Enter your Sign on user name and password.

Forgot password?
Sign In | Subscribe
Start learning today, and be successful in your academic & professional career. Start Today!
Use Chrome browser to play professor video
Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Air Pollution

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
Major Themes in AP Environmental Science

36m 44s

Intro
0:00
6 Main Themes
0:05
Human Population Growth
0:17
Sustainability and Carrying Capacity
0:40
Global Solutions
1:33
Urbanization
2:14
People and Nature
2:35
Science and Ethics
3:10
Human Population Growth
4:03
Largest Increase Began in the Last Half of the 20th Century
4:15
Famine and Food Crises
6:41
Sustainability and Carrying Capacity
9:29
Objective is Sustainability
9:33
Sustainable Global Economy
10:17
Carrying Capacity
13:47
Global Issues and Solutions
14:49
Global Perspective
14:53
Gaia Hypothesis
15:57
Urbanization
17:04
Trend of Moving Into Cities
17:06
Tokyo Currently has the Largest Population in a Single City
18:13
People and Nature
20:04
Misconceptions
20:19
Sustainable Environment and Sustainable Economy
23:05
Science and Ethics
24:12
Intellectual Standards
24:20
Precautionary Principle
29:41
Justifications
30:46
Scientific Method

35m

Intro
0:00
Origin of the Scientific Method
0:04
Babylonia and Ancient Egypt
0:14
Western Tradition
1:35
Scientific Revolution
2:30
Francis Bacon
3:35
Science is About Knowing
3:53
Disprovability
5:19
Steps of the Scientific Method
5:43
Observe
5:47
Formulate a Questions
6:26
Hypothesize
6:54
Design an Experiment
7:26
Collect Data
9:48
Interpret Data
10:52
Draw Conclusions
11:02
Future Experiments
11:29
Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning
14:21
Inductive Reasoning
14:25
Deductive Reasoning
15:39
Proof with Inductive Reasoning
17:38
Theories and Models
19:00
Scientific Theory
19:02
Models
20:08
Uncertainty and Accuracy
22:08
Objectivity is the Goal
22:39
Degree of Uncertainty
24:02
Accuracy
25:59
Precision
26:50
Pseudoscience
28:48
Pseudo
28:51
Examples
28:59
The Big Picture of Environmental Science

27m 22s

Intro
0:00
Types of Systems
0:05
Closed Systems
0:12
Open Systems
1:09
Static System
1:54
Dynamic System
3:02
Open Systems
3:28
Steady State
3:41
Nonsteady State
4:08
Balance of Nature
4:34
Residence Time
5:40
Feedback
10:14
Negative Feedback
10:49
Positive Feedback
12:18
Types of Flows
14:18
Flow vs. Flux
14:28
Linear Flow
15:18
Nonlinear Flow
15:46
Lag Time
16:40
Curves
17:55
Overshoots, Collapse, and Consequences
19:35
Overshoot
19:46
Collapse
20:05
Consequences
21:00
Earth as a System
23:19
Environmental Unity
23:22
Uniformitarianism
24:40
Gaia Hypothesis
26:47
II. Populations and the Environment
The Dynamic Human Population

47m 15s

Intro
0:00
Populations Introduction
0:05
Population Dynamics
0:10
Population
0:25
Species
1:02
Demography
1:47
Abundance, Birth and Death Rate, Growth Rate, Age Structure
1:59
Human Population Curves
2:28
Four Phases
3:46
Hunter and Gatherer
3:48
Agriculture
4:18
Industrial Rev
5:29
Modern Era
6:33
Paris Example
7:27
Population Key Terms
8:26
Crude Birth, Death, and Growth Rate
8:31
Fertility
9:20
General Fertility Rate
9:29
Total Fertility Rate
10:05
Age-Specific Birth rate
10:37
Cause-Specific Death Rate
11:02
Morbidity
11:39
Incidence
11:46
Prevalence
12:10
Case Fatality Rate
12:27
Rate of Natural Increase
13:16
Doubling Time
13:46
Infant Mortality Rate
13:58
Life Expectancy at Birth
14:43
GNP Per Capita
15:34
Human Population Growth
15:51
Doubling Time
15:53
Logistic Growth
17:46
Three Possible Futures
18:53
Calculating Population Change
20:23
Population
20:05
Growth Rate
21:57
Doubling Time
22:36
Age Structure
23:03
Proportion of Each Ages Group in the Population
23:04
Examples
23:42
Demographic Transition
27:31
Three Stage Pattern of Change in Birth/ Death rates in Developed Nations
27:33
Crude Rate Over Time and Population Size Over Time
27:49
Life Expectancy and Death
32:01
Maximum Lifetime vs. Life Expectancy
32:08
Acute Disease
33:21
Chronic Disease
34:00
Crude Death Rate Differences
34:35
Human Population's Effect on Earth
35:02
Factor of the Number of People and Each Person's Effect
35:09
Formula
37:07
Key Is Improving the Standard of Living
38:24
Human Carrying Capacity
39:02
Max Number of People That Can Live on Earth
39:07
Limited by These Factors
39:51
Estimated in Different Ways
42:45
Zero Population Growth
45:15
Possible?
45:18
Several Approaches
45:29
Ecosystems

35m 50s

Intro
0:00
Key Terms
0:05
Ecosystem
0:36
Community Effect
1:05
Cycling of Chemical Elements and Flow of Energy
2:43
Food Webs
4:18
Network of Food Chains
4:21
Trophic Level
4:47
Ecosystem Boundaries
6:10
Energy Flow
7:20
Ecosystem Energy Flow
7:27
Laws of Thermodynamics
8:05
Chemistry of Energy Flow
9:48
Biomass and Biological Production
11:51
Biomass
11:57
Biological Production
12:17
Primary Production vs. Secondary Production
14:01
Energy Efficiency
14:30
Succession, Part I
17:36
Ecological succession
17:42
Examples
21:18
Commonalities of Succession
27:37
Chemical Cycling
29:48
Facilitation
32:17
Interference
32:26
III. Earth's Cycles and Environmental Change
Earth Cycles

42m 55s

Intro
0:00
Earth History
0:04
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:07
Only Plant in Our Solar System with Liquid Water, Plate Tectonics, and Life
0:56
Atmosphere
1:51
Thermodynamic Equilibrium
2:17
Characteristics of a Living Planet
2:21
Thermodynamic Equilibrium
3:18
Planet Acts as a Pump to Keep the Atmosphere, Rocks, and Oceans from this Equilibrium
3:28
The Rise of Oxygen
4:29
Earth Had a Lot Less Oxygen Prior to 2.3 Billion Years Ago
4:47
Evidence is in Pyrite
5:01
Photosynthesis
7:03
Cells: Then and Now
7:55
Fermentation
8:15
Prokaryotes
9:08
Eukaryotes
10:18
Molecules of Life
11:19
Macronutrients
11:20
Micronutrients
12:41
Limiting Factors
13:10
Geologic Cycles
13:42
Includes These Cycles
13:46
About the Cycling of Molecules Throughout the Earth
14:00
Movement Through a Cycle
14:23
Flow
14:26
Flux
14:29
Residence Time
14:41
Source
15:06
Sink
15:08
Example
15:17
Tectonic Cycle
15:36
The Lithosphere
15:45
Lithosphere is Composed of Plates
16:03
Plate Tectonics
16:09
Types of Plate Boundaries
17:23
Hydrologic Cycle
19:02
Transfer of Water
19:10
Key Terms
19:20
Driven by Solar Energy
20:34
97% in Oceans
20:48
Drainage Basins
21:20
Rock Cycle
21:45
Numerous Processes That Produce Rocks and Soils
21:46
Rocks are Classified: Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary
22:01
Intro to Biogeochemical Cycles
25:05
Includes the Complete Path That a Chemical takes on Earth
25:11
General Facts
25:30
Carbon Cycle
26:29
Basic Building Block of Life
26:30
Carbon Cycles Through the Biota
26:57
Pathways and Reservoirs
27:55
Carbon-Silicate Cycle
31:10
Nitrogen Cycle
33:22
Nitrogen is Converted to an Inorganic Compound
33:32
Nitrogen Fixation
34:00
Denitrification
35:06
Symbioses
35:30
Industrial Fertilizer
35:40
Pollution
36:06
Phosphorus Cycle
36:28
One of the 'Big Six' Required for Life
36:30
Slow Rate of Transfer
37:39
Tale of Guano
38:14
Bone Valley
38:36
Rising Phosphorus Prices
39:14
Potential Solutions
40:44
Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Other Disasters

1h 8m 31s

Intro
0:00
Geologic Overview
0:06
Time Scales
0:13
Key Principles of Geologic Time Scale
0:39
Earth's Crust
7:42
Biosphere, Hydrosphere, and Internal Structure
7:50
Crust
8:29
Moho, Mantle, and Core
9:53
Moho
10:00
Mantle
11:24
Core
11:47
Plate Tectonics Summary
12:14
Continental Drift Theory
12:17
Five Main Factors to This Theory
13:26
Seafloor Spreading
16:12
Boundary Types
19:18
Results of Convergence
22:26
Oceanic Continental Convergence
22:36
Oceanic Oceanic Convergence
23:38
Earthquake Basics
24:47
Focus vs. Epicenter
25:24
Richter Scale
27:38
Seismograph, Seismogram
28:59
Earthquake Severity
31:04
What It Depends On
31:06
Severity Related to the Scale
31:36
Hurricanes and Tornadoes
35:56
Hurricanes
35:58
Tornadoes
38:19
Volcano Basics
39:24
Active Volcanoes Produce Magma at the Surface
39:25
95% Are At Subduction Zones and Mid-Oceanic Ridges
40:21
Common Gases Released
40:53
Main Types of Volcano
42:40
Volcano Structure and Case Studies
47:24
Parts of the Volcano
47:27
Case Studies
50:03
Erosion
51:27
Natural and/or Human-caused
51:48
3 Common Types
55:01
Desertification
55:53
Salinization
57:16
Waterlogging
58:29
Pesticides: Good and Bad
59:52
Pest
1:00:24
Positive
1:00:53
Negative
1:02:11
Types of Pesticides and Alternatives
1:04:36
Pesticide Types
1:04:42
Alternatives to Pesticide Use
1:06:05
The Economics of Environmental Issues

35m 19s

Intro
0:00
Environmental Economics Overview
0:05
Policy Instruments
0:35
Tangible and Intangible Factors
1:17
Public-Service Functions
2:29
The Commons
5:16
A Common is Land Owned Publicly
5:19
Tragedy of the Commons
5:45
Requires Cooperation and Unselfish Behavior to Work
6:59
Arctic Sea and Most of Antarctica
7:26
Atmosphere
8:14
National Parks
8:43
Resources and Profits
10:12
Resource Sustainability
10:17
Maximum Profit
10:55
Whale Example
13:49
Indirect vs. Direct Costs
14:14
Indirect Cost
14:20
Direct Costs
15:30
The Balancing Act
16:18
Natural Beauty and Its Cost
17:15
Landscape Aesthetics
17:19
Unity
19:30
Vividness
19:39
Variety
19:42
Value in the Future
20:18
'A Bird in the hand is Worth Two in the Bush'
20:20
Future Value is Hard to Calculate
21:34
Rule of Thumb
21:39
Risk-Benefit Analysis
22:58
Riskiness of Present Action is Weighed Against the Benefit of the Action
23:01
Risk of Death from Various Causes
24:15
Fixing Air Pollution vs. Increased Ambulance Service
26:08
Cap, Trade, and Legal Controls
28:15
Example
28:18
Ways to Control Emissions
29:03
Example: Fisheries
31:36
Biological Diversity

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
The Basics
0:05
Biological Diversity
0:07
Reasons People Value Biodiversity
1:12
Kinds of Diversity
3:46
Genetic Diversity
3:49
Habitat Diversity
4:45
Species Diversity
5:13
Species Overview
7:01
1.5 Million Species named
7:15
Relative Abundance
8:48
Domains
10:05
Archaea
10:45
Bacteria
12:20
Eukarya
12:42
Evolution of Life
13:16
Biological Evolution
13:19
Mutation
14:35
Natural Selection
17:38
More on Natural Selection
20:41
Inheritance of Genes
20:46
Environmental Variability
21:45
Differential Reproduction
21:57
Influence of the Environment on Survival
22:08
Migration and Genetic Drift
22:53
Migration
22:59
Adaptive Radiation
23:11
Genetic Drift
25:43
Founder Effect
26:24
Competition and Niches
28:05
Ecological Niche
28:10
Competitive Exclusion Principle
28:34
Tale of the Flour Beetles
29:53
Symbiosis
31:46
Living Together
31:48
Symbiont
33:20
Examples
33:27
Geography's Effect on Biology
36:24
Biogeography
36:30
Biotic Provinces
36:45
Biome Summary
39:22
A Kind of Ecosystem
39:26
Relationship Between Precipitation and Latitude
39:42
Patterns of Evolution
42:18
Divergent Evolution
42:19
Convergent Evolution
43:48
Invasive Species and Biological Invasions
44:47
Potential Benefits
47:26
Why is This a Serious Problem in Many Cases?
48:31
IV. Impact of Human Activity
Ecological Restoration

26m 1s

Intro
0:00
General Principles
0:05
Ecological Restoration
0:07
Ecosystems are Dynamic
0:15
No Simple Set of Rules
0:57
Consideration of Ecosystem Geology
1:12
Adaptive Management is Necessary
1:27
Goals of Restoration
2:30
What is Natural?
2:32
Goals Need to Be Reasonable and Realistic
4:22
Rivers and Streams
5:23
Degraded by Urbanization, Agriculture, Timber Harvesting, and Channelization
5:28
Kissimmee River in Florida
6:48
Wolves/ Elk/ Streams in Yellowstone
9:12
Wetlands
11:16
Cradle of Civilization
12:18
By 2000, 7% of Wetlands Remained
12:48
58% Increase Since 1970s
13:53
Prairies
14:08
Once the Most Abundant Ecosystem in the U.S.
14:11
Restoration Process
14:28
Great Plains
15:47
Drastic Reduction in Bison
15:54
Fires
16:58
Island Foxes on Santa Cruz Island
17:55
Kept as Pets
18:23
1990s: Fox Population Plummeted
19:38
Steps to Restoration
21:48
Reclamation
22:41
Reclamation
22:44
Potential to Disrupt Food Webs
22:56
Ex: British Peak District National Park
23:35
Ex: Butchart Gardens
25:25
Pollution & Environmental Health

52m 47s

Intro
0:00
Disease and Toxicity
0:05
Disease
0:10
Pollution
2:41
Toxin
4:44
Point Sources vs. Nonpoint Sources
5:33
Mobile Sources
6:24
Disease Caused by Microbes
6:41
Microbes
6:48
Epidemic
10:45
Pandemic
11:05
Toxic Heavy Metals
11:40
Heavy Metals
11:49
Found in Soil or Water
11:58
Body Burden
12:20
Biomagnification
14:45
Bioaccumulation
14:52
Examples
15:38
Organic Compounds, POPs, and HAAs
18:53
Organic Compounds
19:00
Persistent Organic Pollutant
19:37
Hormonally Active Agent
24:33
Thermal Pollution
27:19
Heat Pollution
27:23
Acute or Chronic, Natural or Human-Caused
27:37
Example: Electric Power Plants
28:04
Particulates
30:08
Dust Released into the Atmosphere
30:10
Examples
30:39
Electromagnetic Fields
32:35
EMFs
32:36
How Dangerous They Are
32:49
Connection Between EMFs and Cancer in Children
32:55
Noise Pollution
35:20
Unwanted Sounds
35:23
How Sound Travels
35:33
Examples
37:06
Pollutant Exposure and Assessing Risk
41:05
Dose, Response, and Dose Response
41:08
LD-50
41:59
ED-50
43:04
TD-50
43:34
Threshold
44:09
Ecological Gradient
44:54
Tolerance
45:57
Risk Assessment
47:29
Fluoride Example
49:07
Agriculture & Aquaculture

1h 9m 54s

Intro
0:00
Agroecosystem Basics
0:06
Ways It Differs from Natural Ecosystems
0:26
Plowing
4:05
Feeding the World
5:13
Undernourishment
6:14
Malnourishment
6:48
Give a Man a Fish
9:55
Crops
11:01
Crop Data
11:10
Small Grain Production
11:44
Forage
13:12
Livestock
14:45
Worldwide
14:47
Rangeland
16:19
Pasture
16:39
Ecological Considerations
20:18
Soils
22:29
Not Just Dirt
22:31
Soil Fertility
28:20
Restoring Soils
29:44
Fertilizers
31:38
Use of Organic Fertilizers
31:39
Industrial Fertilizers
32:05
Macronutrients and Micronutrients
32:43
Limiting Factors
33:48
Synergistic Effects
34:50
Pests and Pesticides
36:29
Total Losses from Pests Can be Huge
36:30
Known to Destroy Up to 1/3 of the Potential Harvest and 1/10 of the Harvested Crop
38:41
Arrival of Pesticides
39:13
Broad-Spectrum Toxins
39:16
Petroleum-Based Sprays
40:07
Artificial Organic Compounds
41:16
Integrated Pest Management and Biological Control
42:43
The Future of Agriculture
46:22
Increased Production Per Acre
46:32
Increased Farmland Area
47:04
New Crops and Hybrids
47:51
Better Irrigation
48:19
Organic Farming
48:57
Vegetarianism/ Veganism
49:20
GMOs
51:02
Genetically Modified Organisms
51:11
New Hybrids
53:00
Terminator Gene
54:39
Gene Transfer
56:06
Aquaculture
58:05
Popular Animals
58:30
Importance on Land
59:52
Fish Ponds
1:01:16
Mariculture
1:01:51
Farming of Ocean Fish
1:02:05
Oysters and Mussels
1:02:19
Negatives
1:03:23
The Future of Water Supply
1:04:06
Food Production Must be Doubled by 2025
1:04:28
20% of Water to Sustain Crops and Livestock Worldwide
1:05:21
Potential Solutions
1:06:15
Will Malthus Be Correct…?
1:08:20
Forests, Parks, & the Wilderness

52m 12s

Intro
0:00
Forests Introduction
0:06
Silviculture
0:48
Conflict on Forests
1:44
Forests in the United States
4:12
Commercial Grade Forests
4:17
Ownership
5:16
Likelihood of Indefinite Production of Timber by Forests
6:14
Worldwide Effect of Forests
6:50
Changes in the Color of Earth's Surface
8:17
Warmth
8:49
Increase in the Amount of Water Transpired and Evaporated
9:05
Carbon Dioxide Gas Concentration Changes
9:27
Change in Surface Roughness on the Earth
9:46
Ecology of Forests
10:37
Niche
10:40
White Birch
11:37
Douglas Fir
12:06
Determine Which Trees Will Last in Various Areas/ Climates
12:31
Forest Management
13:17
Stands
13:20
Old-Growth Forest
14:44
Second Growth Forest
15:22
Harvesting Forests
17:20
Site Quality
17:24
Tree Rings
20:30
Harvesting
21:30
More on Cutting
24:48
Clear-Cutting is Controversial
24:51
Clear-Cutting is Neither All Good Nor All Bad
26:25
Plantations
27:04
Stand of One Species Planted in Straight Rows
27:05
Maintained with Fertilization, Often by Helicopter
27:20
Could be Used More Readily to Supply the World's Timber
27:40
Sustainability and Practices
28:48
Sustainability
28:50
Certification of Forestry
29:28
Banning of Import of Wood From Unsustainable Forests
30:00
Deforestation
30:37
Estimated Annual Loss
30:43
Has Lad to More Erosion, Runoff, Floods, and Sediment Ending Up in Water
31:52
Brief History
32:43
Causes of Deforestation
33:31
Parks vs. Nature Reserves
35:04
Park
35:08
Nature Preserve
36:05
Boundaries
36:32
Why Parks and Nature Preserves are Here
38:14
Preservation of Nature, Wildlife, and Ecosystems
38:21
Conservation of Biological Diversity and a Habitat
38:50
Maintenance of Wildlife for Hunting
39:09
Aesthetics and the Identity of a Region
39:31
Maintenances for Recreation and Tourism
39:49
Maintenance for Scientific Research Purposes
40:04
Conflicts Related to Parks
41:55
Size, Access, Types of Activities
41:59
Interactions Between People and Wildlife
43:40
How Much Land Should Be Included?
45:27
Wilderness
46:55
Undisturbed by People
46:56
Some Countries Have Non Left
47:06
Natural vs. Naturalistic
48:24
Managing Wilderness
49:30
Wildlife & Endangered Species

39m 18s

Intro
0:00
Sustainable Yields and Viable Populations
0:06
Maximum Sustainable Yield
0:11
Minimum Viable Population
0:31
Optimum Sustainable Population
1:36
Examples
2:10
Carrying Capacity
6:47
Logistic Carrying Capacity is Reached
6:59
Number of Births in Unit Time is Equal to Number of Deaths
8:11
Managing Wildlife
8:25
IUCN 4 Principle Approach
8:51
Time Series
11:12
Age Structure and Harvests
13:50
Age Structure
13:52
Harvests as an Estimate of Numbers
15:09
Fisheries
16:41
Fish Provide 16% of World's Protein
16:44
Fish Harvests Increased Greatly in Mid-20th Century
18:49
Can Fisheries Be Sustainable?
20:08
World's Fish Catch Went from 39 to 68 Million MT
20:12
Fish Harvests Declining
21:08
Endangered Species
22:51
Why/ How Do We Want to Save These Species?
22:53
IUCN's Red List of Endangered Species
25:20
Extinction: Kinds and Causes
28:19
Local vs. Global Extinction
28:20
Causes of Extinction
29:16
Recovered Species
33:14
Overabundance and Human Fault
34:46
Too Many Individuals for a Species
34:50
Humans Affect Chances of Extinction
36:54
V. Energy, Water, and Air
Energy

34m 48s

Intro
0:00
Past Struggles with Energy
0:04
Ancient Greece
0:28
Ancient Rome
2:06
Energy Basics
3:44
Work
3:45
Laws of Thermodynamics
5:51
Laws of Efficiency
7:57
Thermal Efficiency
10:50
U.S. Energy Consumption: Now and Later
12:14
1950s
12:21
1970s
13:07
2009
13:34
2030
13:55
2050
14:03
Energy Sources
14:16
U.S. Uses 20% of Energy
14:17
Alternative
15:44
Renewable
16:46
Conservation of Energy
17:37
Conservation
17:39
Energy Efficiency
19:26
Cogeneration
20:34
Building Design
21:13
Values and Choices
22:31
Sustainable-Energy Policy
25:38
Not Business as Usual
26:02
Energy Sustainability Policy
26:38
Micropower
30:08
Smaller, Distributed Systems for Electricity Production
30:09
Homes Have Their Own Small Power Systems
31:12
Distributive Power Systems
32:33
Fossil Fuels

1h 2m 35s

Intro
0:00
Fossil Fuel Basics
0:04
Matter Is Not Completely Oxidized
0:37
Converted Via Chemical Reactions
1:12
In a Sense, It's Stored Solar Energy
1:45
Fossil Fuel Usage Worldwide
2:33
90% of the Energy Used Worldwide
2:36
World Energy Consumption Grew
2:52
Oil and Natural Gas Make up 70-80% of Primary Energy Usage
4:14
China and Coal
4:53
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Origins
5:09
Petroleum
5:14
Elevated Temperature and Pressure Facilitate the Production of the Oil or Natural Gas
5:41
Source Rock vs. Reservoir Rock
6:05
Upward Migration
7:34
Petroleum Production
9:09
Primary Production
9:10
Enhanced Recovery
9:32
Proven Oil Reserves
10:02
Overall Oil Resource Estimates
11:06
Petroleum Use Now and Later
12:06
Scientists Suggest That Proven Oil Reserves Will Only Last Several More Decades
12:10
Potential Crisis?
12:55
Natural Gas
13:59
Search for This Resource Has Not Been Around As Long As Oil
14:02
Worldwide Estimate
15:14
Coal-Bed Methane
18:32
Formation of Coal
18:37
Utah and Wyoming Have the Largest Known Coal-Bed Methane Sources in the U.S.
19:04
Benefits and Concerns
19:53
Black Shale (Tight) Natural Gas
22:47
Black Devonian Shale
22:51
Recovery is Costly and Controversial
23:27
Methane Hydrates
25:14
Exist Beneath Ocean Floor
25:17
White, Ice-like Compound of CH4 in a Frozen Water
25:30
Giant Craters from Methane Eruptions
25:59
Potentially Contain 2x the Energy of All the Other Fossil Fuels on Earth
26:29
Oil's Effect on the Environment
27:34
Use of Land for Wells, Pipes, Storage
27:45
Pollution of Surface Waters and Groundwater
27:59
Accidental Release of Mass Amounts of Oil
28:17
Accidental Release of Air Pollutants
28:56
Release of Drilling Muds
29:01
Land Subsidence
29:26
Loss/ Disruption of Ecosystems
29:42
Refining, Delivering and Using Oil
29:57
Fractional Distillation Oil Has Its Issues
30:00
Creating 'Fine Oil' Can Have its Environmental Costs
30:58
Delivery on Land Via Pipelines or in Ocean by Tankers
31:46
ANWR: Should We Drill?
32:51
Pros of Drilling
33:35
Cons of Drilling
35:08
Coal Introduction
37:39
Partial Decomposed Vegetation, Buried in Sediment, Can Eventually Become Coal
37:45
Classified As
38:54
Low Sulfur Content is Important
39:50
Coal Mining
44:42
Thousands of Square Kilometer in the U.S. Disturbed
44:45
Strip Mining
45:52
Mountaintop Removal of Coal
48:29
Growing Concern Over This Practice
48:32
Mountaintops are Destroyed, Valleys are Filled with Waste Rock and Mine Waste, Flood Hazard Increased
49:17
October 2000, SE Kentucky
49:54
Proponents Emphasize $ Value to Local Economy
50:47
Experts Claim That Reclamation Success Stories are Few and Far Between
50:56
Underground Mining of Coal
51:20
Accounts for About 40% of the Coal Mined in the U.S.
51:21
Dangers to Miners Are Well Documented
51:34
Environmental Issues
52:05
Transporting Coal
53:00
The Future of Coal
53:51
Burning Coal Produces Almost 50% of Electricity Used and 25% of Total Energy Consumed in U.S.
53:52
Recent Legislation Has Created a Demand For the Following
54:02
Oil Shale and Tar Sands
58:04
Oil Shale
58:19
Tar Sands
59:43
Alternative Energy

41m 46s

Intro
0:00
Non-renewable vs. Renewable Energy
0:05
Alternative Energy
0:06
Non-renewables
0:29
Renewables
1:03
Solar Energy Basics
1:37
Worldwide
1:45
Passive Solar Energy Systems
2:44
Active Solar Energy Systems
4:02
Active Solar Energy
4:21
Require Mechanical Power to Move Air and/or Water
4:22
Solar Collectors
4:32
Photovoltaics
7:58
Solar Thermal Generators
8:54
Solar One
9:17
Pros
10:54
Cons
12:10
Fuel Cells - A Great Alternative for Cars
13:11
Fuel Cars
13:32
The Only Waste is Water
16:37
Water Power Basics
17:13
Successful Since the Time of the Roman Empire
17:17
Hydroelectric Power Harnesses the Power of Water Stored Behind Dams
17:34
Pump Storage System
18:12
Small-Scale and Environmental Impact
19:25
Large Dam Locations and Use
19:32
Environmental Impact
20:49
Ocean Energy
21:54
Tidal Power
22:07
Flood Tide
22:38
Ebb Tide
22:57
Concerns
23:33
Wind Power
25:12
In Use with the Ancient Chinese and Persians
25:13
18 km/hr Winds on Average
26:24
Today's Cheapest Alternative Energy
28:18
Pros and Cons
28:36
Biofuels
32:13
Energy Recovered from Biomass
32:14
Oldest Fuel Used by Humans
32:47
Pros and Cons
33:46
Geothermal Energy
37:13
Deep-Earth
37:22
Shallow-Earth
38:21
Geothermal's Future and the Environment
39:39
Geyers Geothermal Field
39:40
Deep-Earth and Shallow-Earth in the Future
40:18
Environmental Concerns
40:37
Nuclear Energy

31m 59s

Intro
0:00
Nuclear Fission
0:04
Atoms Split Into Two or More Smaller Nuclei Along with By-Products
0:13
Explosion
0:39
Amount of Energy Contained in Nuclear Fuel Is 10 Million Times More Than Coal and Petroleum
1:31
1950s-60s Cesium-137
2:36
Nuclear Fuel
6:17
U-235
6:26
U-238
8:42
Pu-239
9:11
Electricity Production
10:46
Reasons for Recent Decline
10:49
Currently Provides 15% of Global Electricity
12:49
2007
13:20
Arguments in Favor of Nuclear Energy for Electricity
13:31
Nuclear Reactor Basics
15:18
Core
15:33
Fuel
16:36
Control Rods
16:46
Moderator
17:07
Coolant
17:22
Water Reactors
17:37
Light-Water Reactors
17:50
Heavy-Water Reactors
20:08
Graphite-Moderated and Exotics Reactors
21:40
Graphite-Moderated
21:41
Exotic Reactors
22:21
Overview of Pros and Cons of Nuclear Energy
22:48
Pros
22:54
Cons
22:36
Safety Issues (and Chernobyl)
25:01
Up to 50,000 Sites Within the U.S. Have Radioactive Contamination and Require Cleanup
25:05
Estimated Nuclear Health Risks Per Year
25:58
Chernobyl, Ukraine
26:48
Nuclear Fusion
30:12
Extremely High Temps Can Force Nuclei of Lightweight Atoms to Fuse Together, Causing Large Amounts of Energy to be Released
30:22
For Contrast
30:43
The Same Electricity Production from Nuclear Fusion Would Create Only 4 lbs Harmless Helium as Waste
31:19
Water Resources & Use

1h 5m 34s

Intro
0:00
Water Basics
0:05
Polar Covalently Bonded Molecule
0:22
Hydrogen Bonds are Between Neighboring H2Os
0:59
High Specific Heat
1:53
Universal Solvent
3:04
High Surface Tension
3:40
Cohesion Adhesion
4:18
Solid Form is Less Dense Than the Liquid Form
5:22
Filters Out Harmful UV Radiation
6:12
Sunlight Penetrates Water to Variable Depths
6:29
Hydrologics: A Global Perspective
6:39
Earth's Water
8:13
Freshwater
8:25
Fresh Surface Water
9:16
Projection
9:57
Water Supply
10:48
Water Budget
10:49
Missouri River Example
12:27
Surface Water Supply Can Never Be As High As Average Annual Runoff
14:08
Groundwater and Streams
14:56
Groundwater
14:59
Recharge Zones vs. Discharge Zones
15:37
Aquifer
16:20
Streams: Effluent or Influent, Perennial or Ephemeral
18:33
Groundwater Use and Problems
20:04
Lots of Shallow Groundwater Available in U.S.
20:08
Groundwater Withdrawals Exceeds Natural Inflow in Many Areas
20:51
Area With the Worst Overdraft Problem
22:01
Desalination
23:45
More Fresh Water Can be Made Available Through This Process
23:49
Expensive
24:57
Concerns
25:41
Off-Stream and In-Stream Use
26:16
Off-Stream
26:26
In-Stream
27:23
Aral Sea Wake-Up Call
31:16
Dying Due to Diverting River Water for Agricultural Use
31:28
Environmental Hazards Result
32:45
Dam Constructed and Conservation Efforts
33:35
Water Transport and Trends in Use
34:43
Price Continues to Go Up
34:47
CA Dichotomy
35:46
Trends in Water Use from 1950-2005
36:45
Water Conservation in Agriculture
38:53
Careful Use and Protection of Water
38:59
Suggestions for Conserving
39:30
Water Conservation for Homes/ Cities
43:31
Growing Populations in Numerous Cities are Heading for a Situation Where the Water Supply is Exhausted
43:41
Suggestions for Conserving
44:23
Water Sustainability
49:17
Careful Use and Protection of Water
49:18
Criteria for Sustainable Water Use
49:33
Example: Artificial Recharge
50:42
Virtual Water Footprint
51:51
Amount of Water Used to Produce a Product
52:00
Water Export/ Import Varies by Continent
53:50
Use of Water for Making Products is Important to Consider
55:26
Footprint: Total Volume Used to Product Services
56:25
Wetlands and Their Importance
58:29
Natural Sponge
59:05
Groundwater Recharge
59:26
Endangered Animals Rely on Them
59:45
Help Purify Water
1:00:07
Buffer for Storms/Waves
1:00:24
Lots of Carbon Storage
1:00:38
Aesthetically Pleasing
1:00:58
Dams and Their Effects
1:01:26
Environmental Effects of Dams
1:01:31
Three Gorges Dam, China
1:03:46
Marmot Dam Restoration, Oregon
1:04:57
Water Pollution & Treatment

46m 39s

Intro
0:00
Water Pollution Overview
0:05
Degradation of Water Quality
0:09
Sources of Pollution
0:37
Maximum Contaminant Levels
2:50
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
4:08
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
4:09
Dead Organic Matter Enters Streams From Natural Sources and Agriculture Runoff
4:50
Dissolved Oxygen Content of <5 mg/L is Threshold
5:31
Three Zones
6:03
Waterborne Illnesses
9:34
Not Immune to Outbreaks of Waterborne Disease
9:35
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
9:53
Water Unfit to Swim In
11:02
Nutrients in Water
11:49
Pollution from Human Sources
12:11
Eutrophication
12:28
Eutrophic vs. Oligotrophic Lake
13:41
Cultural Eutrophication
14:36
Oil and Sediment
17:10
Oil Has Caused Major Pollution Problems
17:11
Sediment Pollution is Also a Major Issue
18:19
Acid Mine Drainage
18:57
General Equation
19:13
Can Occur Near Abandoned Mines
20:35
Potential Solutions
21:26
Surface-Water Pollution
22:41
Point Sources
22:45
Urban-Runoff Naturalization
23:43
Groundwater Pollution
26:18
Groundwater to Drink
26:19
Example: Gasoline Pollution
26:52
Points to Consider
27:38
Different from Surface-Water Pollution
28:21
Wastewater Treatment
29:37
Sewage Treatment
29:38
Septic Tank Disposal Systems
29:58
Water Treatment Plant Receives Sewage from Pipes and After Treatment Discharges Water Into Ocean
33:01
Primary Water Treatment
33:22
Secondary Water Treatment
34:20
Advanced Treatment
35:32
Land Application of Wastewater
36:28
Recycling Wastewater is Becoming More Common
37:09
Man-Made Wetlands
36:35
Example: Arcata, ca
38:27
Water Reuse
39:15
Inadvertent Water Reuse
39:24
Indirect Water Reuse
40:29
Direct Water Reuse
40:41
Water Pollution and Environmental Law
41:26
Refuse Act
41:40
Water Quality Improvement Act
42:07
Federal Safe Drinking Water Act
42:28
Clean Water Act
42:51
Water Quality Act
42:58
The Hudson River Story
43:46
Flows in 2 Directions
43:56
History
44:33
Air Pollution

1h 27m 40s

Intro
0:00
Air Pollution Overview
0:05
People Have Recognized the Problem for a Long Time Now
0:42
Stationary Sources
1:58
Mobile Sources
3:22
General Effects of Air Pollutants
3:39
Affects Vegetation, Animals, Soils, Water Quality, Natural/ Art Structures, Human Health, and Visibility
3:46
Major Factor in the Death Rate in Large Cities
5:23
Effects on Humans
5:45
Synergistic Effects
6:47
Major Air Pollutants
7:24
Primary Pollutants
7:33
Secondary Pollutants
8:15
Primary Pollutants That Account for Most of the Problems
9:33
Criteria Pollutants
11:08
Sulfur Dioxide
11:24
Nitrogen Oxides
12:57
Carbon Monoxide
16:03
Ozone
16:52
Particulate Matter
17:10
Lead
22:16
Acid Rain
23:41
Precipitation Lower than 5.6pH
22:44
Determining the Effects of Acid Rain
26:49
Effects: Forests, Water, Humans
28:12
How to Control it
30:46
Air Toxics
33:02
H2S
33:12
HF
34:11
Hg
34:55
VOCs
36:48
C2H3NO
37:30
C6H6
38:44
CH2CHCHO
39:30
Air Pollution Variability
40:11
Varies from Place to Place
40:13
Varies with Time of Year
42:18
Haze from Afar
43:38
Urban Air Pollution
44:44
Photochemical Smog
44:49
Sulfurous Smog
45:23
Primary Adverse Effects
46:05
Controlling Pollutants and Quality Standards
50:43
Preventing Entrance into Atmosphere
50:45
Air Pollution Legislation
54:03
High Altitude Depletion
56:55
Ozone Depletion is a Major Concern
56:59
Ozone Shield
57:25
Ozone Depletion
1:00:02
Antarctic Ozone Hole
1:04:30
Pole Stratospheric Clouds
1:05:29
Environmental Effects
1:07:06
The Future of Ozone Depletion
1:09:31
Indoor Air Pollution Intro
1:10:15
70-90% Enclosed in Space
1:10:16
Coal Miners' Disease
1:11:16
One of the Biggest Hazards in Modern Workspace
1:11:50
Hurricane Katrina
1:11:58
Sources
1:13:35
Some Sources of Indoor Air Pollution
1:13:44
Heating, Ventilation
1:13:50
Furniture and Carpets
1:14:07
Machines, Computers, Printers
1:14:21
Pesticides
1:14:49
Indoor Smoking
1:15:13
Chemicals Used in Building Construction
1:15:28
Garbage Containers and Vehicle Exhaust
1:15:40
Cleaning Products
1:16:15
Dust Mites and Molds
1:16:28
Pollen
1:16:37
More on Indoor Pollution
1:16:48
Chimney Effect
1:16:58
Heating, Ventilation
1:17:56
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
1:18:46
Radon Gas
1:20:37
'Sick Buildings'
1:22:24
Controlling Indoor Air Pollution
1:25:04
Make Homes/ Buildings Radon Resistant
1:26:00
Building Design
1:26:33
Atmosphere & Climate Change

1h 16m 3s

Intro
0:00
Fundamental Questions on Global Warming
0:06
Weather vs. Climate
3:28
Weather
3:37
Climate
4:10
Weather is Affected by Many Factors
5:22
Climate is Always Changing
6:12
Atmospheric Composition
9:10
Factors That Influence Climate
11:12
Air Mass and Pressure
11:25
Albedo
11:55
Altitude and Latitude
12:51
Humidity and Clouds
13:58
Angle of Sunlight
14:31
Carbon Cycle
14:56
Heat
15:20
Landmasses/ Mountains
16:02
Volcanoes
16:14
Pollution
16:36
Wind Patterns
16:55
Greenhouse Gases
17:10
Gases That Warm the Earth's Surface as They Accumulate in the Atmosphere
17:11
Examples
19:04
The Greenhouse Effect
21:05
Heat Trapped in Earth by Greenhouse Gases
21:06
Majority of Heat Radiates Back Into Outer Space
21:18
How It Works
21:46
The Atmosphere
25:01
Thermosphere
25:49
Mesosphere
26:30
Stratosphere
26:53
Troposphere
27:52
How We Study Climate
31:13
Instrumental Record
31:17
Historical Record
32:59
Paleo-Proxy Record
34:03
Climate Change and Feedback Loops
40:57
Negative Feedback
41:08
Positive Feedback
45:20
Causes of Climate Change
48:07
Milankovitch Cycles
49:12
Solar Cycles
51:50
Albedo Effects
52:48
Roughness of the Earth
53:22
Chemistry of Life
53:48
Climate Forcing
54:13
Oceans and Climate Change
56:22
Ocean/ Atmosphere Relationship
56:23
Ocean Conveyor Belt
57:37
El Niño
58:16
La Niña
1:00:01
Forecasting Climate Change
1:00:06
Past Observations and Research
1:00:10
Computer Simulations
1:03:34
Polar Amplification
1:04:47
Potential Environmental, Ecological, Human Effects
1:05:51
Changes in River Flow
1:05:57
Rise in Sea Levels
1:06:26
Glaciers and Sea Ice
1:07:37
Changes in Biodiversity
1:08:37
Agricultural Production
1:09:53
Human Health Effects
1:10:47
Options to Deal With It
1:12:09
Kyoto Protocol
1:13:18
International Agreement to Mitigate Global Warming
1:13:23
Cut of Carbon Dioxide Emissions
1:13:48
2008: U.S. Agreed to 50% Reductions
1:14:16
2010: No International Agreement with U.S.
1:15:35
VI. Cities and the Future
The Urban Environment

51m 5s

Intro
0:00
City Facts
0:05
1950: Few people Lived in Cities
1:22
U.S. = 75% Urban, 25% Rural
2:07
2002: Megacities
2:41
Urban Ecosystems
3:19
Location, Location, Location
5:04
Site
5:29
Situation
5:42
Fall Line
7:44
Site Modification
9:11
Negative Consequences: New Orleans
9:22
Bruges, Belgium
11:06
Environmental History of Cities
12:19
Stage 1: Rise of Cities
12:27
Stage 2: Urban Center
13:33
Stage 3: Industrial Metropolis
15:22
Stage 4: Center of Civilization
17:29
Planning and the Environment
18:52
Defense and Beauty
19:15
City Parks are Designed with Nature
21:26
Garden City with Green Belt
23:33
The City as an Environment
24:14
Cities Inevitably Change the Landscape
24:17
Energy Budget
26:17
Climate Effects
28:00
Solar Energy
28:53
Water and Soils
30:13
Pollution
30:54
Bringing Nature to the City
31:52
New York City's High Line
31:59
Rivers
34:38
Vegetation in Cities
37:55
Urban 'Wilds'
38:59
Animal Pests
41:02
Urban Sprawl
45:02
1959: Blue Line
46:38
1967: Greenbelt
48:01
1976: 2% Increase in Residents Per Year
48:25
2002: Only Increased 2000
48:41
Materials Management

1h 14m 52s

Intro
0:00
The Importance of Resources
0:04
Renewable vs. Nonrenewables
0:11
Goal
1:22
Ways to Achieve Goal
1:28
Mineral Resources
5:06
Ore Deposits
5:40
Sedimentary Processes Result
6:17
Weathering
6:59
How Much is Left?
8:15
Resources
8:22
Reserves
8:44
Varied Use of Minerals Worldwide
10:36
When the Resources is Limited…
11:59
Mineral Development and Its Impact
13:42
Environmental Impacts
13:46
Social Impacts
15:22
Minimizing the Impact
17:15
Resource Cycle Flowchart
18:47
Materials Management and Waste
21:38
History or Waste Disposal
21:39
Industrial Ecology
25:51
Integrated Waste Management
28:06
IWM
28:07
Single Stream Recycling
29:33
Public Support
30:33
Recycling Human Waste
32:19
Solid-Waste Management
35:48
What It's Composed Of
35:51
Composting
39:23
Incineration
41:11
Open Dumps vs. Sanitary Landfills
41:43
Landfills: Site Selection and Monitoring
43:51
The Hazard of Leachate
44:10
Site Selection
45:10
Entrance into the Environment
46:33
Legislation and Waste Reduction in Landfills
49:03
Federal/ EPA Standards
49:07
Waste Reduction Strategies
50:51
Hazardous Waste
54:20
Illegal Dumping
54:40
Pollution of Groundwater and/or Soil
57:49
Hazardous Waste Disposal, Management
59:35
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
59:38
CERCLA
59:48
Environmental Audits
1:01:39
Secure Landfill
1:03:11
Alternatives to Land Disposal
1:03:58
We Can Improve Hazardous Waste Disposal
1:04:00
Source Reduction
1:05:00
Recycling, Resource Recovery
1:05:16
Incineration
1:05:30
Ocean Dumping
1:05:52
Oceans Cover More Than 70% of Earth
1:05:05
Some of Marine Pollution's Harmful Effects
1:06:40
Microlayer Dangers
1:08:43
'Plastic Island' in the Pacific
1:10:09
E-Waste
1:10:56
Danger of Electronic Waste
1:10:59
Treasure of the Cell Phone
1:11:54
Some Areas Factor Recycling/ Disposal Into Costs
1:12:45
We Can Do Better!
1:14:10
The Future of the Environment

29m 9s

Intro
0:00
Ecotopia!
0:05
Stable or Declining Human Population
0:23
All Resources are Sustainable
0:51
Enough Wilderness for People to Enjoy Recreation
1:05
Minimized Pollution
1:24
Risk of Extinction Minimized for Many Species
1:37
Healthy, Functioning Ecosystems
2:14
Enough Water and Food for All Life
2:29
Planning a Future
2:48
Self-Organizing Systems
2:51
Example: Town Formation vs. Deepwater Horizon
3:43
Democracy
5:19
Planning is a Social Experiment We All Participate In
6:02
Environment and the Law
7:23
'A Horse, a Gun, and a Plan'
7:27
Three Stages
8:45
How Far Can Governments Go with Enacting Environmental Legislation?
12:29
Planning for Services and Recreation
12:51
Regional Planning
12:55
Planning Goes Into Providing Recreational National Park Space
14:25
Policy Implementation Examples
15:32
Skiing at Mineral King
16:28
Rewilding
18:45
Participation in Environmental Law
20:13
Environmental Groups Have Been a Powerful Force
20:17
Citizens Actions
20:27
Mediation
21:41
International Law and Security
22:57
More Than One Billion People on Earth Live in Poverty
22:58
United Nation's Annual Budget for Environment
26:31
Earth Summit of Sustainable Development
27:14
Johannesburg, South Africa
27:15
Objectives
27:21
VII. Lichens
Lichens: A Closer Look

40m 6s

Intro
0:00
Lichen Intro
0:05
Composite Organism from a Symbiotic Relationship
0:49
Thousands of Species
1:58
Can Live Anywhere
2:43
Found from Sea Level to Alpine Environments
3:10
Not Moss
3:24
Related to Environmental Science in Many Ways
3:54
Various Forms of Lichen
5:48
Categorized Based on Growth
5:50
Wide Variety of Colors
7:07
Range of Forms
7:38
Symbiosis: Not a Traditional Mutualism
8:08
'Lichens are Fungi That Have Discovered Agriculture'
8:14
Mutualism
8:53
Some Lichens Live on Other Lichens
12:01
Reproduction of Lichens
12:24
Reproduction is Generally Asexual
12:27
Fungal Part Can Reproduce Sexually
12:54
Spore-Containing Bodies Grow from the Thallus
13:25
Energy Use of Lichens
13:57
Photobiont
14:05
Water
14:34
Temperature
15:45
Minerals
16:41
What Eats Lichens?
17:07
Lichens in North American Biomes
18:04
Arctic/ Alpine Region
18:20
Boreal Region
19:36
Temperate Region
20:24
Madrean
21:31
Tropical
22:50
Desert
23:45
Response to the Environment
24:30
Lichens are Efficient Accumulators of Minerals
24:31
Absorbed from the Atmosphere and Soil
25:30
Pollution Monitors
26:28
Transplants Programs
28:27
Ability to Absorb Metals Can Potentially Indicate Where Ore is Located
30:02
Some Lichens are Restricted to Old Growth Forests, With Undisturbed Growth
30:48
Human Use of Lichens
32:12
Exceptions
32:33
Clothing
35:12
Dyes
35:40
Perfumes
35:55
Medicines
36:47
VIII. Practice AP Test
AP Practice Exam: Math Problems

37m 14s

Intro
0:00
Testing Basics
0:07
Advice on Preparation
4:12
Math Problem 1
7:46
Math Problem 2
11:37
Math Problem 3
13:11
Math Problem 4
16:07
Math Problem 5
20:41
Math Problem 6
22:30
Math Problem 7
23:14
Math Problem 8
24:28
Math Problem 9
25:29
Math Problem 10
27:30
Math Problem 11
29:26
Math Problem 12
31:15
Math Problem 13
32:36
Math Problem 14
34:44
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice

41m 50s

Intro
0:00
Explanation
0:06
Breakdown of Concepts
1:57
Question 1
2:19
Question 2
2:47
Question 3
3:36
Question 4
4:35
Question 5
5:32
Question 6
5:48
Question 7
6:39
Question 8
7:19
Question 9
7:59
Question 10
9:10
Question 11
9:37
Question 12
10:29
Question 13
11:21
Question 14
12:03
Question 15
12:42
Question 16
13:44
Question 17
14:20
Question 18
15:14
Question 19
16:23
Question 20
17:13
Question 21
18:24
Question 22
19:28
Question 23
20:12
Question 24
20:51
Question 25
21:54
Question 26
22:32
Question 27
23:44
Question 28
24:20
Question 29
25:08
Question 30
26:03
Question 31
26:35
Question 32
27:24
Question 33
28:11
Question 34
29:14
Question 35
29:53
Question 36
30:42
Question 37
31:22
Question 38
31:57
Question 39
32:32
Question 40
33:44
Question 41
34:27
Question 42
35:01
Question 43
35:28
Question 44
36:11
Question 45
36:51
Question 46
37:29
Question 47
37:55
Question 48
39:16
Question 49
40:11
Question 50
40:58
AP Practice Exam: Free Response

1h 1m 26s

Intro
0:00
Free Response Summary
0:05
Advice on Preparation
3:55
Free Response Question 1
7:11
Free Response Question 2
25:12
Free Response Question 3
37:46
Free Response Question 4
50:28
Loading...
This is a quick preview of the lesson. For full access, please Log In or Sign up.
For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Environmental Science
  • Discussion

  • Study Guides

  • Download Lecture Slides

  • Table of Contents

  • Related Books

Start Learning Now

Our free lessons will get you started (Adobe Flash® required).
Get immediate access to our entire library.

Sign up for Educator.com

Membership Overview

  • Unlimited access to our entire library of courses.
  • Search and jump to exactly what you want to learn.
  • *Ask questions and get answers from the community and our teachers!
  • Practice questions with step-by-step solutions.
  • Download lesson files for programming and software training practice.
  • Track your course viewing progress.
  • Download lecture slides for taking notes.
  • Learn at your own pace... anytime, anywhere!

Air Pollution

  • Air pollutions has existed since the origin of mankind, and its sources have two major categories: stationary (point, fugitive, and area sources) and mobile sources
  • Air pollution affects vegetation, animals, soils, water quality, natural/artificial structures, human health, and visibility. Its effects on humans include: cancer, birth defects, eye/respiratory irritation, heart disease, and emphysema (equaling $50 billion per year in health costs.) Also, synergistic effects make it worse
  • Pollutants recognized by the EPA are primary or secondary, and they are classified as particulate matter or gaseous
  • The six most common pollutants (criteria pollutants) are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter, and lead
  • Acid rain occurs when precipitation interacts with the air pollutants sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It affects forests, water, and human life
  • Air toxics are pollutants known (or suspected) to cause cancer (for example, hydrogen sulfide, mercury, and benzene)
  • Air pollution varies by from place to place, and it can vary with the time of the year. Urban air pollution is either photochemical or sulfurous smog, and the health risks of breathing urban air are drastically higher than in rural areas
  • Ways to control air pollution: settling chambers, catalytic converters, scrubbing, and more legislation
  • High altitude depletion (ozone depletion) has a lot to do with the entrance of chlorine into the atmosphere (as in CFCs.) There is a large hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica, but it has stopped growing and is patching itself up gradually thanks to legislation banning the use/release of CFCs. Polar stratospheric clouds can greatly impact the ozone layer. The environmental affects of less ozone are costly: more UV radiation penetrating through can damage food chains and lead to more cancer incidence
  • Indoor air pollution is a major problem. Sources include: heating units, furnaces, furniture, carpets, electronic devices, garbage containers, cleaning products, mold, etc.
  • Radon gas is a natural toxin that can lead to major illness or death depending on the level of exposure. Buildings can be declared “sick” because of major pollutants such as radon. In the future greater measures must be taken to control and monitor indoor air pollution

Air Pollution

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Air Pollution Overview
    • General Effects of Air Pollutants
    • Major Air Pollutants
    • Criteria Pollutants
    • Acid Rain
    • Air Toxics
    • Air Pollution Variability
    • Urban Air Pollution
    • Controlling Pollutants and Quality Standards
    • High Altitude Depletion
    • Indoor Air Pollution Intro
    • Some Sources of Indoor Air Pollution
    • More on Indoor Pollution
    • Controlling Indoor Air Pollution
    • Intro 0:00
    • Air Pollution Overview 0:05
      • People Have Recognized the Problem for a Long Time Now
      • Stationary Sources
      • Mobile Sources
    • General Effects of Air Pollutants 3:39
      • Affects Vegetation, Animals, Soils, Water Quality, Natural/ Art Structures, Human Health, and Visibility
      • Major Factor in the Death Rate in Large Cities
      • Effects on Humans
      • Synergistic Effects
    • Major Air Pollutants 7:24
      • Primary Pollutants
      • Secondary Pollutants
      • Primary Pollutants That Account for Most of the Problems
    • Criteria Pollutants 11:08
      • Sulfur Dioxide
      • Nitrogen Oxides
      • Carbon Monoxide
      • Ozone
      • Particulate Matter
      • Lead
    • Acid Rain 23:41
      • Precipitation Lower than 5.6pH
      • Determining the Effects of Acid Rain
      • Effects: Forests, Water, Humans
      • How to Control it
    • Air Toxics 33:02
      • H2S
      • HF
      • Hg
      • VOCs
      • C2H3NO
      • C6H6
      • CH2CHCHO
    • Air Pollution Variability 40:11
      • Varies from Place to Place
      • Varies with Time of Year
      • Haze from Afar
    • Urban Air Pollution 44:44
      • Photochemical Smog
      • Sulfurous Smog
      • Primary Adverse Effects
    • Controlling Pollutants and Quality Standards 50:43
      • Preventing Entrance into Atmosphere
      • Air Pollution Legislation
    • High Altitude Depletion 56:55
      • Ozone Depletion is a Major Concern
      • Ozone Shield
      • Ozone Depletion
      • Antarctic Ozone Hole
      • Pole Stratospheric Clouds
      • Environmental Effects
      • The Future of Ozone Depletion
    • Indoor Air Pollution Intro 1:10:15
      • 70-90% Enclosed in Space
      • Coal Miners' Disease
      • One of the Biggest Hazards in Modern Workspace
      • Hurricane Katrina
      • Sources
    • Some Sources of Indoor Air Pollution 1:13:44
      • Heating, Ventilation
      • Furniture and Carpets
      • Machines, Computers, Printers
      • Pesticides
      • Indoor Smoking
      • Chemicals Used in Building Construction
      • Garbage Containers and Vehicle Exhaust
      • Cleaning Products
      • Dust Mites and Molds
      • Pollen
    • More on Indoor Pollution 1:16:48
      • Chimney Effect
      • Heating, Ventilation
      • Environmental Tobacco Smoke
      • Radon Gas
      • 'Sick Buildings'
    • Controlling Indoor Air Pollution 1:25:04
      • Make Homes/ Buildings Radon Resistant
      • Building Design
    Educator®

    Please sign in for full access to this lesson.

    Sign-InORCreate Account

    Enter your Sign-on user name and password.

    Forgot password?

    Start Learning Now

    Our free lessons will get you started (Adobe Flash® required).
    Get immediate access to our entire library.

    Sign up for Educator.com

    Membership Overview

    • Unlimited access to our entire library of courses.
    • Search and jump to exactly what you want to learn.
    • *Ask questions and get answers from the community and our teachers!
    • Practice questions with step-by-step solutions.
    • Download lesson files for programming and software training practice.
    • Track your course viewing progress.
    • Download lecture slides for taking notes.