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Rebekah Hendershot

Rebekah Hendershot

Rhetoric Crash Course: Support

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
Introduction

13m 8s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Why Does This Test Exist?
0:29
What is Rhetoric?
0:47
Definition
0:48
If You Can't Express Your Thoughts Clearly and Logically, You're Not Thinking Clearly
0:59
Why Does Rhetoric Matter?
3:21
Writing Papers
3:33
Participating in Debates
3:49
Discussing Ideas in Class
4:01
Arguing with Your Friends
4:13
So Why Take a Test on Rhetoric
4:28
Show You Know Your Way Around an Argument
4:36
What's on The Test?
5:27
Section 1: Multiple Choice
5:33
Section 2: Free Response
6:01
How is the Test Scored?
7:55
How This Course Will Work
10:14
Introduction
10:24
Multiple Choice
10:29
Essay Basics
10:50
Rhetoric Crash Course
11:20
The Rhetorical Analysis Essay
12:11
The Argumentative Essay
12:21
The Synthesis Essay
12:30
Final Thoughts
12:41
II. Multiple-Choice section
Multiple Choice Overview

7m 34s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Question Structure
0:41
Multiple Choice Section
0:43
Answer Questions About These
1:33
Selection Sources
2:12
Works Written in 19th and 20th Centuries
2:15
Selections Were Written in English or Translated
2:51
It's All About Variety!
3:16
Basic Test-Taking Strategies
3:52
Read the Passage First
3:56
Read for the Big Picture
4:41
Do Everything Twice
5:01
Use the Process of Elimination
6:09
How to Read & Interpret a Passage

10m 18s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Read for the Big Picture
0:30
Concentrate on the Following
0:42
Big-Picture Questions Often Come at the Beginning and End Set of Questions
1:09
What to Look For
1:25
The Author's Goal
1:29
The Author's Tone
2:22
The Author's Point of View
4:13
Hunting for Details
5:11
Read Questions and Hunt for Details
5:21
Detail Questions that Reference Specific Lines
5:37
Detail Questions Depend on Context
6:02
Detail Questions Often Depend on Vocabulary
6:27
Clues to the Big Picture
7:11
Final Tips
7:54
When Answering Detail Questions, Read for Content and Context
8:05
Pace Yourself
8:17
Skip & Go Back to Questions
8:41
Multiple Choice Practice

13m 33s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Source Passage
0:25
Read the Passage
0:59
The Questions
1:23
Big-Picture Questions
1:50
Question 3
1:51
Question 8
3:10
Question 10
4:18
Detail Questions
5:32
Question 1
5:35
Question 2
6:52
Question 4
7:55
Question 5
8:41
Question 6
10:06
Question 7
10:59
Question 9
11:47
Final Tips
12:45
III. Essay Basics
AP Essay Section

9m 2s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Format of the Essay Section
0:33
120 Minutes to Answer Three Essay Questions
0:36
15-Minute Reading Period
0:49
55 Percent of Your Grade
1:14
Bring Pens
1:34
Content of the Essay Section
1:49
Rhetorical Analysis/ Expository
1:53
Argumentative Essay
2:07
Synthesis Essay
2:32
Who's Reading These Essays?
2:57
High-School, College and University Instructors
3:06
They're Unfamiliar with Your Style of Writing
3:27
Cannot Tailor Your Essay to Their Personal Preferences
3:45
Most Essays are Read at Least Twice for Consistency
4:49
Readers Give About 65% of the Essays They Read a Middling Score
4:59
Relieve the Monotony and Make Your Essay Stand Out!
5:20
Why Do These Essays Matter?
5:29
55% of Your Grade
5:34
Display Your Unique talents and Think Outside the Box
5:58
Essays Intimidate Many Students
6:12
How Are These Essays Different?
6:54
No Chance to Revise
7:00
Can't Study Subject Matter in Advance
7:39
Form and Writing Style Matter as Much as Content
7:59
Writing Audience
8:21
AP Essay Section Scoring

10m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Holistic Scoring
0:43
Essays Will Not Be Graded According to a Checklist
0:51
Score Reflects the Overall Quality of Your Essay
0:58
ETS Table Leaders Choose Real Essays from Each Year's Crop to Represent Typical Essays of Each Level
1:18
A Reader Will End Up Re-Reading and Re-Correcting Certain Essays at Random
2:06
What the Reader Wants
2:38
Easy to Score Essay
2:44
Interesting Essay
3:19
Scoring Guide
4:05
Scores 8-9
4:10
Scores 6-7
5:15
Scores 5
5:58
Scores 3-4
7:06
Scores 1-2
7:54
Scores 0 and -
8:25
The Two Secrets of Essay Scores
8:49
Clarity is Everything
8:59
It's All About Level 5
9:37
Strategies to Raise Your Essay Score

9m 28s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Formatting Tips
0:36
Neatness Counts
0:39
Indent Your Paragraphs
2:23
Writing Tips
3:39
Write Perfectly
3:42
Write with Flair
4:55
Content Tips
5:59
Answer the Question
6:04
Take a Few Risks
6:31
Test-Taking Strategies
7:06
Budget Your Time
7:11
Order Your Essays
8:18
IV. Rhetoric
Rhetoric Crash Course: Claims

14m 18s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
The Three Elements of Argument
0:34
Claim
1:02
Support
1:09
Warrant
1:14
An Example
1:27
What is a Claim?
3:12
Define Claim/ Proposition
3:15
Conclusion of Argument
3:25
Thesis Statement
3:41
Types of Claims
3:51
Claims of Fact
3:55
Claims of Value
4:18
Claims of Policy
4:48
Claims of Fact
5:19
Defining Characteristic
5:21
To Evaluate a Claim of Fact
6:39
Claims of Value
8:33
Defining Characteristic
8:35
To Evaluate a Claim of Value
9:17
Claims of Policy
11:19
Defining Characteristic
11:21
To Evaluate a Claim of Policy
11:50
Rhetoric Crash Course: Support

14m 26s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
The Three Elements of Argument
0:34
Claim
0:56
Support
1:03
Warrant
1:09
An Example
1:17
What is Support?
2:01
Information Provided to Back Up a Claim
2:03
Usually Shows Up in the Body Paragraphs
2:10
Types of Support
2:21
Evidence
2:23
Appeals to Needs and Values
2:53
Factual Evidence
3:26
Opinions
4:52
Four Forms
5:03
Evaluation of Evidence
5:43
Ask These Questions to Evaluate Factual Evidence
5:46
Ask These Questions to Evaluate Statistics
7:21
Ask These Questions to Evaluate Opinions
8:23
Appeals to Needs
9:35
Physiological Needs
10:01
Safety Needs
10:13
Love Needs
10:26
Esteem Needs
10:45
Self-Actualization Needs
11:04
Appeals to Values
11:27
Needs Give Rise to Values
11:30
Different Groups Will Interpret Values Differently
11:54
Knowing Your Audience's Values Will Help
12:41
Evaluation of Appeals to Needs and Values
12:52
Have the Values Been Clearly Defined?
12:57
Are They Prominent in the Audience's Hierarchy?
13:14
Is It Clearly Related to the Needs and Values Being Addressed?
13:51
Rhetoric Crash Course: Warrants

10m 29s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
The Three Elements of Argument
0:38
Claim
0:52
Support
1:00
Warrant
1:09
An Example
1:17
What is a Warrant?
1:53
Definition
2:01
May Not Be Stated At All in Your Essay
2:28
Types of Warrants
3:14
Authoritative Warrants
3:19
Substantive Warrants
4:03
Motivational Warrants
5:10
Evaluation of Warrants
5:32
Ask These Questions to Evaluate Authoritative Warrants
5:44
Ask These Questions to Evaluate Substantive Warrants
6:43
Ask These Questions to Evaluate Motivational Warrants
9:07
Rhetoric Crash Course: Logical Fallacies

19m 17s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is a Fallacy?
0:24
Inductive Fallacies
0:44
Deductive Fallacies
0:57
Hasty Generalization
1:42
Example
2:02
Faulty Use of Authority
2:32
Example
3:16
Post Hoc
3:45
Example
4:11
False Analogy
5:08
Example
5:32
Ad Hominem
6:18
Example
6:56
False Dilemma / Black-White
7:25
Example
7:39
Slippery Slope
8:25
Example
9:01
Begging the Question
9:38
Example
9:57
Straw Man
10:40
Example
11:09
Two Wrongs Make a Right
12:32
Example
12:48
Non Sequitur
13:29
Example
13:58
Ad Populum
14:45
Example
15:19
Appeal to Tradition
15:52
Example
16:19
Faulty Emotional Appeals
17:02
Example
18:05
Basic Rhetorical Modes

11m 18s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
What is a Rhetorical Mode?
0:27
Ready-Made Approaches to Writing Essays
0:33
Some Multiple-Choice Questions Will Use Terminology Associated with Rhetorical Modes
0:49
Example / Illustration
1:03
Use Examples That Your Reader Will Understand
1:35
Draw Examples From Real Life
1:59
Introduce Your Examples Using Transitions
2:49
Examples to Illustrate Your Point
3:03
Discard Examples That May Disprove Your Point
3:42
Classification
4:20
Writer Organizes People, Places, Things, or Ideas into Categories
4:25
Classification Works Best When You Are Asked to Analyze or Explain Something
4:49
Sort Your Info Into Meaningful Groups
5:14
Make Sure the Categories Do Not Overlap
5:54
Comparison and Contrast
6:49
Organize Your Essay Around the Qualities Being Discussed
7:31
Do Your Best to Combine Elements into a Limited Number of Groups
8:24
Analogy
8:57
Russell's Teapot Example
9:19
Expository Writing (Explanation)
10:05
Complex Rhetorical Modes

14m 22s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is a Rhetorical Mode?
0:31
Process Analysis
0:56
Describe in Chronological Order
1:21
Use Appropriate Terminology
1:42
Cause and Effect
2:18
This Mode Is All About Underlying Causes
2:32
Don’t Confuse a Connection in Time or Space with True Cause and Effect
3:05
Definition
3:48
Keep Your Reason for Defining Something in Mind as You're Writing
5:06
Define Key Terms According to What You Know of Your Audience
5:19
Description
6:10
Use All Five Senses
7:21
Place the Most Striking Examples at the Beginnings and Ends of Your Paragraphs
7:41
Focus on Distinctive Mannerisms When Describing People
8:45
Narration
9:47
Structure Events in Chronological Order
10:35
Provide a Realistic Setting
10:54
Induction and Deduction
12:00
Induction
12:08
Deduction
12:32
When Using Inductive Reasoning, Proceed from the Specific to the General
13:01
When Using Deductive Reasoning, Proceed from the General to the Specific
13:34
V. Rhetorical Analysis Essay
The Rhetorical Analysis Essay

6m 17s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is a Rhetorical Analysis Essay?
0:38
Definition
0:41
Prompt
0:54
What a Rhetorical Analysis Essay Isn't
1:09
Not a Chance for You to Show Off Your Own Rhetorical Skills
1:14
Not an Opportunity to Refute the Text
1:28
Read the Prompt Carefully (Twice)
2:07
First Time
2:11
Second Time
2:33
Looks for the Elements of Argument
3:05
Claim, Warrant, Support
3:11
Claim is Important
3:29
Look for Point of View
4:03
Look for Rhetorical Strategies
4:50
The Rhetorical Analysis Prompt

7m 31s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
0:27
Definition
0:31
Prompt
0:44
Read the Prompt - Twice
0:56
First Time
1:00
Second Time
1:14
Reading the Text
1:31
Skimming is Fine
1:44
What to Look For
2:01
Elements of Argument
2:03
Unusual Language
2:31
Why Were the Examples Chosen
2:44
Keep In Mind the Purpose
3:05
Look for the Rhetorical Modes
3:20
How to Answer
4:07
Outline
4:11
Answer the Question You're Being Asked!
4:34
Begin with a Brief Hook
5:03
Provide a 'Road Map'
5:29
Line Up Your Support with Your Strongest Material
6:10
Rhetorical Analysis Practice

12m 8s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Where to Find the Prompt
0:52
Analyzing the Prompt
1:19
It Offers Background Info
1:22
It Gives the Context of the Speech
1:52
It has a Focus
2:15
Reading the Text
2:36
How She Begins
2:46
Uses a Series of Examples
2:57
Appeals to Sentiment
3:15
Use of Description and Narration
3:41
Analogy
3:50
As the Piece Moves On…
3:56
Proposes Her Solution
4:20
Appeal to Patriotism
4:46
Scoring Guidelines
5:04
Score of 9
5:10
Score of 8
5:30
Score of 7
5:54
Score of 6
6:04
The Sample Essays
6:14
Sample 2A, Score of 8
6:23
Rule of Three
6:35
Sample is Notable for its Language
6:56
Sample 2B, Score of 6
7:51
Imprecision
8:30
Sample 2C, Score of 1
9:12
Tips for the Rhetorical Analysis Essay
10:44
Look for the Elements of Argument
10:52
Language!
11:04
Outline
11:23
Don't Over-Quote
11:45
VI. Argumentative Essay
The Argumentative Essay

10m 22s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
What is an Argumentative Essay?
0:33
Definition
0:35
Refute, Support or Qualify
0:52
The Good News
1:20
Express Yourself!
1:28
There's No Correct Answer
1:58
The Essay is Easily Identified
2:16
Read the Prompt Carefully (Twice)
2:29
First Time: Underline the Directions Given
2:34
Second Time: Look for Anything You Might Have Missed
3:20
Find the Main Idea
3:43
Three Elements
3:48
Claim
3:53
Take a Clear Stand
4:55
Good to Refute the Claim You Can Reasonably Do So
5:33
Construct Your Argument
6:41
What Warrant Connects Your Support to Your Claim?
6:58
Have You Organized Your Essay to best Reflect the Strength of Your Argument?
7:42
Remember the Little Things!
8:01
Write in the Present Tense
8:03
Everything the Author Says or Does is Always Described in the Present Tense
8:27
Use the Past Tense for Historical Facts
9:02
Watch Your Spelling, Grammar, and Punctuation
9:11
Make Sure Your First Paragraph is Neat
9:24
Take a Few Risks with Your Language
9:53
The Argumentative Prompt

8m 19s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is an Argumentative Essay?
0:35
Definition
0:39
Refute, Support or Qualify
0:51
Read the Prompt - Twice
1:08
First Time: Underline the Directions Given
1:15
Second Time: Look for Anything You Might Have Missed
2:05
Reading the Text
2:17
What to Look For
2:45
Elements of Argument
2:47
Hooks
3:05
Obvious Flaws
3:28
Choosing Your Side
3:42
Which Side Do You Feel Most Strongly About?
4:01
Do You Have Two or Three Strong Examples?
4:55
How to Answer
5:54
Answer the Question You're Being Asked
6:09
Use Multiple Types of Examples
6:28
Begin with a Brief Hook
6:47
Provide a Road Map
7:00
Write in Present Tense and Use the First-Person Singular
7:57
Argumentative Practice

13m 1s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Where to Find the Prompt
0:48
Question #3
1:04
Analyzing the Prompt
1:17
Background Information
1:24
Focus
1:51
Demand
2:02
Reading the Text
2:18
He Explains Why it Should Not Exist
2:38
He Claims That Because American Society is Founded on the Principles of the Rights of Man
2:52
Specific Examples
3:12
Define Concord
3:39
What's the Big Idea?
4:25
Paine's Main Idea
4:31
Scoring Guidelines
4:54
Score of 9
5:02
Score of 8, 7 or 6
5:31
The Sample Essays
6:02
Sample 3a; Score of 9
6:06
Sophistication of Style
6:28
Use of Analogies
7:36
Command of Language
8:04
Sample 3b; Score of 5
8:27
Sample 3c; Score of 1
10:23
Tips for the Argumentative Essay
11:57
Language!
12:02
Underlying Structure
12:15
Blend Your Evidence With Your Opinion
12:27
VII. Synthesis Essay
The Synthesis Essay

9m 19s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
What is a Synthesis Essay?
0:35
Involves Multiple Sources
0:53
Why Do I Have to Write One?
1:08
Need to Read and Evaluate Multiple Sources in College
1:44
Prove You Know How to Write a Good Research Paper
2:00
It's About Your Skills
2:12
Read the Prompt Carefully (Twice)
2:31
The First Time
3:14
The Second Time
2:36
Read the Texts - Sort Of
3:46
15-Minute Reading Period
3:50
Get Familiar with Details
4:29
Skimming is Okay
4:44
Find the Main Idea(s)
5:00
Text as Image
5:19
Common Symbols
5:35
Assume You'll Have to Interpret What You Read
5:53
Choose Your Sources
6:06
Don't Try to Use All the Sources
6:27
Not All Sources Will Be Relevant
6:59
Remember the Little Things!
7:26
Write in the Present Tense
7:34
Everything the Author Says or Does is Always Described in the Present Tense
8:06
Use the Past Tense for Historical Facts
8:32
Watch Your Spelling, Grammar, and Punctuation
8:43
Make Sure Your First Paragraph is Neat
8:49
Take a Few Risks with Your Language
8:56
The Synthesis Prompt

8m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
What is a Synthesis Essay?
0:34
Involves Multiple Sources
0:51
Reading the Prompt - Twice
1:07
The First Time
1:12
The Second Time
1:43
How to Speed-Read Texts
2:10
Skim
2:22
Pay Attention to Language
2:37
Cross Out Texts You Don't Need
2:58
Interpreting Images
3:07
One Source Will be Visual
3:12
Look at Composition
3:29
Identifiable Symbols
4:32
Resemblance to Earlier Images?
4:54
Context of This Image
5:09
Follow Your Instincts
5:46
Use Sources That Connect to That Reaction
6:01
Check With Prompt
6:06
How to Answer
6:33
Outline
6:46
Include Your Analysis on What All the Sources' Opinions Mean
7:01
Report and Analyze, Not Opine.
7:40
Synthesis Practice

10m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Where to Find the Prompt
0:36
Analyzing the Prompt
0:57
Defines a Term
1:00
Hypothetical Situation
1:07
Demands
1:14
Reading the Texts
1:43
Source A
1:46
Source B
1:59
Source C
2:24
Source D
2:39
Source E
2:47
Source F
2:57
Source G
3:13
Some Possible Approaches
3:34
Variety of Arguments for Locavorism
4:03
You Must Use at Least Three Sources
4:15
Scoring Guidelines
4:34
Score of 9
4:42
Score of 8, 7 or 6
5:03
The Sample Essays
5:23
Sample 1A; Score of 8
5:28
Sample 1B; Score of 5
6:31
Sample 1C; Score of 3
7:46
Tips for the Synthesis Essay
8:59
Language Still Matters
9:04
Read the Prompt Carefully
9:12
Use a Lot of Sources
9:35
Don't Use Long Quotations or Summaries
9:40
No Right or Wrong Answer
10:00
VIII. Test Walkthrough
Multiple Choice Walkthrough, Part 1

24m 26s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Where to Find the Questions
0:30
Reading the Passages
1:24
Passage 2
1:51
Big-Picture Questions
2:32
Question 11
2:33
Question 18
3:25
Question 21
4:31
Question 22
5:27
Detail Questions
6:34
Question 12
6:39
Question 13
7:34
Question 14
8:31
Question 15
9:16
Question 16
10:18
Question 17
11:08
Question 19
12:06
Question 20
12:57
Passage 3
13:46
Big-Picture Questions
14:07
Question 23
14:10
Question 33
15:07
Detail Questions
16:08
Question 24
16:11
Question 25
17:08
Question 26
17:48
Question 27
18:23
Question 28
19:36
Question 29
20:37
Question 30
21:49
Question 31
22:39
Question 32
23:16
Multiple Choice Walkthrough, Part 2

19m 6s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Where to Find the Questions
0:25
Reading the Passages
1:07
Passage 4
1:31
Big Picture Questions
1:58
Question 34
2:01
Question 39
3:00
Question 42
3:36
Detail Questions
4:13
Question 35
4:14
Question 36
5:26
Question 37
6:06
Question 38
6:53
Question 40
7:40
Question 41
8:16
Question 43
9:07
Passage 5
9:52
Big Picture Questions
10:09
Question 44
10:11
Question 54
11:03
Question 55
11:43
Detail Questions
12:39
Question 45
12:40
Question 46
13:10
Question 47
13:50
Question 48
14:16
Question 49
15:47
Question 50
16:33
Question 51
17:23
Question 52
17:51
Question 53
18:25
Rhetorical Analysis Walkthrough

12m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Where to Find the Prompt
0:33
Question 2
0:49
Analyzing the Prompt
0:58
Background Info
1:00
Context
1:21
Focus
1:43
Reading the Text
2:05
Begins with Example
2:13
Quotation
2:37
Analogy
2:56
Appeal to Authority
3:11
Appeal to Values
3:54
Scoring Guidelines
4:07
Score of 8 or 9
4:15
Score of 6 or 7
4:39
Score of 5
4:53
Score of 4 or Below
5:16
Scoring Guidelines
5:34
Top Scoring Essays Identified the Main Point First
5:36
Essays That Had Problems Included Those That Stumbled Over Banneker's Old-Fashioned Language
6:08
The Sample Essays
6:27
Sample 2A; Score of 8
6:33
Sample 2B; Score of 5
7:37
Score 2C; Score of 2
8:47
Tips for the Rhetorical Analysis Essay
10:28
Look for the Elements of Argument
10:34
Outline
10:53
Language, Language, Language!
11:08
Don't Over-Quote!
11:46
Argumentative Walkthrough

11m 29s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Where to Find the Prompt
0:46
Question 3
1:04
Analyzing the Prompt
1:18
Background Info
1:20
Focus
1:56
Demand
2:18
Reading the Text
2:26
Text Summarizes the Argument Rather Than Quoting It
2:31
This Prompt Suggests Lines of Thought for You
2:49
This Prompt is About Humorists
3:07
What's The Big Idea?
4:14
Main Idea
4:29
Scoring Guidelines
5:03
Score of 9
5:09
Score of 8, 7, and 6
5:29
The Sample Essays
6:05
Sample 3A; Score of 8
6:09
Begins Support with Examples From History and High Culture
6:24
Reviewer Praises the Language, Structure, and Organization
6:51
Sample 3B; Score of 7
7:58
Sample 3C; Score of 3
8:56
Tips for the Argumentative Essay
10:24
Language
10:28
Make Sure the Underlying Structure of Your Argument is Sound
10:40
Use Examples from High Culture as Well as Low
11:00
Don't Make Assertions without Presenting Evidence
11:17
Synthesis Walkthrough

11m 33s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Where to Find the Prompt
0:34
Question 1
0:44
Analyzing the Prompt
0:56
Background Information
1:00
Hypothetical Situation
1:07
Demands
1:13
Reading the Texts
1:55
Source A
1:59
Source B
2:24
Source C
2:41
Source D
2:56
Source E
3:23
Source F
4:01
Some Possible Approaches
4:19
Variety of Arguments
4:25
Source with a Negative View of Technology in the Classroom
4:45
Can Choose Which Source to Address
4:58
Scoring Guidelines
5:41
Score of 9
5:46
Score of 8, 7, and 6
6:06
The Sample Essays
6:23
Sample 1A; Score of 8
6:32
Sample 1B; Score of 6
7:39
Sample 1C; Score of 3
8:30
Tips for the Synthesis Essay
9:50
Read the Prompt Carefully
10:00
Using a Lot of Sources is Better Than Using Only a Few
10:31
Don’t Use Fillers
10:49
There is No Right or Wrong Answer
11:16
IX. Final Thoughts
Tips for the Test

16m 26s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
What Will the Test Be Like?
0:42
Location
1:02
Environment
1:15
Cheating
1:40
Format
2:05
What to Bring
2:17
What Not to Bring
4:00
Exceptions
6:14
Preparing for the Multiple-Choice Section
6:29
Read!
6:42
Read What You're Assigned in School
7:01
Read Things That Challenge You
7:20
Take Practice Tests
7:38
Preparing for the Rhetorical Analysis Essay
8:05
Read Arguments
8:10
Classic Arguments
8:25
Contemporary Arguments
8:55
Pick Out Elements of Argument and Identify Logical Fallacies
9:18
Practice Writing Under Test Conditions
9:26
Preparing for the Argumentative Essay
9:43
Pick a Few Contemporary Issues and Practice Writing Arguments on All Sides
9:46
Use a Quotation to Find Clear Statements of Opinion
10:08
Practice Writing Under Test Conditions
10:44
Preparing for the Synthesis Essay
10:50
Pick a Few Current Issues and read a Variety of Sources
11:04
Practice
11:20
Last Minute Strategies
11:27
Scout the Location
11:35
Pack Your Test Kit the Night Before
11:53
Read Something You Enjoy the Night Before
12:04
No Sugar or Caffeine Highs
12:55
Relax
13:16
Remember That Any Individual Question Isn't Worth Much on the Test
13:50
Don't Focus About Consequences During the Test
14:10
Set Yourself a Reward for Finishing the Exam
14:45
And Remember…
15:32
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Rhetoric Crash Course: Support

    Source: The Elements of Argument,Annette Rottenberg
  • The Three Elements of Argument
    • Claim: The main idea, or thesis, of your argument.
    • Support: The information that backs up your claim.
    • Warrant: The “big idea” that connects your support to your claim.
  • An Example: Cutting in Line at the Movies
    • Claim:“What?”
    • Support:“Why?”
    • Warrant:“So what?”
  • What is Support?
    • Support is the information provided to back up a claim.
    • In an essay, your evidence is usually going to show up in your body paragraphs, following your claim.
    • The support is the “Why?” part of your argument.
  • Types of Support
    • Evidenceconsists of statements that tend to prove ground for belief.
      • Facts, including statistics
      • Opinions, or interpretations of facts
      • Example:I was here first.
    • Appeals to needs and valuesbring up the reader’s needs (for physical and psychological well-being) and values (moral standards) to support the argument.
      • Example:Everyone here saw you cut in lineor It’s wrong to cheat.
  • Factual Evidence
    • Factual evidence is evidence that we can verify ourselves, or that has been verified by people we trust.
  • Opinions
    • Opinions usually take one of four forms:
      • They suggest a causal connection.
      • They offer predictions about the future.
      • They suggest solutions to a problem.
      • They refer to the opinion of experts.
  • Evaluation of Evidence
    • To evaluate factual evidence, ask:
      • Is the evidence up to date?
      • Is the evidence sufficient?
      • Is the evidence relevant?
      • Are the examples representative?
      • Are the examples consistent with experience?
    • To evaluate statistics, ask:
      • Do the statistics come from trustworthy sources?
      • Are the terms clearly defined?
      • Are the comparisons between comparable things?
      • Has any significant information been omitted?
    • To evaluate opinions, ask:
      • Is the source qualified to give an opinion on the subject?
      • Is the source biased for or against his/her interpretation?
      • Has the source bolstered the claim with sufficient and appropriate evidence?
      • Are there other experts who disagree?
  • Appeals to Needs
    • Appeals to needs suggest that accepting an idea or performing an action will fulfill some need.
    • Physiological needs:food, drink, health, sex
    • Safety needs:security, freedom from harm, order, stability
    • Love needs:love within a family and among friends, roots within a group or community.
    • Esteem needs:material success, achievement, power, status, recognition
    • Self-actualization needs:fulfillment in realizing one’s potential.
  • Appeals to Values
    • Needs give rise to values. Most claims contain expressed or unexpressed value judgments.
    • Values change over time.
    • Different groups will interpret (and rank) values differently.
    • Knowing your audience’s values will help you appeal to them more effectively.

Rhetoric Crash Course: Support

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lesson Overview 0:10
  • The Three Elements of Argument 0:34
    • Claim
    • Support
    • Warrant
  • An Example 1:17
  • What is Support? 2:01
    • Information Provided to Back Up a Claim
    • Usually Shows Up in the Body Paragraphs
  • Types of Support 2:21
    • Evidence
    • Appeals to Needs and Values
  • Factual Evidence 3:26
  • Opinions 4:52
    • Four Forms
  • Evaluation of Evidence 5:43
    • Ask These Questions to Evaluate Factual Evidence
    • Ask These Questions to Evaluate Statistics
    • Ask These Questions to Evaluate Opinions
  • Appeals to Needs 9:35
    • Physiological Needs
    • Safety Needs
    • Love Needs
    • Esteem Needs
    • Self-Actualization Needs
  • Appeals to Values 11:27
    • Needs Give Rise to Values
    • Different Groups Will Interpret Values Differently
    • Knowing Your Audience's Values Will Help
  • Evaluation of Appeals to Needs and Values 12:52
    • Have the Values Been Clearly Defined?
    • Are They Prominent in the Audience's Hierarchy?
    • Is It Clearly Related to the Needs and Values Being Addressed?
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