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Raffi Hovasapian

Raffi Hovasapian

Disaccharides

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Preliminaries on Aqueous Chemistry
Aqueous Solutions & Concentration

39m 57s

Intro
0:00
Aqueous Solutions and Concentration
0:46
Definition of Solution
1:28
Example: Sugar Dissolved in Water
2:19
Example: Salt Dissolved in Water
3:04
A Solute Does Not Have to Be a Solid
3:37
A Solvent Does Not Have to Be a Liquid
5:02
Covalent Compounds
6:55
Ionic Compounds
7:39
Example: Table Sugar
9:12
Example: MgCl₂
10:40
Expressing Concentration: Molarity
13:42
Example 1
14:47
Example 1: Question
14:50
Example 1: Solution
15:40
Another Way to Express Concentration
22:01
Example 2
24:00
Example 2: Question
24:01
Example 2: Solution
24:49
Some Other Ways of Expressing Concentration
27:52
Example 3
29:30
Example 3: Question
29:31
Example 3: Solution
31:02
Dilution & Osmotic Pressure

38m 53s

Intro
0:00
Dilution
0:45
Definition of Dilution
0:46
Example 1: Question
2:08
Example 1: Basic Dilution Equation
4:20
Example 1: Solution
5:31
Example 2: Alternative Approach
12:05
Osmotic Pressure
14:34
Colligative Properties
15:02
Recall: Covalent Compounds and Soluble Ionic Compounds
17:24
Properties of Pure Water
19:42
Addition of a Solute
21:56
Osmotic Pressure: Conceptual Example
24:00
Equation for Osmotic Pressure
29:30
Example of 'i'
31:38
Example 3
32:50
More on Osmosis

29m 1s

Intro
0:00
More on Osmosis
1:25
Osmotic Pressure
1:26
Example 1: Molar Mass of Protein
5:25
Definition, Equation, and Unit of Osmolarity
13:13
Example 2: Osmolarity
15:19
Isotonic, Hypertonic, and Hypotonic
20:20
Example 3
22:20
More on Isotonic, Hypertonic, and Hypotonic
26:14
Osmosis vs. Osmotic Pressure
27:56
Acids & Bases

39m 11s

Intro
0:00
Acids and Bases
1:16
Let's Begin With H₂O
1:17
P-Scale
4:22
Example 1
6:39
pH
9:43
Strong Acids
11:10
Strong Bases
13:52
Weak Acids & Bases Overview
14:32
Weak Acids
15:49
Example 2: Phosphoric Acid
19:30
Weak Bases
24:50
Weak Base Produces Hydroxide Indirectly
25:41
Example 3: Pyridine
29:07
Acid Form and Base Form
32:02
Acid Reaction
35:50
Base Reaction
36:27
Ka, Kb, and Kw
37:14
Titrations and Buffers

41m 33s

Intro
0:00
Titrations
0:27
Weak Acid
0:28
Rearranging the Ka Equation
1:45
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
3:52
Fundamental Reaction of Acids and Bases
5:36
The Idea Behind a Titration
6:27
Let's Look at an Acetic Acid Solution
8:44
Titration Curve
17:00
Acetate
23:57
Buffers
26:57
Introduction to Buffers
26:58
What is a Buffer?
29:40
Titration Curve & Buffer Region
31:44
How a Buffer Works: Adding OH⁻
34:44
How a Buffer Works: Adding H⁺
35:58
Phosphate Buffer System
38:02
Example Problems with Acids, Bases & Buffers

44m 19s

Intro
0:00
Example 1
1:21
Example 1: Properties of Glycine
1:22
Example 1: Part A
3:40
Example 1: Part B
4:40
Example 2
9:02
Example 2: Question
9:03
Example 2: Total Phosphate Concentration
12:23
Example 2: Final Solution
17:10
Example 3
19:34
Example 3: Question
19:35
Example 3: pH Before
22:18
Example 3: pH After
24:24
Example 3: New pH
27:54
Example 4
30:00
Example 4: Question
30:01
Example 4: Equilibria
32:52
Example 4: 1st Reaction
38:04
Example 4: 2nd Reaction
39:53
Example 4: Final Solution
41:33
Hydrolysis & Condensation Reactions

18m 45s

Intro
0:00
Hydrolysis and Condensation Reactions
0:50
Hydrolysis
0:51
Condensation
2:42
Example 1: Hydrolysis of Ethyl Acetate
4:52
Example 2: Condensation of Acetic Acid with Ethanol
8:42
Example 3
11:18
Example 4: Formation & Hydrolysis of a Peptide Bond Between the Amino Acids Alanine & Serine
14:56
II. Amino Acids & Proteins: Primary Structure
Amino Acids

38m 19s

Intro
0:00
Amino Acids
0:17
Proteins & Amino Acids
0:18
Difference Between Amino Acids
4:20
α-Carbon
7:08
Configuration in Biochemistry
10:43
L-Glyceraldehyde & Fischer Projection
12:32
D-Glyceraldehyde & Fischer Projection
15:31
Amino Acids in Biological Proteins are the L Enantiomer
16:50
L-Amino Acid
18:04
L-Amino Acids Correspond to S-Enantiomers in the RS System
20:10
Classification of Amino Acids
22:53
Amino Acids With Non-Polar R Groups
26:45
Glycine
27:00
Alanine
27:48
Valine
28:15
Leucine
28:58
Proline
31:08
Isoleucine
32:42
Methionine
33:43
Amino Acids With Aromatic R Groups
34:33
Phenylalanine
35:26
Tyrosine
36:02
Tryptophan
36:32
Amino Acids, Continued

27m 14s

Intro
0:00
Amino Acids With Positively Charged R Groups
0:16
Lysine
0:52
Arginine
1:55
Histidine
3:15
Amino Acids With Negatively Charged R Groups
6:28
Aspartate
6:58
Glutamate
8:11
Amino Acids With Uncharged, but Polar R Groups
8:50
Serine
8:51
Threonine
10:21
Cysteine
11:06
Asparagine
11:35
Glutamine
12:44
More on Amino Acids
14:18
Cysteine Dimerizes to Form Cystine
14:53
Tryptophan, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine
19:07
Other Amino Acids
20:53
Other Amino Acids: Hydroxy Lysine
22:34
Other Amino Acids: r-Carboxy Glutamate
25:37
Acid/Base Behavior of Amino Acids

48m 28s

Intro
0:00
Acid/Base Behavior of Amino Acids
0:27
Acid/Base Behavior of Amino Acids
0:28
Let's Look at Alanine
1:57
Titration of Acidic Solution of Alanine with a Strong Base
2:51
Amphoteric Amino Acids
13:24
Zwitterion & Isoelectric Point
16:42
Some Amino Acids Have 3 Ionizable Groups
20:35
Example: Aspartate
24:44
Example: Tyrosine
28:50
Rule of Thumb
33:04
Basis for the Rule
35:59
Example: Describe the Degree of Protonation for Each Ionizable Group
38:46
Histidine is Special
44:58
Peptides & Proteins

45m 18s

Intro
0:00
Peptides and Proteins
0:15
Introduction to Peptides and Proteins
0:16
Formation of a Peptide Bond: The Bond Between 2 Amino Acids
1:44
Equilibrium
7:53
Example 1: Build the Following Tripeptide Ala-Tyr-Ile
9:48
Example 1: Shape Structure
15:43
Example 1: Line Structure
17:11
Peptides Bonds
20:08
Terms We'll Be Using Interchangeably
23:14
Biological Activity & Size of a Peptide
24:58
Multi-Subunit Proteins
30:08
Proteins and Prosthetic Groups
32:13
Carbonic Anhydrase
37:35
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Structure of Proteins
40:26
Amino Acid Sequencing of a Peptide Chain

42m 47s

Intro
0:00
Amino Acid Sequencing of a Peptide Chain
0:30
Amino Acid Sequence and Its Structure
0:31
Edman Degradation: Overview
2:57
Edman Degradation: Reaction - Part 1
4:58
Edman Degradation: Reaction - Part 2
10:28
Edman Degradation: Reaction - Part 3
13:51
Mechanism Step 1: PTC (Phenylthiocarbamyl) Formation
19:01
Mechanism Step 2: Ring Formation & Peptide Bond Cleavage
23:03
Example: Write Out the Edman Degradation for the Tripeptide Ala-Tyr-Ser
30:29
Step 1
30:30
Step 2
34:21
Step 3
36:56
Step 4
38:28
Step 5
39:24
Step 6
40:44
Sequencing Larger Peptides & Proteins

1h 2m 33s

Intro
0:00
Sequencing Larger Peptides and Proteins
0:28
Identifying the N-Terminal Amino Acids With the Reagent Fluorodinitrobenzene (FDNB)
0:29
Sequencing Longer Peptides & Proteins Overview
5:54
Breaking Peptide Bond: Proteases and Chemicals
8:16
Some Enzymes/Chemicals Used for Fragmentation: Trypsin
11:14
Some Enzymes/Chemicals Used for Fragmentation: Chymotrypsin
13:02
Some Enzymes/Chemicals Used for Fragmentation: Cyanogen Bromide
13:28
Some Enzymes/Chemicals Used for Fragmentation: Pepsin
13:44
Cleavage Location
14:04
Example: Chymotrypsin
16:44
Example: Pepsin
18:17
More on Sequencing Larger Peptides and Proteins
19:29
Breaking Disulfide Bonds: Performic Acid
26:08
Breaking Disulfide Bonds: Dithiothreitol Followed by Iodoacetate
31:04
Example: Sequencing Larger Peptides and Proteins
37:03
Part 1 - Breaking Disulfide Bonds, Hydrolysis and Separation
37:04
Part 2 - N-Terminal Identification
44:16
Part 3 - Sequencing Using Pepsin
46:43
Part 4 - Sequencing Using Cyanogen Bromide
52:02
Part 5 - Final Sequence
56:48
Peptide Synthesis (Merrifield Process)

49m 12s

Intro
0:00
Peptide Synthesis (Merrifield Process)
0:31
Introduction to Synthesizing Peptides
0:32
Merrifield Peptide Synthesis: General Scheme
3:03
So What Do We Do?
6:07
Synthesis of Protein in the Body Vs. The Merrifield Process
7:40
Example: Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser
9:21
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reactions Overview
11:41
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reaction 1
19:34
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reaction 2
24:34
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reaction 3
27:34
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reaction 4 & 4a
28:48
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reaction 5
33:38
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reaction 6
36:45
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reaction 7 & 7a
37:44
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reaction 8
39:47
Synthesis of Ala-Gly-Ser: Reaction 9 & 10
43:23
Chromatography: Eluent, Stationary Phase, and Eluate
45:55
More Examples with Amino Acids & Peptides

54m 31s

Intro
0:00
Example 1
0:22
Data
0:23
Part A: What is the pI of Serine & Draw the Correct Structure
2:11
Part B: How Many mL of NaOH Solution Have Been Added at This Point (pI)?
5:27
Part C: At What pH is the Average Charge on Serine
10:50
Part D: Draw the Titration Curve for This Situation
14:50
Part E: The 10 mL of NaOH Added to the Solution at the pI is How Many Equivalents?
17:35
Part F: Serine Buffer Solution
20:22
Example 2
23:04
Data
23:05
Part A: Calculate the Minimum Molar Mass of the Protein
25:12
Part B: How Many Tyr Residues in this Protein?
28:34
Example 3
30:08
Question
30:09
Solution
34:30
Example 4
48:46
Question
48:47
Solution
49:50
III. Proteins: Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Structure
Alpha Helix & Beta Conformation

50m 52s

Intro
0:00
Alpha Helix and Beta Conformation
0:28
Protein Structure Overview
0:29
Weak interactions Among the Amino Acid in the Peptide Chain
2:11
Two Principals of Folding Patterns
4:56
Peptide Bond
7:00
Peptide Bond: Resonance
9:46
Peptide Bond: φ Bond & ψ Bond
11:22
Secondary Structure
15:08
α-Helix Folding Pattern
17:28
Illustration 1: α-Helix Folding Pattern
19:22
Illustration 2: α-Helix Folding Pattern
21:39
β-Sheet
25:16
β-Conformation
26:04
Parallel & Anti-parallel
28:44
Parallel β-Conformation Arrangement of the Peptide Chain
30:12
Putting Together a Parallel Peptide Chain
35:16
Anti-Parallel β-Conformation Arrangement
37:42
Tertiary Structure
45:03
Quaternary Structure
45:52
Illustration 3: Myoglobin Tertiary Structure & Hemoglobin Quaternary Structure
47:13
Final Words on Alpha Helix and Beta Conformation
48:34
IV. Proteins: Function
Protein Function I: Ligand Binding & Myoglobin

51m 36s

Intro
0:00
Protein Function I: Ligand Binding & Myoglobin
0:30
Ligand
1:02
Binding Site
2:06
Proteins are Not Static or Fixed
3:36
Multi-Subunit Proteins
5:46
O₂ as a Ligand
7:21
Myoglobin, Protoporphyrin IX, Fe ²⁺, and O₂
12:54
Protoporphyrin Illustration
14:25
Myoglobin With a Heme Group Illustration
17:02
Fe²⁺ has 6 Coordination Sites & Binds O₂
18:10
Heme
19:44
Myoglobin Overview
22:40
Myoglobin and O₂ Interaction
23:34
Keq or Ka & The Measure of Protein's Affinity for Its Ligand
26:46
Defining α: Fraction of Binding Sites Occupied
32:52
Graph: α vs. [L]
37:33
For The Special Case of α = 0.5
39:01
Association Constant & Dissociation Constant
43:54
α & Kd
45:15
Myoglobin's Binding of O₂
48:20
Protein Function II: Hemoglobin

1h 3m 36s

Intro
0:00
Protein Function II: Hemoglobin
0:14
Hemoglobin Overview
0:15
Hemoglobin & Its 4 Subunits
1:22
α and β Interactions
5:18
Two Major Conformations of Hb: T State (Tense) & R State (Relaxed)
8:06
Transition From The T State to R State
12:03
Binding of Hemoglobins & O₂
14:02
Binding Curve
18:32
Hemoglobin in the Lung
27:28
Signoid Curve
30:13
Cooperative Binding
32:25
Hemoglobin is an Allosteric Protein
34:26
Homotropic Allostery
36:18
Describing Cooperative Binding Quantitatively
38:06
Deriving The Hill Equation
41:52
Graphing the Hill Equation
44:43
The Slope and Degree of Cooperation
46:25
The Hill Coefficient
49:48
Hill Coefficient = 1
51:08
Hill Coefficient < 1
55:55
Where the Graph Hits the x-axis
56:11
Graph for Hemoglobin
58:02
Protein Function III: More on Hemoglobin

1h 7m 16s

Intro
0:00
Protein Function III: More on Hemoglobin
0:11
Two Models for Cooperative Binding: MWC & Sequential Model
0:12
MWC Model
1:31
Hemoglobin Subunits
3:32
Sequential Model
8:00
Hemoglobin Transports H⁺ & CO₂
17:23
Binding Sites of H⁺ and CO₂
19:36
CO₂ is Converted to Bicarbonate
23:28
Production of H⁺ & CO₂ in Tissues
27:28
H⁺ & CO₂ Binding are Inversely Related to O₂ Binding
28:31
The H⁺ Bohr Effect: His¹⁴⁶ Residue on the β Subunits
33:31
Heterotropic Allosteric Regulation of O₂ Binding by 2,3-Biphosphoglycerate (2,3 BPG)
39:53
Binding Curve for 2,3 BPG
56:21
V. Enzymes
Enzymes I

41m 38s

Intro
0:00
Enzymes I
0:38
Enzymes Overview
0:39
Cofactor
4:38
Holoenzyme
5:52
Apoenzyme
6:40
Riboflavin, FAD, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal Phosphate Structures
7:28
Carbonic Anhydrase
8:45
Classification of Enzymes
9:55
Example: EC 1.1.1.1
13:04
Reaction of Oxidoreductases
16:23
Enzymes: Catalysts, Active Site, and Substrate
18:28
Illustration of Enzymes, Substrate, and Active Site
27:22
Catalysts & Activation Energies
29:57
Intermediates
36:00
Enzymes II

44m 2s

Intro
0:00
Enzymes II: Transitions State, Binding Energy, & Induced Fit
0:18
Enzymes 'Fitting' Well With The Transition State
0:20
Example Reaction: Breaking of a Stick
3:40
Another Energy Diagram
8:20
Binding Energy
9:48
Enzymes Specificity
11:03
Key Point: Optimal Interactions Between Substrate & Enzymes
15:15
Induced Fit
16:25
Illustrations: Induced Fit
20:58
Enzymes II: Catalytic Mechanisms
22:17
General Acid/Base Catalysis
23:56
Acid Form & Base Form of Amino Acid: Glu &Asp
25:26
Acid Form & Base Form of Amino Acid: Lys & Arg
26:30
Acid Form & Base Form of Amino Acid: Cys
26:51
Acid Form & Base Form of Amino Acid: His
27:30
Acid Form & Base Form of Amino Acid: Ser
28:16
Acid Form & Base Form of Amino Acid: Tyr
28:30
Example: Phosphohexose Isomerase
29:20
Covalent Catalysis
34:19
Example: Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
35:34
Metal Ion Catalysis: Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
38:45
Function of Mn²⁺
42:15
Enzymes III: Kinetics

56m 40s

Intro
0:00
Enzymes III: Kinetics
1:40
Rate of an Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction & Substrate Concentration
1:41
Graph: Substrate Concentration vs. Reaction Rate
10:43
Rate At Low and High Substrate Concentration
14:26
Michaelis & Menten Kinetics
20:16
More On Rate & Concentration of Substrate
22:46
Steady-State Assumption
26:02
Rate is Determined by How Fast ES Breaks Down to Product
31:36
Total Enzyme Concentration: [Et] = [E] + [ES]
35:35
Rate of ES Formation
36:44
Rate of ES Breakdown
38:40
Measuring Concentration of Enzyme-Substrate Complex
41:19
Measuring Initial & Maximum Velocity
43:43
Michaelis & Menten Equation
46:44
What Happens When V₀ = (1/2) Vmax?
49:12
When [S] << Km
53:32
When [S] >> Km
54:44
Enzymes IV: Lineweaver-Burk Plots

20m 37s

Intro
0:00
Enzymes IV: Lineweaver-Burk Plots
0:45
Deriving The Lineweaver-Burk Equation
0:46
Lineweaver-Burk Plots
3:55
Example 1: Carboxypeptidase A
8:00
More on Km, Vmax, and Enzyme-catalyzed Reaction
15:54
Enzymes V: Enzyme Inhibition

51m 37s

Intro
0:00
Enzymes V: Enzyme Inhibition Overview
0:42
Enzyme Inhibitors Overview
0:43
Classes of Inhibitors
2:32
Competitive Inhibition
3:08
Competitive Inhibition
3:09
Michaelis & Menten Equation in the Presence of a Competitive Inhibitor
7:40
Double-Reciprocal Version of the Michaelis & Menten Equation
14:48
Competitive Inhibition Graph
16:37
Uncompetitive Inhibition
19:23
Uncompetitive Inhibitor
19:24
Michaelis & Menten Equation for Uncompetitive Inhibition
22:10
The Lineweaver-Burk Equation for Uncompetitive Inhibition
26:04
Uncompetitive Inhibition Graph
27:42
Mixed Inhibition
30:30
Mixed Inhibitor
30:31
Double-Reciprocal Version of the Equation
33:34
The Lineweaver-Burk Plots for Mixed Inhibition
35:02
Summary of Reversible Inhibitor Behavior
38:00
Summary of Reversible Inhibitor Behavior
38:01
Note: Non-Competitive Inhibition
42:22
Irreversible Inhibition
45:15
Irreversible Inhibition
45:16
Penicillin & Transpeptidase Enzyme
46:50
Enzymes VI: Regulatory Enzymes

51m 23s

Intro
0:00
Enzymes VI: Regulatory Enzymes
0:45
Regulatory Enzymes Overview
0:46
Example: Glycolysis
2:27
Allosteric Regulatory Enzyme
9:19
Covalent Modification
13:08
Two Other Regulatory Processes
16:28
Allosteric Regulation
20:58
Feedback Inhibition
25:12
Feedback Inhibition Example: L-Threonine → L-Isoleucine
26:03
Covalent Modification
27:26
Covalent Modulators: -PO₃²⁻
29:30
Protein Kinases
31:59
Protein Phosphatases
32:47
Addition/Removal of -PO₃²⁻ and the Effect on Regulatory Enzyme
33:36
Phosphorylation Sites of a Regulatory Enzyme
38:38
Proteolytic Cleavage
41:48
Zymogens: Chymotrypsin & Trypsin
43:58
Enzymes That Use More Than One Regulatory Process: Bacterial Glutamine Synthetase
48:59
Why The Complexity?
50:27
Enzymes VII: Km & Kcat

54m 49s

Intro
0:00
Km
1:48
Recall the Michaelis–Menten Equation
1:49
Km & Enzyme's Affinity
6:18
Rate Forward, Rate Backward, and Equilibrium Constant
11:08
When an Enzyme's Affinity for Its Substrate is High
14:17
More on Km & Enzyme Affinity
17:29
The Measure of Km Under Michaelis–Menten kinetic
23:19
Kcat (First-order Rate Constant or Catalytic Rate Constant)
24:10
Kcat: Definition
24:11
Kcat & The Michaelis–Menten Postulate
25:18
Finding Vmax and [Et}
27:27
Units for Vmax and Kcat
28:26
Kcat: Turnover Number
28:55
Michaelis–Menten Equation
32:12
Km & Kcat
36:37
Second Order Rate Equation
36:38
(Kcat)/(Km): Overview
39:22
High (Kcat)/(Km)
40:20
Low (Kcat)/(Km)
43:16
Practical Big Picture
46:28
Upper Limit to (Kcat)/(Km)
48:56
More On Kcat and Km
49:26
VI. Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides

1h 17m 46s

Intro
0:00
Monosaccharides
1:49
Carbohydrates Overview
1:50
Three Major Classes of Carbohydrates
4:48
Definition of Monosaccharides
5:46
Examples of Monosaccharides: Aldoses
7:06
D-Glyceraldehyde
7:39
D-Erythrose
9:00
D-Ribose
10:10
D-Glucose
11:20
Observation: Aldehyde Group
11:54
Observation: Carbonyl 'C'
12:30
Observation: D & L Naming System
12:54
Examples of Monosaccharides: Ketose
16:54
Dihydroxy Acetone
17:28
D-Erythrulose
18:30
D-Ribulose
19:49
D-Fructose
21:10
D-Glucose Comparison
23:18
More information of Ketoses
24:50
Let's Look Closer at D-Glucoses
25:50
Let's Look At All the D-Hexose Stereoisomers
31:22
D-Allose
32:20
D-Altrose
33:01
D-Glucose
33:39
D-Gulose
35:00
D-Mannose
35:40
D-Idose
36:42
D-Galactose
37:14
D-Talose
37:42
Epimer
40:05
Definition of Epimer
40:06
Example of Epimer: D-Glucose, D-Mannose, and D-Galactose
40:57
Hemiacetal or Hemiketal
44:36
Hemiacetal/Hemiketal Overview
45:00
Ring Formation of the α and β Configurations of D-Glucose
50:52
Ring Formation of the α and β Configurations of Fructose
1:01:39
Haworth Projection
1:07:34
Pyranose & Furanose Overview
1:07:38
Haworth Projection: Pyranoses
1:09:30
Haworth Projection: Furanose
1:14:56
Hexose Derivatives & Reducing Sugars

37m 6s

Intro
0:00
Hexose Derivatives
0:15
Point of Clarification: Forming a Cyclic Sugar From a Linear Sugar
0:16
Let's Recall the α and β Anomers of Glucose
8:42
α-Glucose
10:54
Hexose Derivatives that Play Key Roles in Physiology Progression
17:38
β-Glucose
18:24
β-Glucosamine
18:48
N-Acetyl-β-Glucosamine
20:14
β-Glucose-6-Phosphate
22:22
D-Gluconate
24:10
Glucono-δ-Lactone
26:33
Reducing Sugars
29:50
Reducing Sugars Overview
29:51
Reducing Sugars Example: β-Galactose
32:36
Disaccharides

43m 32s

Intro
0:00
Disaccharides
0:15
Disaccharides Overview
0:19
Examples of Disaccharides & How to Name Them
2:49
Disaccharides Trehalose Overview
15:46
Disaccharides Trehalose: Flip
20:52
Disaccharides Trehalose: Spin
28:36
Example: Draw the Structure
33:12
Polysaccharides

39m 25s

Intro
0:00
Recap Example: Draw the Structure of Gal(α1↔β1)Man
0:38
Polysaccharides
9:46
Polysaccharides Overview
9:50
Homopolysaccharide
13:12
Heteropolysaccharide
13:47
Homopolysaccharide as Fuel Storage
16:23
Starch Has Two Types of Glucose Polymer: Amylose
17:10
Starch Has Two Types of Glucose Polymer: Amylopectin
18:04
Polysaccharides: Reducing End & Non-Reducing End
19:30
Glycogen
20:06
Examples: Structures of Polysaccharides
21:42
Let's Draw an (α1→4) & (α1→6) of Amylopectin by Hand.
28:14
More on Glycogen
31:17
Glycogen, Concentration, & The Concept of Osmolarity
35:16
Polysaccharides, Part 2

44m 15s

Intro
0:00
Polysaccharides
0:17
Example: Cellulose
0:34
Glycoside Bond
7:25
Example Illustrations
12:30
Glycosaminoglycans Part 1
15:55
Glycosaminoglycans Part 2
18:34
Glycosaminoglycans & Sulfate Attachments
22:42
β-D-N-Acetylglucosamine
24:49
β-D-N-AcetylGalactosamine
25:42
β-D-Glucuronate
26:44
β-L-Iduronate
27:54
More on Sulfate Attachments
29:49
Hylarunic Acid
32:00
Hyaluronates
39:32
Other Glycosaminoglycans
40:46
Glycoconjugates

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Glycoconjugates
0:24
Overview
0:25
Proteoglycan
2:53
Glycoprotein
5:20
Glycolipid
7:25
Proteoglycan vs. Glycoprotein
8:15
Cell Surface Diagram
11:17
Proteoglycan Common Structure
14:24
Example: Chondroitin-4-Sulfate
15:06
Glycoproteins
19:50
The Monomers that Commonly Show Up in The Oligo Portions of Glycoproteins
28:02
N-Acetylneuraminic Acid
31:17
L-Furose
32:37
Example of an N-Linked Oligosaccharide
33:21
Cell Membrane Structure
36:35
Glycolipids & Lipopolysaccharide
37:22
Structure Example
41:28
More Example Problems with Carbohydrates

40m 22s

Intro
0:00
Example 1
1:09
Example 2
2:34
Example 3
5:12
Example 4
16:19
Question
16:20
Solution
17:25
Example 5
24:18
Question
24:19
Structure of 2,3-Di-O-Methylglucose
26:47
Part A
28:11
Part B
33:46
VII. Lipids
Fatty Acids & Triacylglycerols

54m 55s

Intro
0:00
Fatty Acids
0:32
Lipids Overview
0:34
Introduction to Fatty Acid
3:18
Saturated Fatty Acid
6:13
Unsaturated or Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
7:07
Saturated Fatty Acid Example
7:46
Unsaturated Fatty Acid Example
9:06
Notation Example: Chain Length, Degree of Unsaturation, & Double Bonds Location of Fatty Acid
11:56
Example 1: Draw the Structure
16:18
Example 2: Give the Shorthand for cis,cis-5,8-Hexadecadienoic Acid
20:12
Example 3
23:12
Solubility of Fatty Acids
25:45
Melting Points of Fatty Acids
29:40
Triacylglycerols
34:13
Definition of Triacylglycerols
34:14
Structure of Triacylglycerols
35:08
Example: Triacylglycerols
40:23
Recall Ester Formation
43:57
The Body's Primary Fuel-Reserves
47:22
Two Primary Advantages to Storing Energy as Triacylglycerols Instead of Glycogen: Number 1
49:24
Two Primary Advantages to Storing Energy as Triacylglycerols Instead of Glycogen: Number 2
51:54
Membrane Lipids

38m 51s

Intro
0:00
Membrane Lipids
0:26
Definition of Membrane Lipids
0:27
Five Major Classes of Membrane Lipids
2:38
Glycerophospholipids
5:04
Glycerophospholipids Overview
5:05
The X Group
8:05
Example: Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine
10:51
Example: Phosphatidyl Choline
13:34
Phosphatidyl Serine
15:16
Head Groups
16:50
Ether Linkages Instead of Ester Linkages
20:05
Galactolipids
23:39
Galactolipids Overview
23:40
Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol: MGDG
25:17
Digalactosyldiacylglycerol: DGDG
28:13
Structure Examples 1: Lipid Bilayer
31:35
Structure Examples 2: Cross Section of a Cell
34:56
Structure Examples 3: MGDG & DGDG
36:28
Membrane Lipids, Part 2

38m 20s

Intro
0:00
Sphingolipids
0:11
Sphingolipid Overview
0:12
Sphingosine Structure
1:42
Ceramide
3:56
Subclasses of Sphingolipids Overview
6:00
Subclasses of Sphingolipids: Sphingomyelins
7:53
Sphingomyelins
7:54
Subclasses of Sphingolipids: Glycosphingolipid
12:47
Glycosphingolipid Overview
12:48
Cerebrosides & Globosides Overview
14:33
Example: Cerebrosides
15:43
Example: Globosides
17:14
Subclasses of Sphingolipids: Gangliosides
19:07
Gangliosides
19:08
Medical Application: Tay-Sachs Disease
23:34
Sterols
30:45
Sterols: Basic Structure
30:46
Important Example: Cholesterol
32:01
Structures Example
34:13
The Biologically Active Lipids

48m 36s

Intro
0:00
The Biologically Active Lipids
0:44
Phosphatidyl Inositol Structure
0:45
Phosphatidyl Inositol Reaction
3:24
Image Example
12:49
Eicosanoids
14:12
Arachidonic Acid & Membrane Lipid Containing Arachidonic Acid
18:41
Three Classes of Eicosanoids
20:42
Overall Structures
21:38
Prostagladins
22:56
Thromboxane
27:19
Leukotrienes
30:19
More On The Biologically Active Lipids
33:34
Steroid Hormones
33:35
Fat Soluble Vitamins
38:25
Vitamin D₃
40:40
Vitamin A
43:17
Vitamin E
45:12
Vitamin K
47:17
VIII. Energy & Biological Systems (Bioenergetics)
Thermodynamics, Free Energy & Equilibrium

45m 51s

Intro
0:00
Thermodynamics, Free Energy and Equilibrium
1:03
Reaction: Glucose + Pi → Glucose 6-Phosphate
1:50
Thermodynamics & Spontaneous Processes
3:31
In Going From Reactants → Product, a Reaction Wants to Release Heat
6:30
A Reaction Wants to Become More Disordered
9:10
∆H < 0
10:30
∆H > 0
10:57
∆S > 0
11:23
∆S <0
11:56
∆G = ∆H - T∆S at Constant Pressure
12:15
Gibbs Free Energy
15:00
∆G < 0
16:49
∆G > 0
17:07
Reference Frame For Thermodynamics Measurements
17:57
More On BioChemistry Standard
22:36
Spontaneity
25:36
Keq
31:45
Example: Glucose + Pi → Glucose 6-Phosphate
34:14
Example Problem 1
40:25
Question
40:26
Solution
41:12
More on Thermodynamics & Free Energy

37m 6s

Intro
0:00
More on Thermodynamics & Free Energy
0:16
Calculating ∆G Under Standard Conditions
0:17
Calculating ∆G Under Physiological Conditions
2:05
∆G < 0
5:39
∆G = 0
7:03
Reaction Moving Forward Spontaneously
8:00
∆G & The Maximum Theoretical Amount of Free Energy Available
10:36
Example Problem 1
13:11
Reactions That Have Species in Common
17:48
Example Problem 2: Part 1
20:10
Example Problem 2: Part 2- Enzyme Hexokinase & Coupling
25:08
Example Problem 2: Part 3
30:34
Recap
34:45
ATP & Other High-Energy Compounds

44m 32s

Intro
0:00
ATP & Other High-Energy Compounds
0:10
Endergonic Reaction Coupled With Exergonic Reaction
0:11
Major Theme In Metabolism
6:56
Why the ∆G°' for ATP Hydrolysis is Large & Negative
12:24
∆G°' for ATP Hydrolysis
12:25
Reason 1: Electrostatic Repulsion
14:24
Reason 2: Pi & Resonance Forms
15:33
Reason 3: Concentrations of ADP & Pi
17:32
ATP & Other High-Energy Compounds Cont'd
18:48
More On ∆G°' & Hydrolysis
18:49
Other Compounds That Have Large Negative ∆G°' of Hydrolysis: Phosphoenol Pyruvate (PEP)
25:14
Enzyme Pyruvate Kinase
30:36
Another High Energy Molecule: 1,3 Biphosphoglycerate
36:17
Another High Energy Molecule: Phophocreatine
39:41
Phosphoryl Group Transfers

30m 8s

Intro
0:00
Phosphoryl Group Transfer
0:27
Phosphoryl Group Transfer Overview
0:28
Example: Glutamate → Glutamine Part 1
7:11
Example: Glutamate → Glutamine Part 2
13:29
ATP Not Only Transfers Phosphoryl, But Also Pyrophosphoryl & Adenylyl Groups
17:03
Attack At The γ Phosphorous Transfers a Phosphoryl
19:02
Attack At The β Phosphorous Gives Pyrophosphoryl
22:44
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

49m 46s

Intro
0:00
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
1:32
Redox Reactions
1:33
Example 1: Mg + Al³⁺ → Mg²⁺ + Al
3:49
Reduction Potential Definition
10:47
Reduction Potential Example
13:38
Organic Example
22:23
Review: How To Find The Oxidation States For Carbon
24:15
Examples: Oxidation States For Carbon
27:45
Example 1: Oxidation States For Carbon
27:46
Example 2: Oxidation States For Carbon
28:36
Example 3: Oxidation States For Carbon
29:18
Example 4: Oxidation States For Carbon
29:44
Example 5: Oxidation States For Carbon
30:10
Example 6: Oxidation States For Carbon
30:40
Example 7: Oxidation States For Carbon
31:20
Example 8: Oxidation States For Carbon
32:10
Example 9: Oxidation States For Carbon
32:52
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions, cont'd
35:22
More On Reduction Potential
35:28
Lets' Start With ∆G = ∆G°' + RTlnQ
38:29
Example: Oxidation Reduction Reactions
41:42
More On Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

56m 34s

Intro
0:00
More On Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
0:10
Example 1: What If the Concentrations Are Not Standard?
0:11
Alternate Procedure That Uses The 1/2 Reactions Individually
8:57
Universal Electron Carriers in Aqueous Medium: NAD+ & NADH
15:12
The Others Are…
19:22
NAD+ & NADP Coenzymes
20:56
FMN & FAD
22:03
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (Phosphate)
23:03
Reduction 1/2 Reactions
36:10
Ratio of NAD+ : NADH
36:52
Ratio of NADPH : NADP+
38:02
Specialized Roles of NAD+ & NADPH
38:48
Oxidoreductase Enzyme Overview
40:26
Examples of Oxidoreductase
43:32
The Flavin Nucleotides
46:46
Example Problems For Bioenergetics

42m 12s

Intro
0:00
Example 1: Calculate the ∆G°' For The Following Reaction
1:04
Example 1: Question
1:05
Example 1: Solution
2:20
Example 2: Calculate the Keq For the Following
4:20
Example 2: Question
4:21
Example 2: Solution
5:54
Example 3: Calculate the ∆G°' For The Hydrolysis of ATP At 25°C
8:52
Example 3: Question
8:53
Example 3: Solution
10:30
Example 3: Alternate Procedure
13:48
Example 4: Problems For Bioenergetics
16:46
Example 4: Questions
16:47
Example 4: Part A Solution
21:19
Example 4: Part B Solution
23:26
Example 4: Part C Solution
26:12
Example 5: Problems For Bioenergetics
29:27
Example 5: Questions
29:35
Example 5: Solution - Part 1
32:16
Example 5: Solution - Part 2
34:39
IX. Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
Overview of Glycolysis I

43m 32s

Intro
0:00
Overview of Glycolysis
0:48
Three Primary Paths For Glucose
1:04
Preparatory Phase of Glycolysis
4:40
Payoff Phase of Glycolysis
6:40
Glycolysis Reactions Diagram
7:58
Enzymes of Glycolysis
12:41
Glycolysis Reactions
16:02
Step 1
16:03
Step 2
18:03
Step 3
18:52
Step 4
20:08
Step 5
21:42
Step 6
22:44
Step 7
24:22
Step 8
25:11
Step 9
26:00
Step 10
26:51
Overview of Glycolysis Cont.
27:28
The Overall Reaction for Glycolysis
27:29
Recall The High-Energy Phosphorylated Compounds Discusses In The Bioenergetics Unit
33:10
What Happens To The Pyruvate That Is Formed?
37:58
Glycolysis II

1h 1m 47s

Intro
0:00
Glycolysis Step 1: The Phosphorylation of Glucose
0:27
Glycolysis Step 1: Reaction
0:28
Hexokinase
2:28
Glycolysis Step 1: Mechanism-Simple Nucleophilic Substitution
6:34
Glycolysis Step 2: Conversion of Glucose 6-Phosphate → Fructose 6-Phosphate
11:33
Glycolysis Step 2: Reaction
11:34
Glycolysis Step 2: Mechanism, Part 1
14:40
Glycolysis Step 2: Mechanism, Part 2
18:16
Glycolysis Step 2: Mechanism, Part 3
19:56
Glycolysis Step 2: Mechanism, Part 4 (Ring Closing & Dissociation)
21:54
Glycolysis Step 3: Conversion of Fructose 6-Phosphate to Fructose 1,6-Biphosphate
24:16
Glycolysis Step 3: Reaction
24:17
Glycolysis Step 3: Mechanism
26:40
Glycolysis Step 4: Cleavage of Fructose 1,6-Biphosphate
31:10
Glycolysis Step 4: Reaction
31:11
Glycolysis Step 4: Mechanism, Part 1 (Binding & Ring Opening)
35:26
Glycolysis Step 4: Mechanism, Part 2
37:40
Glycolysis Step 4: Mechanism, Part 3
39:30
Glycolysis Step 4: Mechanism, Part 4
44:00
Glycolysis Step 4: Mechanism, Part 5
46:34
Glycolysis Step 4: Mechanism, Part 6
49:00
Glycolysis Step 4: Mechanism, Part 7
50:12
Hydrolysis of The Imine
52:33
Glycolysis Step 5: Conversion of Dihydroxyaceton Phosphate to Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate
55:38
Glycolysis Step 5: Reaction
55:39
Breakdown and Numbering of Sugar
57:40
Glycolysis III

59m 17s

Intro
0:00
Glycolysis Step 5: Conversion of Dihydroxyaceton Phosphate to Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate
0:44
Glycolysis Step 5: Mechanism, Part 1
0:45
Glycolysis Step 5: Mechanism, Part 2
3:53
Glycolysis Step 6: Oxidation of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate to 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate
5:14
Glycolysis Step 6: Reaction
5:15
Glycolysis Step 6: Mechanism, Part 1
8:52
Glycolysis Step 6: Mechanism, Part 2
12:58
Glycolysis Step 6: Mechanism, Part 3
14:26
Glycolysis Step 6: Mechanism, Part 4
16:23
Glycolysis Step 7: Phosphoryl Transfer From 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate to ADP to Form ATP
19:08
Glycolysis Step 7: Reaction
19:09
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
23:18
Glycolysis Step 7: Mechanism (Nucleophilic Substitution)
26:57
Glycolysis Step 8: Conversion of 3-Phosphoglycerate to 2-Phosphoglycerate
28:44
Glycolysis Step 8: Reaction
28:45
Glycolysis Step 8: Mechanism, Part 1
30:08
Glycolysis Step 8: Mechanism, Part 2
32:24
Glycolysis Step 8: Mechanism, Part 3
34:02
Catalytic Cycle
35:42
Glycolysis Step 9: Dehydration of 2-Phosphoglycerate to Phosphoenol Pyruvate
37:20
Glycolysis Step 9: Reaction
37:21
Glycolysis Step 9: Mechanism, Part 1
40:12
Glycolysis Step 9: Mechanism, Part 2
42:01
Glycolysis Step 9: Mechanism, Part 3
43:58
Glycolysis Step 10: Transfer of a Phosphoryl Group From Phosphoenol Pyruvate To ADP To Form ATP
45:16
Glycolysis Step 10: Reaction
45:17
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
48:32
Energy Coupling Reaction
51:24
Glycolysis Balance Sheet
54:15
Glycolysis Balance Sheet
54:16
What Happens to The 6 Carbons of Glucose?
56:22
What Happens to 2 ADP & 2 Pi?
57:04
What Happens to The 4e⁻ ?
57:15
Glycolysis IV

39m 47s

Intro
0:00
Feeder Pathways
0:42
Feeder Pathways Overview
0:43
Starch, Glycogen
2:25
Lactose
4:38
Galactose
4:58
Manose
5:22
Trehalose
5:45
Sucrose
5:56
Fructose
6:07
Fates of Pyruvate: Aerobic & Anaerobic Conditions
7:39
Aerobic Conditions & Pyruvate
7:40
Anaerobic Fates of Pyruvate
11:18
Fates of Pyruvate: Lactate Acid Fermentation
14:10
Lactate Acid Fermentation
14:11
Fates of Pyruvate: Ethanol Fermentation
19:01
Ethanol Fermentation Reaction
19:02
TPP: Thiamine Pyrophosphate (Functions and Structure)
23:10
Ethanol Fermentation Mechanism, Part 1
27:53
Ethanol Fermentation Mechanism, Part 2
29:06
Ethanol Fermentation Mechanism, Part 3
31:15
Ethanol Fermentation Mechanism, Part 4
32:44
Ethanol Fermentation Mechanism, Part 5
34:33
Ethanol Fermentation Mechanism, Part 6
35:48
Gluconeogenesis I

41m 34s

Intro
0:00
Gluconeogenesis, Part 1
1:02
Gluconeogenesis Overview
1:03
3 Glycolytic Reactions That Are Irreversible Under Physiological Conditions
2:29
Gluconeogenesis Reactions Overview
6:17
Reaction: Pyruvate to Oxaloacetate
11:07
Reaction: Oxaloacetate to Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
13:29
First Pathway That Pyruvate Can Take to Become Phosphoenolpyruvate
15:24
Second Pathway That Pyruvate Can Take to Become Phosphoenolpyruvate
21:00
Transportation of Pyruvate From The Cytosol to The Mitochondria
24:15
Transportation Mechanism, Part 1
26:41
Transportation Mechanism, Part 2
30:43
Transportation Mechanism, Part 3
34:04
Transportation Mechanism, Part 4
38:14
Gluconeogenesis II

34m 18s

Intro
0:00
Oxaloacetate → Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
0:35
Mitochondrial Membrane Does Not Have a Transporter for Oxaloactate
0:36
Reaction: Oxaloacetate to Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
3:36
Mechanism: Oxaloacetate to Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
4:48
Overall Reaction: Pyruvate to Phosphoenolpyruvate
7:01
Recall The Two Pathways That Pyruvate Can Take to Become Phosphoenolpyruvate
10:16
NADH in Gluconeogenesis
12:29
Second Pathway: Lactate → Pyruvate
18:22
Cytosolic PEP Carboxykinase, Mitochondrial PEP Carboxykinase, & Isozymes
18:23
2nd Bypass Reaction
23:04
3rd Bypass Reaction
24:01
Overall Process
25:17
Other Feeder Pathways For Gluconeogenesis
26:35
Carbon Intermediates of The Citric Acid Cycle
26:36
Amino Acids & The Gluconeogenic Pathway
29:45
Glycolysis & Gluconeogenesis Are Reciprocally Regulated
32:00
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway

42m 52s

Intro
0:00
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway Overview
0:17
The Major Fate of Glucose-6-Phosphate
0:18
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) Overview
1:00
Oxidative Phase of The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
4:33
Oxidative Phase of The Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Reaction Overview
4:34
Ribose-5-Phosphate: Glutathione & Reductive Biosynthesis
9:02
Glucose-6-Phosphate to 6-Phosphogluconate
12:48
6-Phosphogluconate to Ribulose-5-Phosphate
15:39
Ribulose-5-Phosphate to Ribose-5-Phosphate
17:05
Non-Oxidative Phase of The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
19:55
Non-Oxidative Phase of The Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Overview
19:56
General Transketolase Reaction
29:03
Transaldolase Reaction
35:10
Final Transketolase Reaction
39:10
X. The Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
Citric Acid Cycle I

36m 10s

Intro
0:00
Stages of Cellular Respiration
0:23
Stages of Cellular Respiration
0:24
From Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA
6:56
From Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex
6:57
Overall Reaction
8:42
Oxidative Decarboxylation
11:54
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) & Enzymes
15:30
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) Requires 5 Coenzymes
17:15
Molecule of CoEnzyme A
18:52
Thioesters
20:56
Lipoic Acid
22:31
Lipoate Is Attached To a Lysine Residue On E₂
24:42
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: Reactions
26:36
E1: Reaction 1 & 2
30:38
E2: Reaction 3
31:58
E3: Reaction 4 & 5
32:44
Substrate Channeling
34:17
Citric Acid Cycle II

49m 20s

Intro
0:00
Citric Acid Cycle Reactions Overview
0:26
Citric Acid Cycle Reactions Overview: Part 1
0:27
Citric Acid Cycle Reactions Overview: Part 2
7:03
Things to Note
10:58
Citric Acid Cycle Reactions & Mechanism
13:57
Reaction 1: Formation of Citrate
13:58
Reaction 1: Mechanism
19:01
Reaction 2: Citrate to Cis Aconistate to Isocitrate
28:50
Reaction 3: Isocitrate to α-Ketoglutarate
32:35
Reaction 3: Two Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Enzymes
36:24
Reaction 3: Mechanism
37:33
Reaction 4: Oxidation of α-Ketoglutarate to Succinyl-CoA
41:38
Reaction 4: Notes
46:34
Citric Acid Cycle III

44m 11s

Intro
0:00
Citric Acid Cycle Reactions & Mechanism
0:21
Reaction 5: Succinyl-CoA to Succinate
0:24
Reaction 5: Reaction Sequence
2:35
Reaction 6: Oxidation of Succinate to Fumarate
8:28
Reaction 7: Fumarate to Malate
10:17
Reaction 8: Oxidation of L-Malate to Oxaloacetate
14:15
More On The Citric Acid Cycle
17:17
Energy from Oxidation
17:18
How Can We Transfer This NADH Into the Mitochondria
27:10
Citric Cycle is Amphibolic - Works In Both Anabolic & Catabolic Pathways
32:06
Biosynthetic Processes
34:29
Anaplerotic Reactions Overview
37:26
Anaplerotic: Reaction 1
41:42
XI. Catabolism of Fatty Acids
Fatty Acid Catabolism I

48m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fatty Acid Catabolism
0:21
Introduction to Fatty Acid Catabolism
0:22
Vertebrate Cells Obtain Fatty Acids for Catabolism From 3 Sources
2:16
Diet: Part 1
4:00
Diet: Part 2
5:35
Diet: Part 3
6:20
Diet: Part 4
6:47
Diet: Part 5
10:18
Diet: Part 6
10:54
Diet: Part 7
12:04
Diet: Part 8
12:26
Fats Stored in Adipocytes Overview
13:54
Fats Stored in Adipocytes (Fat Cells): Part 1
16:13
Fats Stored in Adipocytes (Fat Cells): Part 2
17:16
Fats Stored in Adipocytes (Fat Cells): Part 3
19:42
Fats Stored in Adipocytes (Fat Cells): Part 4
20:52
Fats Stored in Adipocytes (Fat Cells): Part 5
22:56
Mobilization of TAGs Stored in Fat Cells
24:35
Fatty Acid Oxidation
28:29
Fatty Acid Oxidation
28:48
3 Reactions of the Carnitine Shuttle
30:42
Carnitine Shuttle & The Mitochondrial Matrix
36:25
CAT I
43:58
Carnitine Shuttle is the Rate-Limiting Steps
46:24
Fatty Acid Catabolism II

45m 58s

Intro
0:00
Fatty Acid Catabolism
0:15
Fatty Acid Oxidation Takes Place in 3 Stages
0:16
β-Oxidation
2:05
β-Oxidation Overview
2:06
Reaction 1
4:20
Reaction 2
7:35
Reaction 3
8:52
Reaction 4
10:16
β-Oxidation Reactions Discussion
11:34
Notes On β-Oxidation
15:14
Double Bond After The First Reaction
15:15
Reaction 1 is Catalyzed by 3 Isozymes of Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase
16:04
Reaction 2 & The Addition of H₂O
18:38
After Reaction 4
19:24
Production of ATP
20:04
β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acid
21:25
β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acid
22:36
β-Oxidation of Mono-Unsaturates
24:49
β-Oxidation of Mono-Unsaturates: Reaction 1
24:50
β-Oxidation of Mono-Unsaturates: Reaction 2
28:43
β-Oxidation of Mono-Unsaturates: Reaction 3
30:50
β-Oxidation of Mono-Unsaturates: Reaction 4
31:06
β-Oxidation of Polyunsaturates
32:29
β-Oxidation of Polyunsaturates: Part 1
32:30
β-Oxidation of Polyunsaturates: Part 2
37:08
β-Oxidation of Polyunsaturates: Part 3
40:25
Fatty Acid Catabolism III

33m 18s

Intro
0:00
Fatty Acid Catabolism
0:43
Oxidation of Fatty Acids With an Odd Number of Carbons
0:44
β-oxidation in the Mitochondrion & Two Other Pathways
9:08
ω-oxidation
10:37
α-oxidation
17:22
Ketone Bodies
19:08
Two Fates of Acetyl-CoA Formed by β-Oxidation Overview
19:09
Ketone Bodies: Acetone
20:42
Ketone Bodies: Acetoacetate
20:57
Ketone Bodies: D-β-hydroxybutyrate
21:25
Two Fates of Acetyl-CoA Formed by β-Oxidation: Part 1
22:05
Two Fates of Acetyl-CoA Formed by β-Oxidation: Part 2
26:59
Two Fates of Acetyl-CoA Formed by β-Oxidation: Part 3
30:52
XII. Catabolism of Amino Acids and the Urea Cycle
Overview & The Aminotransferase Reaction

40m 59s

Intro
0:00
Overview of The Aminotransferase Reaction
0:25
Overview of The Aminotransferase Reaction
0:26
The Aminotransferase Reaction: Process 1
3:06
The Aminotransferase Reaction: Process 2
6:46
Alanine From Muscle Tissue
10:54
Bigger Picture of the Aminotransferase Reaction
14:52
Looking Closely at Process 1
19:04
Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP)
24:32
Pyridoxamine Phosphate
25:29
Pyridoxine (B6)
26:38
The Function of PLP
27:12
Mechanism Examples
28:46
Reverse Reaction: Glutamate to α-Ketoglutarate
35:34
Glutamine & Alanine: The Urea Cycle I

39m 18s

Intro
0:00
Glutamine & Alanine: The Urea Cycle I
0:45
Excess Ammonia, Glutamate, and Glutamine
0:46
Glucose-Alanine Cycle
9:54
Introduction to the Urea Cycle
20:56
The Urea Cycle: Production of the Carbamoyl Phosphate
22:59
The Urea Cycle: Reaction & Mechanism Involving the Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase
33:36
Glutamine & Alanine: The Urea Cycle II

36m 21s

Intro
0:00
Glutamine & Alanine: The Urea Cycle II
0:14
The Urea Cycle Overview
0:34
Reaction 1: Ornithine → Citrulline
7:30
Reaction 2: Citrulline → Citrullyl-AMP
11:15
Reaction 2': Citrullyl-AMP → Argininosuccinate
15:25
Reaction 3: Argininosuccinate → Arginine
20:42
Reaction 4: Arginine → Orthinine
24:00
Links Between the Citric Acid Cycle & the Urea Cycle
27:47
Aspartate-argininosuccinate Shunt
32:36
Amino Acid Catabolism

47m 58s

Intro
0:00
Amino Acid Catabolism
0:10
Common Amino Acids and 6 Major Products
0:11
Ketogenic Amino Acid
1:52
Glucogenic Amino Acid
2:51
Amino Acid Catabolism Diagram
4:18
Cofactors That Play a Role in Amino Acid Catabolism
7:00
Biotin
8:42
Tetrahydrofolate
10:44
S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)
12:46
Tetrahydrobiopterin
13:53
S-Adenosylmethionine & Tetrahydrobiopterin Molecules
14:41
Catabolism of Phenylalanine
18:30
Reaction 1: Phenylalanine to Tyrosine
18:31
Reaction 2: Tyrosine to p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate
21:36
Reaction 3: p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate to Homogentisate
23:50
Reaction 4: Homogentisate to Maleylacetoacetate
25:42
Reaction 5: Maleylacetoacetate to Fumarylacetoacetate
28:20
Reaction 6: Fumarylacetoacetate to Fumarate & Succinyl-CoA
29:51
Reaction 7: Fate of Fumarate & Succinyl-CoA
31:14
Phenylalanine Hydroxylase
33:33
The Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Reaction
33:34
Mixed-Function Oxidases
40:26
When Phenylalanine Hydoxylase is Defective: Phenylketonuria (PKU)
44:13
XIII. Oxidative Phosphorylation and ATP Synthesis
Oxidative Phosphorylation I

41m 11s

Intro
0:00
Oxidative Phosphorylation
0:54
Oxidative Phosphorylation Overview
0:55
Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Diagram
7:15
Enzyme Complex I of the Electron Transport Chain
12:27
Enzyme Complex II of the Electron Transport Chain
14:02
Enzyme Complex III of the Electron Transport Chain
14:34
Enzyme Complex IV of the Electron Transport Chain
15:30
Complexes Diagram
16:25
Complex I
18:25
Complex I Overview
18:26
What is Ubiquinone or Coenzyme Q?
20:02
Coenzyme Q Transformation
22:37
Complex I Diagram
24:47
Fe-S Proteins
26:42
Transfer of H⁺
29:42
Complex II
31:06
Succinate Dehydrogenase
31:07
Complex II Diagram & Process
32:54
Other Substrates Pass Their e⁻ to Q: Glycerol 3-Phosphate
37:31
Other Substrates Pass Their e⁻ to Q: Fatty Acyl-CoA
39:02
Oxidative Phosphorylation II

36m 27s

Intro
0:00
Complex III
0:19
Complex III Overview
0:20
Complex III: Step 1
1:56
Complex III: Step 2
6:14
Complex IV
8:42
Complex IV: Cytochrome Oxidase
8:43
Oxidative Phosphorylation, cont'd
17:18
Oxidative Phosphorylation: Summary
17:19
Equation 1
19:13
How Exergonic is the Reaction?
21:03
Potential Energy Represented by Transported H⁺
27:24
Free Energy Change for the Production of an Electrochemical Gradient Via an Ion Pump
28:48
Free Energy Change in Active Mitochondria
32:02
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Lecture Comments (7)

0 answers

Post by Jenika Javier on October 12, 2014

how do we identify the reducing end?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Wed Oct 1, 2014 5:57 PM

Post by Torrey Poon on October 1, 2014

Hi Prof. Hovasapian, are all 1-1 linked disaccharides non-reducing sugars?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Fri Feb 14, 2014 2:00 AM

Post by Alan Delez on February 13, 2014

Hi Professor Hovasapian, so in this lecture we learn that the importance of the anomeric carbon is when monohydrates form glyosidic bonds?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian
Wed Sep 18, 2013 3:18 AM

Post by Archimedes S on September 17, 2013

Hi Prof. Hovasapian.  I am confused how the spin and the flip to form trehalose can result in the same molecule even though they result in different orientations in space.  Is this because the carbons attached to the oxygen in the glycosidic bond can freely rotate?

Disaccharides

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Disaccharides 0:15
    • Disaccharides Overview
    • Examples of Disaccharides & How to Name Them
    • Disaccharides Trehalose Overview
    • Disaccharides Trehalose: Flip
    • Disaccharides Trehalose: Spin
    • Example: Draw the Structure

Transcription: Disaccharides

Hello and welcome back to Educator.com, and welcome back to Biochemistry.0000

Today, we are going to start talking about disaccharides, putting 2 monosaccharides together in something that is called a glycosidic bond.0004

Let's go ahead and get started.0013

Alright, let's see how can we do this.0016

A disacch is exactly what it sounds like.0020

CCH, I always forget how to write that.0028

Disacch is made of 2 monosacchs joined covalently- actually, you know what, let me just - joined by a covalent bond called an O-glycosidic bond- very, very, very important bond in biochemistry.0033

The hydroxy group of 1 sugar has reacted with the anomeric carbon of the other sugar.0083

Now, when we say the hydroxyl group of 1 sugar, the truth is, it can actually be any of the hydroxyl groups; but in general, it is going to be specific hydroxy groups that are going to react with the anomeric carbon of the other sugar.0127

Again, you will see from the bond, which particular hydroxy is going to react; but it actually can be any one of them.0143

OK, let's just go ahead and do examples of these.0151

We will just go through several examples to get a sense of how to put the structure together, how the bonds are drawn, the perspective drawings that we are going to be using, and how we are going to name them systematically.0155

That is what's important.0168

Let's do examples of disacchs and how to name them systematically.0172

OK, let's go ahead and start with a particular disaccharide.0189

Let's start with alpha-D-glucose, and connect it to beta-D-glucose in something called a 1→4 connection.0193

OK, let's go ahead and draw out our alpha-D-glucose.0200

Again, always proceed systematically.0206

Start with your basic unit.0209

Alpha-D-glucose, we are looking at this thing right here.0212

God, I really love the blue; I think it is my favorite.0215

OK.0218

CH2OH, this is alpha-D-glucose.0222

And now, we are going to be joining it with - I'll go ahead and put a little plus sign here - beta-D-glucose.0231

Let me draw out the beta-D-glucose first, here.0238

Beta is going to be up here, but everything else is the same because we are talking about glucose, so CH2O4.0244

OK, now, when we put this and this together - let me go ahead and do a red - I'm going to number my carbons.0255

This is no. 1, no. 2, no. 3, no. 4, no. 5.0263

And again, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, I'll go ahead and put 6 too; it is not a problem0270

And again, standard position, oxygen is in the back right; the anomeric carbon is on the right.0276

That is the reducing end of the sugar; this, over here on the left, is the non-reducing end of the sugar.0281

In this particular case, let me go ahead and write, so this is beta-D-glucose.0287

Again, there is a bunch of hydroxys here that can actually react with this anomeric carbon.0296

In this particular case, we are going to form a 1→4 connection.0301

The anomeric carbon, the no.1 carbon, is going to be connected to the no. 4 carbon; and here is the reaction that is going to take place.0306

This is a condensation reaction.0316

In other words, the elements of water are going to be taken away from this, the elements of water that we are going to be taking away right there.0318

This hydroxy on the anomeric carbon is going to go away, and this hydrogen connected to the oxygen on the no.4 is going to go away.0329

So, the oxygen that is going to go between this unit and this unit, actually belongs to this carbon, the no.4 carbon.0338

What you end up with is the following.0347

Let me go ahead and draw a couple of arrows, one this way and this way; and if we go this way, we are actually losing water.0350

If we come this way, we are actually adding water, so this is a hydrolysis.0358

When you hydrolyze a disaccharide, you get 2 monosaccharides.0363

When you condense 2 monosaccharides, you are getting the disaccharide.0366

OK, this is how it is going to look.0370

I'll do this one in red, boom, boom, boom, boom, boom.0374

OK, I'll go like this, and up like that; and then I've got that, that, that, that, that, that.0380

OK, this is the beta, and now, I'll go ahead and fill in my rest.0389

This is up; this is down.0395

This is CH2OH; this is down.0400

This is up; this is involved in the bond.0404

This is CH2OH.0407

OK, this particular sugar is called maltose.0410

Maltose- this is the common name.0416

In the sugar, maltose, what has happened is that an alpha-D-glucose has reacted with the beta-D-glucose.0422

The anomeric carbon has reacted with the no. 4, with the hydroxy on the no. 4 carbon, to create this right here.0430

This right here, this is your O-glycoside bond.0440

OK, that is your O-glycoside.0446

O, because the O is involved; and notice, down, down.0447

That is why it is drawn this way.0453

This is how we actually represent the arrangement in space, but we keep this particular perspective, so that we see how the molecules, how the individual units are arranged.0456

This is how we do a disaccharide.0466

OK, the name for this is alpha-D - because it is a polymer - glucosyl, the first (1→4)-D-glucose.0469

Alpha-D-glucosyl, that is the first monomer arranged in a 1→4 pattern.0495

One on the left connected to the no. 4 carbon on the right- that is where this 1→4 in parentheses means, and a little arrow going from the 1 to the 4.0502

We go from left to right- D-glucose.0509

OK.0512

I should actually write this as...because we have actually specified the stereo chemistry on this particular monomer, it is the B.0517

This is beta-D-glucose.0525

Now, there is a slightly longer name, but we are actually going to be dealing with a shorter name.0529

I'm going to write the longer name, but then we are going to exclusively start dealing with the shorter name.0533

This is also called - and I'm not going to draw out the structure again, you can just flip back - alpha-D-glucopyranosyl.0539

Remember, pyranose, 6, gluco, pyro, glucose pyranosyl- it is a little redundant, but you will see it, pyranosyl(1→4)-beta-D-glucopyranose.0553

Now, obviously, you can't use something like this, so here is the shortened version.0574

All of the sugars just like the amino acids, they have 3-letter shortcuts for them, like Ala is alanine.0580

Well, in this particular case, glucose is Glc; and there is list in your book of the 3-letter shorthand notation for all of the individual sugars, galactose, glucose, ribose, deoxyribose, whatever it happens to be.0588

In this particular case, the name is going to be written this way: Glc for glucose.0605

We write the configuration at the carbons that are attached by the O-glycoside bond.0614

The 2 carbons that are involved in the bond, we give their configurations: alpha 1 to 4.0620

The fourth carbon, we don't do alpha-beta because the alpha-beta designation is only for the anomeric carbon.0635

Alpha(1→4)-beta-Glc, also written as Glc-alpha(1→4)Glc.0641

Often, the monomer on the right, the fact of the matter is, well, I'll tell you in just a second why it is I wrote beta here and not there.0654

Let me go ahead and tell you what is going on.0667

This does not mention the beta explicitly on the second monosacch because something called mutarotation, it often switches the configuration.0670

Even though, we know that we use the beta version of the second monosaccharide, the fact of the matter is, the alpha and beta forms, they actually often switch.0712

So, the stereo chemistry on the reducing end of the sugar, the one that has the free anomeric carbon, it is often unspecified.0722

Sometimes, you don't necessarily have to put the beta there; it is not a problem, unless, specifically, they want you to.0730

In this particular case, we put together an alpha-glucose with a beta-glucose, and what we ended up with is Glc, glucose, alpha-1 configuration at the anomeric carbon connected to the no. 4 carbon, the hydroxy on the no. 4 carbon, and the other disaccharide was a glucose.0736

That is all that happens- switches the alpha-beta-configurations.0755

Again, either one of these is fine.0764

If you want to specifically write the beta, that is fine; if not, you are not going to have any points taken away.0765

OK, now, again, as I said, if the anomeric carbon on the second monosacch, in other words, the one on the right, on the monosacch is free like it was with maltose, then this is called the reducing end of the sugar because now, you have a disaccharide, which happens to be a reducing sugar.0770

Fe3+ of Cu2+ will still oxidize that end.0815

It is available to be oxidized; it isn't always the case.0820

In a minute, you will see an example of something that is not a reducing sugar, a disaccharide; but this one, because the anomeric carbon, that hydroxy was not involved in the O-glycoside bond, it is still free, it is a reducing sugar.0823

It is called the reducing end.0839

And again, we have a reducing sugar.0845

Let me read that again.0855

If the anomeric carbon on the second monosaccharide is free, then this is called the reducing end; and again, we have a reducing sugar.0857

And, of course, the other end, the one on the left, the one that cannot be oxidized, that is the non-reducing end.0864

OK, maltose, what we just did, is a reducing sugar.0870

Maltose is a reducing sugar.0880

OK, now, as we said, any of the OH groups on the second monosacch can react with the anomeric carbon of the first monosacch - OK, excuse me - even the hydroxy on the anomeric monosacch, even the OH on the anomeric C.0885

Let's look at an example.0943

OK, now, let's go ahead and look at the sugar trehalose.0946

Let's look at the disacch trehalose.0958

OK, let's see what we have here.0964

Now, trehalose, we are going to have an alpha-D-glucose and an alpha-D-glucose that are going to be connected by their anomeric carbons.0966

Let's go ahead and draw the alpha-D-glucose.0974

We have, this alpha is right there; that is there.0978

That is there; that is there.0988

This is CH2OH.0990

This is alpha-D, and I will just put Glc for glucose.0993

Now, we are going to connect it to another alpha-D-glucose- down, up, down.0998

OK, this time, they are connected; the no. 1 carbon is connected to the no. 1 carbon.1018

How are we going to show that?1028

OK, but now, the OH on the...no...the OH on the no. 1 carbon of the second sugar, no. 1 carbon, the anomeric carbon of the second sugar, is going to react with the anomeric carbon of the first.1030

Sugar reacts with the no. 1 carbon of the first sugar.1070

OK, how are we going to deal with this, and how are we going to represent it?1083

We are going to do this in 3 different ways.1087

Well, let's see.1092

How do we deal with that?1095

How do we represent this schematically?1099

How do we actually show the bond?1103

How do we represent this?1105

OK, here is how we do it.1107

We either flip or spin the second sugar so that the Ns that are going to be reacting are close to each other.1111

When we do that, we are going to have to change the arrangement of the second sugar.1120

In other words, now, it is no longer going to have the conventional representation of the oxygen being on the back right.1124

Let's go ahead and how do we deal with this?1135

Well, we flip or spin the second monosacch for a new arrangement on the page.1136

OK, let's go ahead and do the first one; I'm going to do both.1163

I'm going to do a flip first; I'm going to do a spin first because you are going to probably see them both.1168

My guess is, more often than not, in most biochemistry books, you are actually going to see it flipped; but you will see the spin version, too.1173

This is really, really, really important.1180

There is lots of carbons and oxygens and hydrogens floating around here.1183

Do not go through these structures quickly.1189

Make sure you understand, make sure you pay very close attention to where each individual atom is, particularly that oxygen because that is what's going to give away the structure, and what it is that is going on.1192

OK, because all of these things look alike, the only thing that actually tells you what is different is the arrangement of this particular oxygen in the second monosaccharide.1205

If it happens to be back, if it happens to be forward, that tells you which carbons have reacted.1216

OK, let's go ahead and deal with the flips.1220

We are going to actually end up flipping this one; and the reason we are flipping it, in other words, I'm saying "flip it this way", because you want this carbon to be over on this side, because you want it to be close to the carbon that it is going to be reacting.1223

We have already told you that trehalose has connected the anomeric carbon; carbon no. 1 and carbon no.1 are the ones that are connected via the glycosidic bond.1236

So, we need a way to represent this on paper, so we want to flip this, so that this bond over here, we don't just want to draw the line connecting them.1245

OK, let's draw this one.1254

Again, let's do it in blue.1256

We have got this, this, this, that, that, that; and this is alpha.1260

This is going to be here.1269

OK, we've got CH2OH.1276

Now, what I'm going to do is I'm going to...wait, where am I?1279

OK, yes, now, I'm going to flip this.1286

OK, when I flip this, I'm just flipping it like this.1290

Everything that is on the right goes to lo the left; everything that is on the top goes to the bottom.1300

Thing move around.1304

I'm going to redraw it like this.1306

OK, I've taken it and I've flipped it.1313

Now, what used to be...let me number these.1315

Oops, I want to do this in red.1321

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, now, what you have is, I've flipped it, so now, it is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; and let me actually finish off the structure.1324

Let me do the structures here.1341

When I flip this, this is on the bottom; it goes over to the right, and now, it is up here.1344

This O has moved over here; this C has moved over here, this 5 carbon, but now, this is up.1352

Now, this is down- CH2OH.1359

OK, the no. 2 carbon, it is down; so this is going to be up.1363

No. 3 carbon, this is up; so it is going to be down.1369

No. 4 carbon is down, so now, it is going to be up.1373

This is the flipped arrangement.1376

Now, OK, does that make sense?1380

Notice where each group is; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, I have flipped it.1382

It is not a mirror image.1387

OK, it is not a mirror image.1389

I have actually flipped it; everything is reversed, not mirror-wise, but this way.1392

That is what's going on.1401

What I need it to do was I need it to bring my no. 1 carbon to put it in close proximity with the no. 1 carbon of my first monosaccharide.1403

Now, this thing is going to react with this thing.1414

OK, 1, 1.1425

The elements of water that are going to disappear is the hydroxy there, the H here.1428

This oxygen is going to be attached to that carbon.1435

When I put those together, this is the arrangement that is going to take place.1438

What I end up with is the following.1442

This is the same; we haven't done anything to the first monosaccharide.1467

That is CH2OH, but this one, things are a little different.1475

We have flipped this other one.1478

So, this does not look the same.1481

You might think it does, but it does not.1485

Then it is very, very important that you realize where the oxygen is.1489

OK, here the oxygen is on the top right, back.1495

Let me draw the perspective.1498

OK, here the oxygen is on the back left.1508

Here, the CH2OH is on the upper left above the ring; here it is on the back left, but the CH2OH is below the ring.1511

OK, this 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, I have flipped it, so that I could put these 2 carbons, the ones that are reacting in close proximity, so that I can represent this glycosidic bond in this fashion.1520

OK, when this is an alpha, the hydroxy is below the ring.1557

This is also an alpha; in conventional position, the hydroxy is below the ring, but because I flipped it, I now, have the hydroxy above the ring at that carbon.1562

That is why I draw it this way.1574

This is alpha-D-glucosil-1↔1 - a double arrow, when you are connecting anomeric carbons - alpha-D-glucose.1577

A shorthand notation, Glc for the first monosaccharide; alpha-1 configuration, that carbon, the no. 1 carbon, it is an alpha-configuration that is involved in the glycosidic bond.1598

The other one is also the no.1 carbon of the second monosaccharide in alpha-configuration, that is the other carbon involved in the glycosidic bond; and just go ahead and put that.1615

This is what you want to write: Glc-alpha-1↔alpha-1-Glc.1627

This is trehalose.1634

OK, now, you notice, the anomeric carbon, the reducing end of 1 carbon reacted with the reducing end of the other.1637

This end over here, it is not available for oxidation.1645

OK, it is not available for oxidation, so this particular sugar does not have a reducing end.1649

Therefore, this is a non-reducing sugar.1656

Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar.1659

This changes the chemistry entirely.1661

They behave in completely different ways.1664

Notice, if you were to just look at this really, really quickly without even, sort of, thinking about it, it would look almost exactly the same as the sugar that we just did, which was maltose.1668

I mean, yes, you might notice that this particular thing is different, but you might think to yourself "oh, maybe they just drew it differently, that's all".1677

No, there is nothing random here; everything is drawn with a specific purpose.1684

What you would notice on maltose, is that on both monosaccharides, the oxygen is on the back right.1688

Here, the first monosacch is on the back right; the second monosacch, the oxygen is on the back left.1694

We have specifically drawn it like this.1699

This is what is important.1702

So, you really, really have to pay a very close, detailed attention to these particular structures.1703

OK, I'm going to go ahead and do the spin version of this really quickly.1708

Again, this is just something that you may see.1719

I'm going to take my alpha-D-glucose, so let me draw that under standard.1723

Alpha-D-glucose, hydroxide, hydroxide, hydroxide there, hydroxide here, and CH2OH.1730

Now, instead of flipping that second monosaccharide, I'm going to go ahead and spin it.1739

When I spin it, I end up with the following.1745

Let me see.1749

Yes.1754

OK, when I spin it, it means I'm not flipping it, I'm just spinning it 180°.1756

I'm rotating it this way.1764

Flipping means like that; spinning or rotating means like this.1767

So, here is what it ends up looking like, boom, boom.1772

Now, the oxygen is on the front left.1776

OK, basically, just follow all of these things and just go to the opposite pole.1780

This goes here; this goes here.1785

This goes here; that is all you are doing.1788

It ends up like this; that OH goes there.1792

This ends up coming, CH2OH.1797

This is down, so it is going to stay down.1805

This is up; it is going to stay up, except now, it is going to be in the back, and I think, I have covered everything.1808

So, what you have got is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; now, what you have is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.1815

Now, notice, in this particular case with this spin arrangement, now, my oxygen is down below the ring.1831

So, when I draw my trehalose structure, here is what my structure is going to look like.1837

This stays the same; that, that, that, that, that and that.1842

That is going to go like that; and here, oxygen is there, so, OH, OH, OH, CO2OH.1854

And now, we have OH, OH, OH; and we have CH2OH.1871

OK, this is again, glucose, alpha-1, alpha-1, in parentheses, double arrow, because now, double arrow, I'm connecting the anomeric carbon with the anomeric carbon.1884

Each one has an alpha-configuration, and they are both glucose monomers.1898

Notice, this is the exact same thing as this.1904

Notice, here, the glycosidic bond is represented this way, below, above.1908

The oxygen on the second monosaccharide is in the back left, but this was based on the flip.1915

Here, I have decided to spin it; and now, the glycosidic bond is represented this way.1922

This is the same molecule; this is not a different molecular.1927

It is just that the second monosaccharide is arranged in a different way.1930

The first monosaccharide is exactly the same.1933

This is why it is really, really important to be able to distinguish, watch for where this oxygen is, watch for where the no. 1, no, 2, no. 3, and no, 4 carbons are.1937

Here, it is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; Here it is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.1947

This is the same molecule, different arrangements in space.1957

OK, so, you have seen the spin; you have seen the flip.1962

I am actually not going to go ahead and show you the third version.1965

I don't think your teacher actually wants you to do that anyway.1968

OK, now, let's see.1975

Trehalose, again, is a non-reducing sugar because there is no anomeric carbon that might open up to release a free aldehyde that can be oxidized, so it completely changes the biochemistry.1979

OK, let's go ahead and do an example.1990

Well, we have done a couple of examples; this is just some sort of a free example.1995

OK, sucrose, which is table sugar, is Glc-alpha-1-beta-2-Fru.2002

OK, sucrose is a disaccharide, and it is made up of a glucose unit and a fructose monomer.2016

So, glucose is a hexose; it is a 6-membered sugar.2025

Fructose, remember, is a 5-membered ring sugar.2027

The connection between the two, the glycoside bond that connects them, connects the anomeric carbon, which is alpha and the no. 2 carbon, which is beta-configuration on the fructose.2030

Let's go ahead and draw out the structure.2046

That is our assignment; this is what we want to do.2048

In this particular case, we haven't given you a structure.2050

What we have done is give you the name, in shortened form; and we want you to draw the structure- very, very typical question on an exam.2053

OK, in this particular case, well, let me just go ahead and draw the...should I go ahead and...well, that is fine.2065

In this particular case, I am joining the anomeric carbon of both.2078

Again, I am going to have to bring the carbons in close proximity.2084

I am going to have to flip or spin the second monosaccharide.2089

I am going to choose the flip version.2091

Let me go ahead and draw out my...I choose to flip the second monosaccharide.2094

OK, and again, when you see an alpha or a beta on this second carbon here, this second sugar, that is what's going to tell you that you are probably going to have to do some spinning or flipping.2108

If there was just a number here like 4 or 5 or 3 or something like that, then you can just leave them alone, and just connect the carbons.2119

OK, let's go ahead and draw out our alpha-glucose.2129

That is going to be like this, alpha which means the hydroxy is down here, and this is there, and this is there, and this is CH2OH.2133

OK, now, flip the beta.2149

Let me see.2155

I'm actually going to go through the process of putting this particular fructose together.2158

I'm going to start the process this way - I'm going to do this in blue - just so you see again, a little bit of review on how it is that we actually create this particular ring sugar.2163

Fructose, again, is a 6-membered ring, so we have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.2174

That is up; that is going to be down.2186

Yes, OK.2188

Except this time, C, this is H2OH.2190

So, this is a ketone; this is a ketose.2196

The no. 2 carbon actually has the carbonyl.2198

Here, OH, I'm drawing out the linear form, the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5...oops, I forgot.2201

This is OH, and this is CH2OH.2212

So, this is the linear form.2214

I'm going to go ahead and take this linear form, and draw it in such a way, in order to create my ring.2216

Let's see, I have got C, carbonyl.2224

This is CH2OH here.2232

This is C; this is C.2235

That is C, and then I have my OH, and I have my CH2OH here.2240

This is in freeform that I've taken and rotated; I have brought the other thing around.2245

Now, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5- that is right.2250

I am going to end up attacking that right there, and what I'm going to end up creating is my beta-fructose.2256

My fructose is going to look like this, and I have that.2266

So, beta, that means, so this is the no.1 carbon, right?2271

No. 1 carbon, no. 2 carbon, so CH2OH, let me go ahead and number these.2276

This is 1; this is 2,2284

This is 3; this is 4, and this is 5, and I will do no. 6 in just a minute.2286

Let me go ahead and put all of my substituents on here.2294

Oops, as you can see, things get very, very, very involved.2299

Let me go ahead and put my hydroxy there.2306

Let me put my hydroxy there.2309

Let me put my CH2OH over here, and I have my beta-configuration.2312

This is my - write these out - this is my alpha-glucose; and this is going to be my beta-fructose.2318

I started with my fructose, linear form; I created my regular beta-fructose.2329

This is the standard, conventional arrangement.2335

I am going to be reacting this with this, alpha-1, beta-2.2338

I am actually going to be connecting this carbon with this carbon, which means that I am going to have to flip this, so that I can bring this carbon in close proximity to this carbon.2343

Now, when I flip this, here is what it is going to look like.2353

I am going to do that in red.2358

The flipped fructose, I am going to flip it.2365

Well, the arrangement, that way, actually stays the same; but, of course, the substituents look different, this.2369

Now, what I have is, this is down, so it is going to be up.2376

This is going to be CH2OH.2384

This is up; it is going to be down.2387

This is CH2OH; this is down.2390

This is up, so it is going to be down over here; and this is going to be up.2393

This OH is up; over here on the right, it is going to flip around this way.2404

It is going to end up being down here.2408

It almost looks the same, except the carbons are numbered differently now.2410

Now, we have our no. 1 carbon, no.2, no. 3, no. 4, no. 5, and no. 6.2416

Oops, go ahead and do that.2427

Now, I am going to connect.2430

This is our first sugar; this is our flipped fructose.2437

I am going to connect that carbon with this carbon, the no. 2 carbon.2441

So, you notice, this hydroxy is down, and over here, this hydroxy is down, below the ring.2450

My final fructose structure - I'm sorry - my final sucrose structure is going to look like this.2457

I have got this; let me make this kind of big.2464

OK, I have got 1, 2, there, there, there.2471

Let me go ahead and draw my glycosidic bond, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.2477

This is an oxygen, and now, I can put my substituents in, hydroxy down, hydroxy up, hydroxy down, CH2OH.2486

Now, I have got a hydroxy down here; I have got a hydroxy up there.2497

I have got a CH2OH here, and I have got a CH2OH - actually, let me draw it to the left because there is plenty of room on the left - CH2OH, and there we go.2504

Now, I have my alpha-1 configuration, alpha-1-carbon on my glucose.2519

This is my beta-2; you can write b2 2-beta.2526

It does not matter, the order, as long as the alpha-1 is on the left of the arrow.2531

OK, we have Glc-alpha-1↔beta-2-Fru- this is sucrose.2537

This is table sugar, and you notice, there is no anomeric carbon that is available.2553

This is a non-reducing sugar; the 2 anomeric carbons are connected by an O-glycosidic bond.2559

It is arranged this way.2566

This is not the standard, conventional arrangement; I had to flip this fructose monomer, in order to bring this carbon in close proximity with this carbon.2568

This is the process that you go through.2579

Again, glucose, glycosidic bond, glucose is connected to fructose; the glycosidic bond is the alpha-1, no. 1 carbon alpha-configuration connected to the no. 2 carbon beta-configuration.2580

That is it.2595

We will do more of these; don't worry about that.2597

We will do plenty of these because it is very, very important that we would be able to go back and forth, that you see a structure, be able to name it, that you'd be given a name, and be able to draw out a structure for it.2599

OK, thank you so much for joining us here at Educator.com.2609

We will see you next time, bye-bye.2611

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