Raffi Hovasapian

Subspaces

Slide Duration:Table of Contents

39m 3s

- Intro0:00
- Linear Systems1:20
- Introduction to Linear Systems1:21
- Examples10:35
- Example 110:36
- Example 213:44
- Example 316:12
- Example 423:48
- Example 528:23
- Example 632:32
- Number of Solutions35:08
- One Solution, No Solution, Infinitely Many Solutions35:09
- Method of Elimination36:57
- Method of Elimination36:58

30m 34s

- Intro0:00
- Matrices0:47
- Definition and Example of Matrices0:48
- Square Matrix7:55
- Diagonal Matrix9:31
- Operations with Matrices10:35
- Matrix Addition10:36
- Scalar Multiplication15:01
- Transpose of a Matrix17:51
- Matrix Types23:17
- Regular: m x n Matrix of m Rows and n Column23:18
- Square: n x n Matrix With an Equal Number of Rows and Columns23:44
- Diagonal: A Square Matrix Where All Entries OFF the Main Diagonal are '0'24:07
- Matrix Operations24:37
- Matrix Operations24:38
- Example25:55
- Example25:56

41m 42s

- Intro0:00
- Dot Product1:04
- Example of Dot Product1:05
- Matrix Multiplication7:05
- Definition7:06
- Example 112:26
- Example 217:38
- Matrices and Linear Systems21:24
- Matrices and Linear Systems21:25
- Example 129:56
- Example 232:30
- Summary33:56
- Dot Product of Two Vectors and Matrix Multiplication33:57
- Summary, cont.35:06
- Matrix Representations of Linear Systems35:07
- Examples35:34
- Examples35:35

43m 17s

- Intro0:00
- Properties of Addition1:11
- Properties of Addition: A1:12
- Properties of Addition: B2:30
- Properties of Addition: C2:57
- Properties of Addition: D4:20
- Properties of Addition5:22
- Properties of Addition5:23
- Properties of Multiplication6:47
- Properties of Multiplication: A7:46
- Properties of Multiplication: B8:13
- Properties of Multiplication: C9:18
- Example: Properties of Multiplication9:35
- Definitions and Properties (Multiplication)14:02
- Identity Matrix: n x n matrix14:03
- Let A Be a Matrix of m x n15:23
- Definitions and Properties (Multiplication)18:36
- Definitions and Properties (Multiplication)18:37
- Properties of Scalar Multiplication22:54
- Properties of Scalar Multiplication: A23:39
- Properties of Scalar Multiplication: B24:04
- Properties of Scalar Multiplication: C24:29
- Properties of Scalar Multiplication: D24:48
- Properties of the Transpose25:30
- Properties of the Transpose25:31
- Properties of the Transpose30:28
- Example30:29
- Properties of Matrix Addition33:25
- Let A, B, C, and D Be m x n Matrices33:26
- There is a Unique m x n Matrix, 0, Such That…33:48
- Unique Matrix D34:17
- Properties of Matrix Multiplication34:58
- Let A, B, and C Be Matrices of the Appropriate Size34:59
- Let A Be Square Matrix (n x n)35:44
- Properties of Scalar Multiplication36:35
- Let r and s Be Real Numbers, and A and B Matrices36:36
- Properties of the Transpose37:10
- Let r Be a Scalar, and A and B Matrices37:12
- Example37:58
- Example37:59

38m 14s

- Intro0:00
- Reduced Row Echelon Form0:29
- An m x n Matrix is in Reduced Row Echelon Form If:0:30
- Reduced Row Echelon Form2:58
- Example: Reduced Row Echelon Form2:59
- Theorem8:30
- Every m x n Matrix is Row-Equivalent to a UNIQUE Matrix in Reduced Row Echelon Form8:31
- Systematic and Careful Example10:02
- Step 110:54
- Step 211:33
- Step 312:50
- Step 414:02
- Step 515:31
- Step 617:28
- Example30:39
- Find the Reduced Row Echelon Form of a Given m x n Matrix30:40

28m 54s

- Intro0:00
- Solutions of Linear Systems0:11
- Solutions of Linear Systems0:13
- Example I3:25
- Solve the Linear System 13:26
- Solve the Linear System 214:31
- Example II17:41
- Solve the Linear System 317:42
- Solve the Linear System 420:17
- Homogeneous Systems21:54
- Homogeneous Systems Overview21:55
- Theorem and Example24:01

40m 10s

- Intro0:00
- Finding the Inverse of a Matrix0:41
- Finding the Inverse of a Matrix0:42
- Properties of Non-Singular Matrices6:38
- Practical Procedure9:15
- Step19:16
- Step 210:10
- Step 310:46
- Example: Finding Inverse12:50
- Linear Systems and Inverses17:01
- Linear Systems and Inverses17:02
- Theorem and Example21:15
- Theorem26:32
- Theorem26:33
- List of Non-Singular Equivalences28:37
- Example: Does the Following System Have a Non-trivial Solution?30:13
- Example: Inverse of a Matrix36:16

21m 25s

- Intro0:00
- Determinants0:37
- Introduction to Determinants0:38
- Example6:12
- Properties9:00
- Properties 1-59:01
- Example10:14
- Properties, cont.12:28
- Properties 6 & 712:29
- Example14:14
- Properties, cont.18:34
- Properties 8 & 918:35
- Example19:21

59m 31s

- Intro0:00
- Cofactor Expansions and Their Application0:42
- Cofactor Expansions and Their Application0:43
- Example 13:52
- Example 27:08
- Evaluation of Determinants by Cofactor9:38
- Theorem9:40
- Example 111:41
- Inverse of a Matrix by Cofactor22:42
- Inverse of a Matrix by Cofactor and Example22:43
- More Example36:22
- List of Non-Singular Equivalences43:07
- List of Non-Singular Equivalences43:08
- Example44:38
- Cramer's Rule52:22
- Introduction to Cramer's Rule and Example52:23

46m 54s

- Intro0:00
- Vectors in the Plane0:38
- Vectors in the Plane0:39
- Example 18:25
- Example 215:23
- Vector Addition and Scalar Multiplication19:33
- Vector Addition19:34
- Scalar Multiplication24:08
- Example26:25
- The Angle Between Two Vectors29:33
- The Angle Between Two Vectors29:34
- Example33:54
- Properties of the Dot Product and Unit Vectors38:17
- Properties of the Dot Product and Unit Vectors38:18
- Defining Unit Vectors40:01
- 2 Very Important Unit Vectors41:56

52m 44s

- Intro0:00
- n-Vectors0:58
- 4-Vector0:59
- 7-Vector1:50
- Vector Addition2:43
- Scalar Multiplication3:37
- Theorem: Part 14:24
- Theorem: Part 211:38
- Right and Left Handed Coordinate System14:19
- Projection of a Point Onto a Coordinate Line/Plane17:20
- Example21:27
- Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality24:56
- Triangle Inequality36:29
- Unit Vector40:34
- Vectors and Dot Products44:23
- Orthogonal Vectors44:24
- Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality45:04
- Triangle Inequality45:21
- Example 145:40
- Example 248:16

48m 53s

- Intro0:00
- Introduction to Linear Transformations0:44
- Introduction to Linear Transformations0:45
- Example 19:01
- Example 211:33
- Definition of Linear Mapping14:13
- Example 322:31
- Example 426:07
- Example 530:36
- Examples36:12
- Projection Mapping36:13
- Images, Range, and Linear Mapping38:33
- Example of Linear Transformation42:02

34m 8s

- Intro0:00
- Linear Transformations1:29
- Linear Transformations1:30
- Theorem 17:15
- Theorem 29:20
- Example 1: Find L (-3, 4, 2)11:17
- Example 2: Is It Linear?17:11
- Theorem 325:57
- Example 3: Finding the Standard Matrix29:09

37m 54s

- Intro0:00
- Lines and Plane0:36
- Example 10:37
- Example 27:07
- Lines in IR39:53
- Parametric Equations14:58
- Example 317:26
- Example 420:11
- Planes in IR325:19
- Example 531:12
- Example 634:18

42m 19s

- Intro0:00
- Vector Spaces3:43
- Definition of Vector Spaces3:44
- Vector Spaces 15:19
- Vector Spaces 29:34
- Real Vector Space and Complex Vector Space14:01
- Example 115:59
- Example 218:42
- Examples26:22
- More Examples26:23
- Properties of Vector Spaces32:53
- Properties of Vector Spaces Overview32:54
- Property A34:31
- Property B36:09
- Property C36:38
- Property D37:54
- Property F39:00

43m 37s

- Intro0:00
- Subspaces0:47
- Defining Subspaces0:48
- Example 13:08
- Example 23:49
- Theorem7:26
- Example 39:11
- Example 412:30
- Example 516:05
- Linear Combinations23:27
- Definition 123:28
- Example 125:24
- Definition 229:49
- Example 231:34
- Theorem32:42
- Example 334:00

33m 15s

- Intro0:00
- A Spanning Set for a Vector Space1:10
- A Spanning Set for a Vector Space1:11
- Procedure to Check if a Set of Vectors Spans a Vector Space3:38
- Example 16:50
- Example 214:28
- Example 321:06
- Example 422:15

17m 20s

- Intro0:00
- Linear Independence0:32
- Definition0:39
- Meaning3:00
- Procedure for Determining if a Given List of Vectors is Linear Independence or Linear Dependence5:00
- Example 17:21
- Example 210:20

31m 20s

- Intro0:00
- Basis and Dimension0:23
- Definition0:24
- Example 13:30
- Example 2: Part A4:00
- Example 2: Part B6:53
- Theorem 19:40
- Theorem 211:32
- Procedure for Finding a Subset of S that is a Basis for Span S14:20
- Example 316:38
- Theorem 321:08
- Example 425:27

24m 45s

- Intro0:00
- Homogeneous Systems0:51
- Homogeneous Systems0:52
- Procedure for Finding a Basis for the Null Space of Ax = 02:56
- Example 17:39
- Example 218:03
- Relationship Between Homogeneous and Non-Homogeneous Systems19:47

35m 3s

- Intro0:00
- Rank of a Matrix1:47
- Definition1:48
- Theorem 18:14
- Example 19:38
- Defining Row and Column Rank16:53
- If We Want a Basis for Span S Consisting of Vectors From S22:00
- If We want a Basis for Span S Consisting of Vectors Not Necessarily in S24:07
- Example 2: Part A26:44
- Example 2: Part B32:10

29m 26s

- Intro0:00
- Rank of a Matrix0:17
- Example 1: Part A0:18
- Example 1: Part B5:58
- Rank of a Matrix Review: Rows, Columns, and Row Rank8:22
- Procedure for Computing the Rank of a Matrix14:36
- Theorem 1: Rank + Nullity = n16:19
- Example 217:48
- Rank & Singularity20:09
- Example 321:08
- Theorem 223:25
- List of Non-Singular Equivalences24:24
- List of Non-Singular Equivalences24:25

27m 3s

- Intro0:00
- Coordinates of a Vector1:07
- Coordinates of a Vector1:08
- Example 18:35
- Example 215:28
- Example 3: Part A19:15
- Example 3: Part B22:26

33m 47s

- Intro0:00
- Change of Basis & Transition Matrices0:56
- Change of Basis & Transition Matrices0:57
- Example 110:44
- Example 220:44
- Theorem23:37
- Example 3: Part A26:21
- Example 3: Part B32:05

32m 53s

- Intro0:00
- Orthonormal Bases in n-Space1:02
- Orthonormal Bases in n-Space: Definition1:03
- Example 14:31
- Theorem 16:55
- Theorem 28:00
- Theorem 39:04
- Example 210:07
- Theorem 213:54
- Procedure for Constructing an O/N Basis16:11
- Example 321:42

21m 27s

- Intro0:00
- Orthogonal Complements0:19
- Definition0:20
- Theorem 15:36
- Example 16:58
- Theorem 213:26
- Theorem 315:06
- Example 218:20

33m 49s

- Intro0:00
- Relations Among the Four Fundamental Vector Spaces Associated with a Matrix A2:16
- Four Spaces Associated With A (If A is m x n)2:17
- Theorem4:49
- Example 17:17
- Null Space and Column Space10:48
- Projections and Applications16:50
- Projections and Applications16:51
- Projection Illustration21:00
- Example 123:51
- Projection Illustration Review30:15

38m 11s

- Intro0:00
- Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors0:38
- Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors0:39
- Definition 13:30
- Example 17:20
- Example 210:19
- Definition 221:15
- Example 323:41
- Theorem 126:32
- Theorem 227:56
- Example 429:14
- Review34:32

29m 55s

- Intro0:00
- Similar Matrices and Diagonalization0:25
- Definition 10:26
- Example 12:00
- Properties3:38
- Definition 24:57
- Theorem 16:12
- Example 39:37
- Theorem 212:40
- Example 419:12
- Example 520:55
- Procedure for Diagonalizing Matrix A: Step 124:21
- Procedure for Diagonalizing Matrix A: Step 225:04
- Procedure for Diagonalizing Matrix A: Step 325:38
- Procedure for Diagonalizing Matrix A: Step 427:02

30m 14s

- Intro0:00
- Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices1:15
- Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices1:16
- Theorem 12:24
- Theorem 23:27
- Example 14:47
- Definition 16:44
- Example 28:15
- Theorem 310:28
- Theorem 412:31
- Example 318:00

24m 5s

- Intro0:00
- Linear Mappings2:08
- Definition2:09
- Linear Operator7:36
- Projection8:48
- Dilation9:40
- Contraction10:07
- Reflection10:26
- Rotation11:06
- Example 113:00
- Theorem 118:16
- Theorem 219:20

26m 38s

- Intro0:00
- Kernel and Range of a Linear Map0:28
- Definition 10:29
- Example 14:36
- Example 28:12
- Definition 210:34
- Example 313:34
- Theorem 116:01
- Theorem 218:26
- Definition 321:11
- Theorem 324:28

25m 54s

- Intro0:00
- Kernel and Range of a Linear Map1:39
- Theorem 11:40
- Example 1: Part A2:32
- Example 1: Part B8:12
- Example 1: Part C13:11
- Example 1: Part D14:55
- Theorem 216:50
- Theorem 323:00

33m 21s

- Intro0:00
- Matrix of a Linear Map0:11
- Theorem 11:24
- Procedure for Computing to Matrix: Step 17:10
- Procedure for Computing to Matrix: Step 28:58
- Procedure for Computing to Matrix: Step 39:50
- Matrix of a Linear Map: Property10:41
- Example 114:07
- Example 218:12
- Example 324:31

For more information, please see full course syllabus of Linear Algebra

# Linear Algebra Subspaces

Continuing our lesson on vector spaces will lead us to the notion of vector subspaces and linear combinations. Essentially what you’ll be dealing with here is more rule-checking like we did last time. A space can only be a subspace if it follows specific rules set by the vector space. Things may seem confusing now, but once you apply this knowledge to some examples you’ll quickly develop a way to view spaces/subspaces in your own way. Additionally, we’ll discuss combining vectors in a space, and what applications that new vector has. After this we’ll get a breather from the technicalities of proofs, and jump into a topic with more math than words.

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1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sat Apr 12, 2014 5:24 PM

Post by Kasun Jayasuriya on April 7, 2014

Wow. These lectures and examples are really good. I have just one month for my exams and I haven't understood any of this till now because university lectures are completely useless. I am really glad that I found this at least just before my exams. This really helps. Thanks a lot.

0 answers

Post by Burhan Akram on November 8, 2013

Hello Professor Raffi,

Very good explanation of subspaces. However, I have a question about one subspace. How would you approach this to show whether it's a subspace or not. Here is it, " subset of all polynomials in P5 for which p(1)=p(3)"....how would you tackle this problem? Thanks again, your lectures are very helpful.

4 answers

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Wed Sep 25, 2013 4:19 PM

Post by Christian Fischer on September 24, 2013

Hi Raffi, Once again: Great video. I want to make sure I understood the conclusion to example 2 100%. Can you clarify that this is correct?

So w is a subspace of the Vector space V because:

A)The subset (a,b,0) satisfies the list of operations for vector spaces (closure etc.) when applying the 2 operations (+) and (*)

B)When testing for closure the vector A1+A2=(a1+a2,b1+b2,0) Is of the same form, so if we ended up with a non-zero z-cordinate it would be outside of the subset and therefore the subspace is not a vectorspace.

Can you say R^3 alone is a vector space? Does it mean that every vector in R^3 is a vector space? And so R^2 is a subset of R^3 but not vice versa.

Have a great day

Christian

0 answers

Post by Professor Hovasapian on June 18, 2013

Hi Manfred,

Thank you so much for the kind words -- they truly mean a lot to me. I'm thrilled that Mathematics is beautiful to you; and I'm happy we can bring some of this beauty to you in our courses and lessons.

Have fun.

Raffi

0 answers

Post by Manfred Berger on June 15, 2013

Just when I thought the lecture was losing a bit of momentum, you pull a VS from the polynomial ring, and have my full attention back in an instant. You probably get messages like this all the time, but: You're just an awesome instructor!

4 answers

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sun Mar 24, 2013 6:10 PM

Post by Professor Hovasapian on March 23, 2013

Hi Matt,

I you're doing well.

When a set is closed under addition, this means that if I take two elements from that set and add them, the result is yet another element in that set. For example, the set of even numbers: if I take any two even numbers and add them, the result is always an even number -- so the even numbers are closed under addition. Now let's take the odd numbers: if I add any two odd numbers, I get an even number -- the result of the addition lands me outside the set of add numbers -- so the odd numbers are NOT closed under addition.

Now, this question. Our set is given, and the two elements are the vectors (a, a-2) & (b,b-2). When I add these I get the (a+b, a+b-4). Does it make sense how we got this?

The question is: Is this result vector in the original set? The first component is a+b. Let's call this M. The second component is a+b-4. Let's call this M-4. Now we have (M,M-4).

Does this last vector look like it belongs to the original set? NO -- because any vector in the original set has to be of the form (P, P-2). When we added we got (m, M-4) -- we landed outside of the set -- therefore NOT closed under addition...therefore, NOT a Subspace.

I hope this made sense. Please let me know if it did not, and I will prepare a short document for you with other examples and upload it to my "Linear Algebra for Educator.com" Group page on Facebook:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/344583348957004/

Best wishes, and take good care

Raffi

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sat Mar 23, 2013 5:16 PM

Post by Matt Cypert on March 23, 2013

Hello,

V=R^2. If I had a subset S = {(x,x-2): xâˆˆR} is it a subspace of V.

First I use addition

u = (a, a-2)

v = (b, b-2)

u+v = (a+b, a + b - 4). The book says it is not closed under addition, therefore it is not a subspace, but it does not go into any detail as to why. In all your examples they seemed to all work out or be a subspace. Could you possibly explain to me why this is not closed under addition making it not a subspace?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Wed Jan 23, 2013 3:52 AM

Post by Hai Lieu on January 22, 2013

Hello Pro. Professor Hovasapian,

Thanks for a quick respond for the above question. So, if a 2x2 matrix A is given. How do we find A-invariant subspaces?

Thanks

Hai

2 answers

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Tue Jan 22, 2013 9:27 PM

Post by Hai Lieu on January 22, 2013

Does anyone know the different between A-invariant subspace and subspace? I don't see any lesson regarding A-invariant subspace.

Thank you in advance

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Tue Nov 20, 2012 6:52 PM

Post by Brodey Hansen on November 20, 2012

My professor should watch these lectures so he can learn how to TEACH!

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sun Aug 5, 2012 7:52 PM

Post by hasan dilek on August 5, 2012

great lectures, good examples. it feels like the lectures at uni are completely useless.

0 answers

Post by Talwar Chanonia on November 18, 2011

Thankyou!!