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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP English Language & Composition
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Lecture Comments (1)

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Post by Milan Ray on May 10, 2016

Nice Donald Trump allusion lol

Rhetoric Crash Course: Logical Fallacies

    Source: The Elements of Argument,Annette Rottenberg
  • What is a Fallacy?
    • A fallacy is an error in reasoning, a flaw in logic.
    • Inductive fallacies arise when an arguer leaps to a conclusion on the basis of insufficient or wrong evidence.
    • Deductive fallaciesarise when an arguer fails to follow the logic of a series of statements (doesn’t connect the dots in his or her own argument).
    • Many writers use fallacies in place of actual reasoning. Do not be fooled!
  • 1. Hasty Generalization
    • In the hasty generalizationfallacy, the arguer draws conclusions based on insufficient evidence. Many prejudices and superstitions are the results of hasty generalizations.
  • 2. Faulty Use of Authority
    • In this fallacy, the arguer cites an authority to back up his/her argument when a) the authority is not really much of an authority or b) there is significant difference of opinion among authorities on the subject (and the arguer doesn’t mention that).
  • 3. Post Hoc
    • Originally “post hoc, ergo propter hoc” (“after this, therefore because of this”). In this fallacy, the arguer claims that just because one event follows another event, the first event must have caused the second.
  • 4. False Analogy
    • In this fallacy, the arguer makes an analogy without proving the connection to the two things being compared.
  • 5. Ad Hominem
    • This term means “against the man.” An ad hominem fallacy occurs when an arguer attacks the person on the other side of the argument rather than his or her ideas.
  • 6. False Dilemma / Black-White
    • In this fallacy, the arguer insists that only two alternatives exist, even though there may be other possibilities in the situation.
  • 7. Slippery Slope
    • In this fallacy, the arguer claims that taking a first step will lead inevitably to a second, usually undesirable step. (This is only a fallacy if the arguer does not provide evidence that this will happen.)
  • 8. Begging the Question
    • In this fallacy, the arguer makes a statement that assumes that the very question being argued has already been proved. Extreme examples of this fallacy are called circular reasoning.
  • 9. Straw Man
    • In this fallacy, the arguer attacks a view similar to, but not the same as, the one his or her opponent holds.
  • 10. Two Wrongs Make a Right
    • In this fallacy, the arguer diverts attention from his or her own flaws by attacking the flaws of his or her opponent.
  • 11. Non Sequitur
    • From the Latin for “it does not follow.” In this fallacy, the arguer makes an argument that doesn’t have anything to do with the subject under discussion.
  • 12. Ad Populum
    • In this fallacy, the arguer makes an appeal to the prejudices of the people. One common form of ad populum is an appeal to patriotism (without evidence to support the claim.
  • 13. Appeal to Tradition
    • In this fallacy, the arguer assumes that what has existed for a long time should continue to exist simply becauseit is a tradition (without saying whythat tradition should be preserved).
  • 14. Faulty Emotional Appeals
    • In this fallacy, the arguer appeals to the emotions of the audience without legitimate cause.These appeals are irrelevant to the argument, draw attention away from the issues, or conceal another purpose. The two most popular emotional appeals are to pity and fear.

Rhetoric Crash Course: Logical Fallacies

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lesson Overview 0:10
  • What is a Fallacy? 0:24
    • Inductive Fallacies
    • Deductive Fallacies
  • Hasty Generalization 1:42
    • Example
  • Faulty Use of Authority 2:32
    • Example
  • Post Hoc 3:45
    • Example
  • False Analogy 5:08
    • Example
  • Ad Hominem 6:18
    • Example
  • False Dilemma / Black-White 7:25
    • Example
  • Slippery Slope 8:25
    • Example
  • Begging the Question 9:38
    • Example
  • Straw Man 10:40
    • Example
  • Two Wrongs Make a Right 12:32
    • Example
  • Non Sequitur 13:29
    • Example
  • Ad Populum 14:45
    • Example
  • Appeal to Tradition 15:52
    • Example
  • Faulty Emotional Appeals 17:02
    • Example