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Summer Ebs

Summer Ebs

Heat and States of Matter

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry
Properties of Matter

30m 50s

Intro
0:00
Matter
0:07
Matter
0:08
Substance, Element, and Compound
0:47
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Mixture
1:47
Suspension, Colloid, and Solution
3:16
Physical Properties
5:25
Appearance: Color, Shape, Size, Density, and State of Matter
5:26
Behavior: Viscosity, Magnetism, Malleability, and Ductility
8:00
Physical Changes
10:29
Physical Changes
10:30
Chemical Properties
14:38
Chemical Properties
14:39
Chemical Changes
16:35
Chemical Changes
16:36
Signs of Chemical Change
16:55
Example 1: Identify the Mixtures Listed
19:21
Example 2: Physical or Chemical Change?
23:38
Example 3: How Can You Separate a Mixture of Sand, Gravel, Iron, Filings, Salt, and Water?
25:04
Example 4: Physical/Chemical Property and Change
27:27
Energy

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Energy
0:03
Energy Overview
0:04
Potential Energy
1:48
Potential Energy
1:49
Mechanical (Elastic) Potential Energy
1:54
Chemical Potential Energy
3:15
Nuclear Energy
4:06
Gravitational Potential Energy
4:43
Kinetic Energy
7:34
Kinetic Energy
7:35
Thermal Energy
8:03
Radiant Energy
8:57
Electrical Energy
9:47
Sound
10:17
Motion
10:54
Kinetic Energy: Example
11:31
Law of Conservation of Energy
12:47
Law of Conservation of Energy
12:48
Electrical to Radiant
13:21
Chemical to Thermal
14:34
Potential to Kinetic
15:10
Friction
18:48
Energy Resources
20:06
Nonrenewable: Fossil Fuels
20:51
Nonrenewable: Nuclear
21:56
Renewable: Solar
26:50
Renewable: Wind
29:22
Renewable: Tidal
31:10
Renewable: Hydroelectric
32:30
Renewable: Geothermal
35:24
Example 1: Gravitational Potential Energy
38:40
Example 2: Kinetic Energy
42:20
Example 3: Maximum and Minimum Potential and Kinetic Energy
44:48
Example 4: Should We Use Renewable or Nonrenewable Resources to Generate Electricity?
46:31
Heat and States of Matter

48m 48s

Intro
0:00
Temperature
0:04
Temperature
0:05
Fahrenheit to Celsius
2:15
Celsius to Fahrenheit
4:29
Kelvins to Celsius and Celsius to Kelvins
5:50
Thermal Energy
8:06
Thermal Energy, Kinetic Energy, and Potential Energy
8:07
Changing Thermal Energy: Temperature
9:11
Changing Thermal Energy: State of Matter
9:37
Changing Thermal Energy: Amount of Matter
10:12
Heat
10:59
Heat
11:00
Specific Heat
12:21
Transfer of Thermal Energy
15:15
Conduction
15:16
Convection
16:43
Radiation
19:57
States of Matter
20:43
Solids: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
21:35
Liquids: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
23:49
Gases: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
25:33
Plasma: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
27:02
Changing States of Matter
27:49
Melting
27:50
Freezing
28:15
Vaporization
29:04
Boiling
29:17
Condensation
31:21
Temperature and Time Graph
32:18
Thermal Expansion
36:19
Thermal Expansion of Solids
37:16
Thermal Expansion of Liquids
38:17
Thermal Expansion of Gases
39:46
Example 1: Converting Temperatures
40:28
Example 2: Thermal Energy
43:35
Example 3: Quick Matching
44:58
Example 4: Why Does It Feel Cold When You Put Your Hand On the Table?
45:50
Example 5: Heat Transfer
46:48
Example 6: Changing States of Matter
47:29
Atoms and Elements

30m 12s

Intro
0:00
Atoms
0:05
Atoms
0:06
Atomic Structure
1:01
Electron Cloud
1:02
Nucleus, Protons, and Neutrons
1:43
Quarks
2:07
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
2:40
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons: Location
2:42
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons: Electric Charge
3:05
Examples
4:10
Electron Configuration
5:32
Electron Configuration
5:33
Elements
12:22
Atomic Number
13:05
Carbon
13:15
Oxygen
14:49
Important Elements for Living Things
16:25
Isotopes
17:04
Isotopes
17:05
Example 1: Atomic Structure and Electrical Charge
21:16
Example 2: Electron Configuration
23:13
Example 3: Electron Configuration
24:57
Example 4: Use the Periodic Table to Complete the Table Below
26:08
Periodic Table

47m 23s

Intro
0:00
Periodic Table
0:06
Atomic Number, Chemical Symbol, and Atomic Mass
0:07
Groups and Periods
4:14
Groups and Periods
4:15
Electron Dot Diagrams
10:05
Electron Dot Diagrams
10:06
Ion Formation
19:09
An Ion Forms When an Atom Gains or Loses Electrons
19:10
A Positive Ion Forms When an Atom Loses and Electron
20:25
A Negative Ion Forms When an Atom Gains an Electron
26:49
Oxidation Numbers
28:51
Oxidation Numbers
28:52
Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids
34:52
Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids
34:53
Example 1: Group and Period
37:39
Example 2: Electron Dot Diagrams
39:50
Example 3: How do Fluorine and Calcium Become Ions?
42:10
Example 4: What Are 2 Ways to Find the Oxidation Number of Sodium?
44:58
Chemical Bonding, Part I

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Chemical Bonds Form Compounds
0:17
Atoms and Electrons
0:18
H2O
2:14
HCl
3:36
C6H12O6
4:16
Ca(NO3)2
5:06
Review: Dot Diagrams
7:10
Review: Ion Formation
8:30
Ionic Bond
9:57
Ionic Bond
9:58
Sodium and Fluorine
10:41
Magnesium and Chlorine
16:30
Covalent Bond
22:19
Covalent Bond
22:20
Hydrogen and Carbon
23:58
Hydrogen and Oxygen
27:28
Multiple Covalent Bonds
29:03
Single Covalent Bond
29:04
Double Covalent Bond
29:40
Triple Covalent Bond
31:50
Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
33:33
Polar Molecules
33:34
Unequal sharing of Electrons and Electronegativities
35:02
Nonpolar Molecules
37:46
Example 1: Elements and Atoms
38:42
Example 2: Dot Diagram of the Bond That Forms Between Magnesium and Oxygen
41:17
Example 3: Dot Diagram of the Bond That Forms Between Nitrogen and Oxygen
45:24
Example 4: Polar or Nonpolar?
47:22
Chemical Bonding, Part 2

56m 22s

Intro
0:00
Bonding Atoms Make Compounds
0:05
Binary Compounds
0:06
Reviwew: Oxidation Number
1:14
Naming Ionic Compounds
1:45
Naming Ionic Compounds
1:46
NaCl
2:26
MgCl2
5:04
Al2S3
6:52
Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds
10:03
Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds
10:04
Beryllium Fluoride
10:17
Lithium Nitride
12:24
Calcium Bromide
13:53
Polyatomic Ions
15:31
Polyatomic Ions
15:32
Ammonium Phosphate
17:21
Aluminum Hydroxide
19:37
Magnesium Chlorate
20:54
NaOH
21:47
(NH4)2O
22:17
Mg(NO3)2
22:56
Special Ions
23:28
Iron (III) Iodide
24:28
Lead (IV) Chloride
26:30
Chromium (III) Oxide
27:31
Fe3P2
29:18
CuI2
31:51
PbBr2
33:04
Naming Covalent Compounds
33:57
Naming Covalent Compounds
33:58
Examples
35:03
Ionic or Covalent?
39:50
Ionic vs. Covalent: Electron
39:51
Ionic vs. Covalent: State At Room Temperature
10:23
Ionic vs. Covalent: Metal, Nonmetal, Metalloids
41:02
Ionic vs. Covalent: Naming
41:35
Example 1: Write the Names or Formulas for Each Ionic Compound
42:50
Example 2: Write the Names or Formulas for Each Covalent Compound
46:13
Example 3: Name the Following Ionic Compounds
49:44
Example 4: Provide the Formulas for the Following Ionic Compounds
52:19
Example 5: Ionic or Covalent?
54:21
Chemical Reactions

49m 13s

Intro
0:00
Chemical Reactions
0:05
Chemical Reactions
0:06
Chemical Formula Example
0:54
Reactants and Products
3:50
Conservation of Mass
4:58
The Total Mass of the Reactant Must Equal the Total Mass of the Products
4:59
Balancing Chemical Equations
6:42
Balancing Equations
11:12
Example 1: Balancing Equations
11:27
Example 2: Balancing Equations
14:15
Example 3: Balancing Equations
16:28
Types of Reactions
19:17
Synthesis
19:18
Decomposition
20:09
Single-Displacement
20:54
Double-Displacement
22:12
Combustion
23:34
Energy in Chemical Reactions
24:41
Chemical Reactions and Activation Energy
24:42
Endergonic Reactions
25:55
Exergonic Reactions
27:51
Rate of Chemical Reactions
29:42
Rate of Chemical Reactions Overview
29:43
Temperature
30:51
Concentration
31:26
Agitation
32:08
Surface Area
32:29
Pressure
33:06
Catalysts and Inhibitors
33:18
Example 1: Translate Into Chemical Equations
34:32
Example 2: Law of Conservation of Mass
37:35
Example 3: Balance the Following Equations
40:33
Example 4: Math Each Equation With the Correct Type of Reaction
44:58
Example 5: Exothermic or Endothermic Reaction?
48:21
Solutions, Acids, and Bases

29m

Intro
0:00
Solutions
0:06
Definition of Solution
0:07
Solute and Solvent
0:26
Example: Salt Water
0:35
Example: Carbonated Water
1:03
Dissolving
1:49
Dissolving
1:50
Example: Liquid Dissolves a Solid at the Surface of the Solid
3:54
Aqueous Solutions: Water as Solvent
4:42
Increasing the Rate of Dissolving
5:33
Stir
5:34
Crush
6:37
Heat
7:36
Solubility
8:31
Definition of Solubility
8:32
Compare the Solubility of Sugar in Water vs. Salt in Water
8:44
Factors that Affect Solubility
11:45
Concentration
12:45
Concentration
12:46
pH Scale
15:21
pH Scale: Acids, Neutral, and Bases
15:22
Acids and Bases
18:01
Chemical Properties
18:02
Physical Properties
18:43
pH Scale
19:31
Examples of Acids and Bases
19:36
Acids and Bases React Together to Form Salt and Water
20:09
Example 1: Identify the Solutes and Solvents for the Following Solutions
21:26
Example 2: Temperature and the Rate of Dissolving/Solubility of a Solid
23:57
Example 3: How Can You Make a Solution Have a Higher Concentration?
25:44
Example 4: Acids and Bases
27:57
II. Physics
Waves

42m 35s

Intro
0:00
Waves
0:05
Introduction to Waves
0:06
Mechanical Waves
1:24
Electromagnetic Waves
1:50
Mechanical Waves
2:13
Transverse
2:14
Longitudinal (Compressional Waves)
4:00
Properties of Waves
7:26
Transverse and Compressional Waves: Wavelength
7:27
Transverse and Compressional Waves: Frequency (Hz)
9:32
Transverse and Compressional Waves: Amplitude
11:30
Wavelength and Frequency are Related
13:40
Wave Speeds
15:01
Wave Speeds
15:02
Behavior of Waves
18:06
Reflection
18:33
Refraction
22:42
Diffraction
24:25
Electromagnetic Waves
26:00
Electromagnetic Waves
26:01
Visible Light
30:49
Visible Light
30:50
Opaque
34:25
Translucent
34:54
Transparent
35:41
Example 1: Label the Transverse Wave
36:59
Example 2: Label the Compressional Wave
38:13
Example 3: What Happens to the Frequency of a Wave as the Wavelength Increases?
39:12
Example 4: Law of Reflection and Light Wave
40:48
Motion

37m 21s

Intro
0:00
Distance vs. Displacement
0:04
Distance
0:05
Displacement
0:49
Speed
4:47
Speed
4:48
Instantaneous Speed
6:14
Average Speed
6:40
Velocity
7:25
Distance-Time Graphs
8:21
Distance-Time Graphs
8:22
Acceleration
13:38
Acceleration Definition
13:39
Acceleration Equation
15:23
Positive Acceleration
18:43
Negative Acceleration
18:52
Speed-Time Graphs
20:56
Speed-Time Graphs
20:57
Example 1: Displacement, Distance, and Average Speed
25:15
Example 2: Velocities
28:02
Example 3: Acceleration
28:59
Example 4: Distance and Time
30:19
Example 5: Speed and Time
34:08
Forces

35m 3s

Intro
0:00
Force
0:04
Force Definition
0:05
Net Force
1:44
Balanced Forces
3:06
Unbalanced Forces
4:23
Forces Examples
5:09
Friction
7:53
Friction Definition
7:54
Static Friction
8:23
Sliding Friction
9:35
Rolling Friction
10:11
Fluid Friction
11:13
Air Resistance
12:10
Newton's Laws of Motion
14:06
First Law of Motion
14:07
Inertia
15:56
Newton's Laws Continued
17:13
Second Law of Motion
17:14
Third Law of Motion
18:35
Gravitational Force
24:17
Gravity and Gravitational Force
24:18
Example 1: Horizontal Force, Frictional Force, and Net Force
28:36
Example 2: Net Force and Acceleration
29:38
Example 3: Gravitational Force
30:35
Example 4: Force of Air Resistance and Net Force
32:32
Density & Buoyancy

23m 43s

Intro
0:00
Density
0:05
Definition of Density
0:06
Density = Mass / Volume
1:01
Density of Irregular Objects
3:58
Density of Irregular Objects
3:59
Buoyant Force
7:46
Buoyancy
7:47
Archimedes' Principle
9:23
Floating and Sinking
12:47
Floating and Sinking: Looking at Density
12:48
Example 1: Density of an Object
16:15
Example 2: Density of Yourself
17:28
Example 3: Using Archimedes' Principle to Predict If an Object Will Sink or Float in Water
19:38
Example 4: Will Aluminum, Gold, and Oil Float or Sink When Placed Into Water?
22:06
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Lecture Comments (12)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Ebs
Wed Jan 8, 2014 12:37 AM

Post by Yisrael Harris on December 21, 2013

In the hot air balloon, why does the expanded air within the balloon cause the balloon to rise?

0 answers

Post by Yisrael Harris on December 16, 2013

When you hold the ice in your hand, and the thermal energy of your hand is transferred to the ice, can you break down into steps what is actually occuring, in terms of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles of your hand and of the ice?

0 answers

Post by Yisrael Harris on December 16, 2013

The temperature of a substance has been defined as the average kinetic energy of its particles. Question: why are collisions relevant? Why is the fact that kinetic energy is transferred between particles upon collision relevant to the determination of a substance's average kinetic energy?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Ebs
Fri Apr 19, 2013 3:00 PM

Post by Yisrael Harris on April 18, 2013

In the section on changing states of liquid, on the graph where point B is a solid and point C is a liquid, what is the state of the substance between points B and C?

0 answers

Post by Yisrael Harris on April 18, 2013

What is the arrangement of atoms in a liquid? Is it at all similar to the solid, or completely random? Are the differences between the arrangement and motion of molecules in a liquid and gas quantitative or qualitative? If merely quantitative, then what is it that gives a gas such a distinctly different appearance to us from a liquid? If indeed qualitative, then what is the nature of that qualitative difference?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Ebs
Fri Apr 19, 2013 2:42 PM

Post by Yisrael Harris on April 18, 2013

I don't see how convection is a type of heat transfer. The actual transfer of heat seems to still be conduction: from the heated pot to the water. The fact that molecules undergo this current as they become less and more dense doesn't seem to be a transfer of heat, but rather an additional phenomenon taking place as a side-effect of the conduction.

Moreover, in the explanation given, from what to what is the heat being transferred? I think that part of the explanation is missing: as the heated molecules rise, other molecules are now at the bottom and they now become heated. In addition, presumably, as the heated molecules rise, they pass some of their heat to other molecules. (Otherwise, as they lose their heat when they rise, what are they losing that heat to?)

Bottom line, though, the actual transfer of heat would still seem to be conduction. The convection is not transfer of heat per se, but rather a phenomenon that facilitates the conduction.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Ebs
Fri Apr 19, 2013 2:31 PM

Post by Antoni Szeglowski on January 21, 2013

So thermal energy is basically total energy?

0 answers

Post by Leili Reza on December 8, 2012

thanks

Related Articles:

Heat and States of Matter

  • The average kinetic energy of a substance is the temperature of the substance.
  • The units used for temperature are Kelvins (K) and degrees Celsius (°C).
  • Thermal energy is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the particles in the matter.
  • Thermal energy is affected by state of matter, temperature of matter, and amount of matter.
  • Heat is thermal energy that is transferred from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature.
  • Heat moves from warm to cool until the two objects are equal temperatures.
  • Specific Heat – Objects change temperature at different rates when the same amount of heat is added. Measure specific heat as the amount of thermal energy needed to increase 1kg of a substance by 1°C.
  • Thermal expansion occurs as a substance’s temperature is increased. The particles of a substance move faster and move away from each other.
  • Heat is transferred by radiation (waves or rays), conduction (direct contact), and convection (currents in a liquid or gas).
  • In a solid, particles are arranged in repeating patterns and solids have a fixed volume and shape. Particles are further away in a liquid that has a fixed volume and takes the shape of the container. Particles are even further apart in a gas that takes the volume and shape of the container.

Heat and States of Matter

What are you measuring when you measure the average speed of the particles in a substance?
Temperature
What instrument is used to measure the average kinetic energy of a substance?
A thermometer
What are the two temperature scales that are used in science?
Celsius and Kelvin
The temperature, amount of matter, and state of matter all affect the amount of which type of energy?
Thermal Energy
Heat will move between two objects at different temperatures in which direction?
From high to low temperature
Heat will move between two objects at different temperatures until what occurs?
Until the objects are at the same temperature (equilibrium)
Below the Earths crust, the liquid part of the mantle moves in currents where hotter magma rises and cooler magma sinks. What is this type of heat transfer?
Convection
What happens when heat is added to a solid object and the particles in the solid gain energy and move faster until a state change occurs?
Melting the solid changes to a liquid
What happens when heat is added to a solid object and the particles in the solid gain energy and move faster and a little bit away from each other, but a state change DOES NOT OCCUR?
Thermal Expansion the solid object grows slightly
What type of matter takes the shape and the volume of the container that it is in?
Gas

*These practice questions are only helpful when you work on them offline on a piece of paper and then use the solution steps function to check your answer.

Answer

Heat and States of Matter

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Temperature 0:04
    • Temperature
    • Fahrenheit to Celsius
    • Celsius to Fahrenheit
    • Kelvins to Celsius and Celsius to Kelvins
  • Thermal Energy 8:06
    • Thermal Energy, Kinetic Energy, and Potential Energy
    • Changing Thermal Energy: Temperature
    • Changing Thermal Energy: State of Matter
    • Changing Thermal Energy: Amount of Matter
  • Heat 10:59
    • Heat
    • Specific Heat
  • Transfer of Thermal Energy 15:15
    • Conduction
    • Convection
    • Radiation
  • States of Matter 20:43
    • Solids: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
    • Liquids: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
    • Gases: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
    • Plasma: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
  • Changing States of Matter 27:49
    • Melting
    • Freezing
    • Vaporization
    • Boiling
    • Condensation
    • Temperature and Time Graph
  • Thermal Expansion 36:19
    • Thermal Expansion of Solids
    • Thermal Expansion of Liquids
    • Thermal Expansion of Gases
  • Example 1: Converting Temperatures 40:28
  • Example 2: Thermal Energy 43:35
  • Example 3: Quick Matching 44:58
  • Example 4: Why Does It Feel Cold When You Put Your Hand On the Table? 45:50
  • Example 5: Heat Transfer 46:48
  • Example 6: Changing States of Matter 47:29
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