to get x back; this is the identity function.0407

That is very helpful, because I will just end up with 5x - 3 = ln(9).0420

This is a number with a specific value; again, you can use your calculator to find it.0429

It is so commonly used that there is going to be a button on your calculator for this.0434

Now, I just need to isolate the x; 5x = ln(9) + 3; x = ln(9) + 3, divided by 5: x will be isolated.0438

We started out with powers of e; and we used natural logs to solve.0460

Conversely, if I am given natural logs, such as ln(x + 3) = 4, I can take both sides and make them base e, and raise them to the power...0465

here it would be ln(x + 3); on the other side, I am going to get e4.0483

Again, I have inverses: eln or ln(e) were inverses; these canceled out; I got 5x - 3.0489

The same here: eln(x + 3)...I end up with just x + 3 = e4.0495

Therefore, x = e4 - 3; and this is a solution, because we know that e is a specific value (a little more than 2).0504

We take that to the fourth power and subtract 3 from it, and we have a specific value for x.0511

I did start out with a logarithm, though; so I have to make sure that I am not ending up with a solution that will give me something negative.0519

Let's go ahead and look back to check that: ln(x + 3)...and I am letting x equal e4 - 3.0526

So, ln(e4 - 3 + 3): this is ln(e4, because these cancel out.0532

And I know that e is positive, that it is greater than 2; so I take that to the fourth power; that is positive as well.0540

So, this is a valid solution.0546

In the first example, I have 4 times e4x = 40; so I am working with a power of e, so I am going to use natural logs to solve.0550

To make this simpler, I am going to first divide both sides by 4.0563

Next, I am going to take the natural log of both sides.0573

And, according to my inverse property, ln(ex) = x; because these are inverses,0579

the identity function is going to give me ln(ex) simply equals x.0587

Therefore, I end up with 4x = ln(10), the natural log of 10.0593

I am going to isolate x now by dividing both sides by 4; so x = ln(10), divided by 4.0602

Again, as soon as I saw that I had a power of e, I knew that I could solve this using natural logs.0616

First, I am just dividing by 4 to make this simpler, taking the natural log of both sides, and then realizing that,0623

because these are inverses, I am going to end up with 4x = ln(10), and isolating the x.0631

This is a logarithmic equation where I can use the properties of logarithms to solve,0641

just as I did with earlier equations when we used other logs, base 10 logs, or other bases.0647

Remember that I can solve these as long as I get them in some kind of form.0657

Earlier we talked about logb(x) = logb(y) if x = y.0663

Well, if I get ln(x) = ln(y), these have the same base, so x = y as well.0673

Even though we use a different notation, ln, it is still just a log, only the base happens to be0681

a certain number that we are specifying, which is e, worth a little bit more than 2.0688

All right, so we are going to start out using our regular properties for logarithms to get this into a form that we can work with.0695

First, I have ln(x2 + 12) - ln(x) - ln(8).0707

I want to combine these first two; and I can do that using the quotient property.0713

because ln(x2 + 12), divided by x...all of this can be combined,0718

because if I am subtracting one log from another (I have the difference of two logs), I can just take the log of the quotient of those two.0730

Again, I have subtraction; so I want to use the quotient property once again.0741

This is going to give me ln(x2 + 12, divided by x, divided by 8).0746

So, I use the quotient property again, because I had all this divided by this.0753

I want to simplify this complex fraction; so if I am dividing this numerator by 8, that is the same as multiplying this by 1/8,0761

which will give me ln(x2 + 12, divided by 8x).0773

I just took this and multiplied by 1/8; that is going to give me x2 + 12, divided by 8 times x, or 8x, equals 0.0781

Now, I got this far; and looking at this, I actually only have a log on one side.0797

So, this isn't going to work; so what is my other option?0806

Recall that, when I am working with natural logs, the easiest thing to do is going to be to take a power of e.0809

So, our strategy, if we have logs on two sides, is to use this.0816

If we have a log only on one side, the strategy is going to be to take the equivalent exponential expression.0820

So, I need to take both sides and make them e and raise them to this power and this power.0826

Let's go up here to the second column and continue on.0835

This is going to give me eln(x2 + 12, divided by 8x) equals e0.0842

I have inverses here; so they cancel out, and that leaves me with (x2 + 12)/8x.0855

Any number to the 0 power is simply going to be 1; it doesn't matter if it is 4 to the 0 power, or e (which it happens to be--a little bit more than 2).0864

It is going to end up being 1: now I have something that I can solve.0874

x2 + 12 equals...multiply both sides by 8x; I see I have a quadratic equation.0878

This is x2 - 8x + 12 = 0; now I can factor; I have a positive here and a negative there,0885

because this is...actually, I have two negatives, because this is a positive, and this is a negative; so I have two negatives.0900

And my factors of 12 are going to be 1 and 12, 2 and 6, and 3 and 4.0910

And I know that 2 and 6 together...2 + 6 equals 8, so I am going to make this 6 and this 2.0917

That is x2; that is -2x + -6x gives me -8x; -6 times -2 gives me positive 12; so I factored correctly.0924

Using the product property, I know that x - 6 = 0; that would be a solution, so that is going to give me x = 6.0935

Or, if x - 2 = 0, I have a solution; and that gives me x = 2.0943

Now, I have two solutions; but I always want to make sure that they are valid solutions, since I started out working with logs.0949

So, I am going to go back up here and check them: ln(x2 + 12) = ln...I will check the first one:0958

that is going to be 6 squared plus 12, and that is going to be 36 + 12ln(48); that is valid.0967

The second...I need to check 6 over here; ln(6); that is also going to be valid, because that is taking the log of a positive.0977

Now, let's check 2: ln(x2 + 12) = ln(22 + 12) = 12 + 4, so that is ln(16).0986

That is a positive number that I am taking the log of, so that is valid.0999

I am also going to check it here: ln(2) is positive; so both of these are valid solutions.1003

Both of the solutions I have are valid: x = 6 and x = 2.1009

Now, I am working with the power of e, so I am going to use natural logs to solve this.1018

But first, I am going to make it a little bit simpler by adding 9 to both sides.1024

So, I have an inequality; but I don't need this extraneous 9 on the left making things difficult, so e-3x < 12 + 9, which is 21.1030

I am going to take the natural log of both sides: ln(e-3x) < ln(21).1042

These are inverses; they essentially cancel each other out, leaving me with -3x < ln(21).1054

I am going to divide both sides by -3, and I am going to immediately switch the inequality symbol to >,1063

because I am dividing by a negative number, dividing both sides by -3.1068

So, it is going to give me -ln(21), divided by 3; so x > -ln(21)/3.1073

Again, I first just added 9 to both sides and made this a little bit simpler.1084

And then, I recognized that I am working with powers of e, so I can solve this by taking the natural log of both sides.1088

OK, here I have an inequality that involves logarithms; and it is the natural log, so I am going to keep in mind that I can use powers of e to solve this inequality.1096

First, let's just go ahead and divide both sides by 3 to make this a bit simpler, combining the constants on the right.1105

Now, I have ln(2x - 3) ≥ 8: I am going to take powers of e of both sides.1118

That is ln(2x - 3) ≥ e8.1126

Since these are inverses, they essentially cancel each other out--they negate each other--so I get 2x - 3 ≥ e8.1137

Now, all I have to do is solve for x: 2x ≥ e8, and add 3 to both sides, so this is going to give me e8 + 3.1147

Then divide both sides by 2: x is going to be greater than or equal to (e8 + 3)/2.1164

But I am working with logs, so I need to check back and make sure I don't end up with something that is going to make this negative.1174

So, this says that x is greater than or equal to this; so the smallest this value of x will be is this.1180

So, if I check it for this, and it is OK, all of the larger values will be OK, as well.1186

ln(2x - 3): let's let x equal e8 + 3, divided by 2; and if this is OK, the whole solution set is OK.1191

This gives me ln(2((e8 + 3)/2) - 3).1202

This looks worse than it actually is, because the 2's cancel out: this gives me ln(e8 + 3 - 3).1212

These cancel out; this gives me ln(e8).1225

And I know that, by the identity property, this is actually going to be 8, so I am fine.1230

I could also just say that I know that e is a specific number, and it is 2.1236

And so, if I take a number slightly more than 2 to the eighth power, I am definitely going to get something positive.1241

So, I am going to be taking the natural log of a positive number; and then these other values are going to be even greater, because this is the minimum value.1249

Today, we talked about natural logs and the base e, and talked about solving equations that involve powers of e, as well as natural logarithms.1261

Thanks for visiting Educator.com; I will see you next lesson!1271

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