In this lesson, our instructor Bryan Cardella gives an introduction on agriculture and aquaculture. He discusses agroecosystem basics, feeding the world, crops, livestock, soils, fertilizers, pests and pesticides, the future of agriculture, genetically modified organisms, aquaculture, mariculture, and the future of our water supply.
Agrosystems vary from ecosystems in these ways: no ecological succession, food chains and diversity are simplified, monoculture is the focus, crops are neatly arranged, plowing is involved, and GMOs are sometimes used
Feeding the world is a challenge, and undernourishment and malnourishment are continual problems around the world
Most of the world is sustained by fourteen crops, the U.S. grows about 200 species, small grain production and import/export are hugely important, and forage is needed to keep domesticated animals nourished
Livestock (such as chickens, cows, sheep, pigs, and goats) depend on rangeland and pasture, and ecological considerations must be considered to keep the maintenance of livestock sustainable
Soils are made up of horizons (layers) known as O, A, E, B, C, and R. Fertility of the soil and ability of plants to survive depends on whether it’s coarse-grained, clay, sand or loam
Fertilizers (industrial or natural) involve macronutrients/micronutrients and the Law of the Minimum (limiting factor)
Pests (insects, nematodes, bacteria, viruses, protists, weeds, rodents, birds) have huge effects on annual yields of crops
There are four main stages in the history of pesticides: broad-spectrum toxins, petroleum-based sprays, artificial organic compounds, and integrated pest management (IPM)
The future of agriculture may see increased production, increased farmland areas, new crops/hybrids, better irrigation, organic farming, and more vegetarianism/veganism
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and genetically modified crops (GMCs) have potentially huge benefits and risks. Gene transfer and genetic transformation are at the center of how GMOs are actively created
Aquaculture involves oceans, lakes, and rivers where people hunt for food, and many fish/mollusks are farm-raised
Mariculture is the farming of oceanic fish and oysters/mussels, and of course there are positives and negatives to this practice
The future of the worldwide fresh water supply is not looking very promising with current population growth rates
Agriculture & Aquaculture
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book includes a comprehensive review of the key AP Environmental Science concepts and targeted strategies for acing every section of the exam. Additionally, the book includes two full length practice tests with full answer explanations.
This book is an updated manual that offers a brand-new diagnostic test to pinpoint the test taker's strengths and weak areas, two full-length practice exams with all questions answered and explained, a detailed review of all test topics, supplemented with practice questions and quizzes with answers, an overview of the test plus helpful test-taking strategies, and hundreds of diagrams and illustrations .