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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Environmental Science
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Lecture Comments (4)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Apr 15, 2018 1:38 PM

Post by Patricia Xiang on April 13 at 11:51:32 PM

What does share the canopy means? Does it mean that they are under the canopy of the dominants?

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Apr 13, 2015 5:29 PM

Post by Caleb Kierum on April 13, 2015

With really old trees like what soil layer do their roots usually go to?  Does the ratio of one soil layer to another have to be different to accommodate trees with large roots?

Forests, Parks, & the Wilderness

  • Humans’ existence has always been closely related to forests. The practice of growing trees professionally is known as silviculture. There are a lot of crucial questions to consider regarding how we maintain forests and how they should sustain us
  • Forests cover much of the U.S. and the world as a whole. They make light reflect differently on the Earth (changes in albedo), affect the carbon and water cycles, and change the surface roughness of our planet
  • Each individual tree species (white birch, balsam fir, Douglas fir, giant sequoia) has its own niche with its preferred terrain and water availability
  • Forest management involves stands that are even-aged or uneven-aged. Forests can be old-growth or second-growth
  • Site quality has an affect on the harvest quality. Harvesting can be clear-cutting, selective cutting, strip cutting, shelterwood cutting, or seed-tree cutting
  • Clear-cutting is not ideal because it contributes to more erosion, significant changes in chemical cycling, more exposure to sun/rain, and process of decay and runoff are accelerated
  • Plantations are made of a stand of trees planted in straight rows, usually maintained by fertilization
  • Sustainability of silviculture, certification of forestry, and unsustainable forests are also important parts of the forestry discussion
  • Deforestation results in an annual loss of 5-6 million hectares worldwide, which results in more erosion, runoff, floods, and sediment ending up in the water supply. Deforestation happens mostly due to clearing land for construction and obtaining raw materials for lumber/paper/fuel
  • Parks are areas set aside by people with definite boundaries, usually for the enjoyment and recreation involved with a natural setting. Nature preserves are similar but they usually have more emphasis on conserving some particular resource
  • Parks provide a wide variety of services to people, but there are many topics to debate: size/access/types of activities, dangers of people interacting with nature and vice versa, and how much land should be devoted to the making of parks and nature preserves
  • Wilderness and wildness are two different concepts related to environmental science

Forests, Parks, & the Wilderness

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Forests Introduction
    • Forests in the United States
    • Worldwide Effect of Forests
    • Ecology of Forests
    • Forest Management
    • Harvesting Forests
    • More on Cutting
    • Plantations
    • Sustainability and Practices
    • Deforestation
    • Parks vs. Nature Reserves
    • Why Parks and Nature Preserves are Here
    • Conflicts Related to Parks
    • Wilderness
    • Intro 0:00
    • Forests Introduction 0:06
      • Silviculture
      • Conflict on Forests
    • Forests in the United States 4:12
      • Commercial Grade Forests
      • Ownership
      • Likelihood of Indefinite Production of Timber by Forests
    • Worldwide Effect of Forests 6:50
      • Changes in the Color of Earth's Surface
      • Warmth
      • Increase in the Amount of Water Transpired and Evaporated
      • Carbon Dioxide Gas Concentration Changes
      • Change in Surface Roughness on the Earth
    • Ecology of Forests 10:37
      • Niche
      • White Birch
      • Douglas Fir
      • Determine Which Trees Will Last in Various Areas/ Climates
    • Forest Management 13:17
      • Stands
      • Old-Growth Forest
      • Second Growth Forest
    • Harvesting Forests 17:20
      • Site Quality
      • Tree Rings
      • Harvesting
    • More on Cutting 24:48
      • Clear-Cutting is Controversial
      • Clear-Cutting is Neither All Good Nor All Bad
    • Plantations 27:04
      • Stand of One Species Planted in Straight Rows
      • Maintained with Fertilization, Often by Helicopter
      • Could be Used More Readily to Supply the World's Timber
    • Sustainability and Practices 28:48
      • Sustainability
      • Certification of Forestry
      • Banning of Import of Wood From Unsustainable Forests
    • Deforestation 30:37
      • Estimated Annual Loss
      • Has Lad to More Erosion, Runoff, Floods, and Sediment Ending Up in Water
      • Brief History
      • Causes of Deforestation
    • Parks vs. Nature Reserves 35:04
      • Park
      • Nature Preserve
      • Boundaries
    • Why Parks and Nature Preserves are Here 38:14
      • Preservation of Nature, Wildlife, and Ecosystems
      • Conservation of Biological Diversity and a Habitat
      • Maintenance of Wildlife for Hunting
      • Aesthetics and the Identity of a Region
      • Maintenances for Recreation and Tourism
      • Maintenance for Scientific Research Purposes
    • Conflicts Related to Parks 41:55
      • Size, Access, Types of Activities
      • Interactions Between People and Wildlife
      • How Much Land Should Be Included?
    • Wilderness 46:55
      • Undisturbed by People
      • Some Countries Have Non Left
      • Natural vs. Naturalistic
      • Managing Wilderness