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Dan Fullerton
1998 AP Practice Exam: Free Response Questions
Slide Duration:Table of Contents
I. Electricity
Electric Charge & Coulomb's Law
30m 48s
 Intro0:00
 Objective0:15
 Electric Charges0:50
 Matter is Made Up of Atoms0:52
 Most Atoms are Neutral1:02
 Ions1:11
 Coulomb1:18
 Elementary Charge1:34
 Law of Conservation of Charge2:03
 Example 12:39
 Example 23:42
 Conductors and Insulators4:41
 Conductors Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely4:43
 Insulators Do Not Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely4:50
 Resistivity4:58
 Charging by Conduction5:32
 Conduction5:37
 Balloon Example5:40
 Charged Conductor6:14
 Example 36:28
 The Electroscope7:16
 Charging by Induction7:57
 Bring Positive Rod Near Electroscope8:08
 Ground the Electroscope8:27
 Sever Ground Path and Remove Positive Rod9:07
 Example 49:39
 Polarization and Electric Dipole Moment11:46
 Polarization11:54
 Electric Dipole Moment12:05
 Coulomb's Law12:38
 Electrostatic Force, Also Known as Coulombic Force12:48
 How Force of Attraction or Repulsion Determined12:55
 Formula13:08
 Coulomb's Law: Vector Form14:18
 Example 516:05
 Example 618:25
 Example 719:14
 Example 823:21
Electric Fields
1h 19m 22s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:09
 Electric Fields1:33
 Property of Space That Allows a Charged Object to Feel a Force1:40
 Detect the Presence of an Electric Field1:51
 Electric Field Strength Vector2:03
 Direction of the Electric Field Vector2:21
 Example 13:00
 Visualizing the Electric Field4:13
 Electric Field Lines4:56
 E Field Due to a Point Charge7:19
 Derived from the Definition of the Electric Field and Coulomb's Law7:24
 Finding the Electric Field Due to Multiple Point Charges8:37
 Comparing Electricity to Gravity8:51
 Force8:54
 Field Strength9:09
 Constant9:19
 Charge Units vs. Mass Units9:35
 Attracts vs. Repel9:44
 Example 210:06
 Example 317:25
 Example 424:29
 Example 525:23
 Charge Densities26:09
 Linear Charge Density26:26
 Surface Charge Density26:30
 Volume Charge Density26:47
 Example 627:26
 Example 737:07
 Example 850:13
 Example 954:01
 Example 1003:10
 Example 1113:58
Gauss's Law
52m 53s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:07
 Electric Flux1:16
 Amount of Electric Field Penetrating a Surface1:19
 Symbol1:23
 Point Charge Inside a Hollow Sphere4:31
 Place a Point Charge Inside a Hollow Sphere of Radius R4:39
 Determine the Flux Through the Sphere5:09
 Gauss's Law8:39
 Total Flux8:59
 Gauss's Law9:10
 Example 19:53
 Example 217:28
 Example 322:37
 Example 425:40
 Example 530:49
 Example 645:06
Electric Potential & Electric Potential Energy
1h 14m 3s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Electric Potential Energy0:58
 Gravitational Potential Energy1:02
 Electric Potential Energy1:11
 Electric Potential1:19
 Example 11:59
 Example 23:08
 The ElectronVolt4:02
 Electronvolt4:16
 1 eV is the Amount of Work Done in Moving an Elementary Charge Through a Potential Difference of 1 Volt4:26
 Conversion Ratio4:41
 Example 34:52
 Equipotential Lines5:35
 Topographic Maps5:36
 Lines Connecting Points of Equal Electrical Potential5:47
 Always Cross Electrical Field Lines at Right Angles5:57
 Gradient of Potential Increases As Equipotential Lines Get Closer6:02
 Electric Field Points from High to Low Potential6:27
 Drawing Equipotential Lines6:49
 E Potential Energy Due to a Point Charge8:20
 Electric Force from Electric Potential Energy11:59
 E Potential Due to a Point Charge13:07
 Example 414:42
 Example 515:59
 Finding Electric Field From Electric Potential19:06
 Example 623:41
 Example 725:08
 Example 826:33
 Example 929:01
 Example 1031:26
 Example 1143:23
 Example 1251:51
 Example 1358:12
Electric Potential Due to Continuous Charge Distributions
1h 1m 28s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:10
 Potential Due to a Charged Ring0:27
 Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Desk3:38
 Potential Due to a Spherical Shell of Charge11:21
 Potential Due to a Uniform Solid Sphere14:50
 Example 123:08
 Example 230:43
 Example 341:58
 Example 451:41
Conductors
20m 35s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Charges in a Conductor0:32
 Charge is Free to Move Until the0:36
 All Charge Resides at Surface2:18
 Field Lines are Perpendicular to Surface2:34
 Electric Field at the Surface of a Conductor3:04
 Looking at Just the Outer Surface3:08
 Large Electric Field Where You Have the Largest Charge Density3:59
 Hollow Conductors4:22
 Draw Hollow Conductor and Gaussian Surface4:36
 Applying Gaussian Law4:53
 Any Hollow Conductor Has Zero Electric Field in Its Interior5:24
 Faraday Cage5:35
 Electric Field and Potential Due to a Conducting Sphere6:03
 Example 17:31
 Example 212:39
Capacitors
41m 23s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 What is a Capacitor?0:42
 Electric Device Used to Store Electrical Energy0:44
 Place Opposite Charges on Each Plate1:10
 Develop a Potential Difference Across the Plates1:14
 Energy is Stored in the Electric Field Between the Plates1:17
 Capacitance1:22
 Ratio of the Charge Separated on the Plates of a Capacitor to the Potential Difference Between the Plates1:25
 Units of Capacitance1:32
 Farad1:37
 Formula1:52
 Calculating Capacitance1:59
 Assume Charge on Each Conductor2:05
 Find the Electric Field2:11
 Calculate V by Integrating the Electric Field2:21
 Utilize C=Q/V to Solve for Capitance2:33
 Example 12:44
 Example 25:30
 Example 310:46
 Energy Stored in a Capacitor15:25
 Work is Done Charging a Capacitor15:28
 Solve For That15:55
 Field Energy Density18:09
 Amount of Energy Stored Between the Plates of a Capacitor18:11
 Example18:25
 Dielectrics20:44
 Insulating Materials Place Between Plates of Capacitor to Increase The Devices' Capacitance20:47
 Electric Field is Weakened21:00
 The Greater the Amount of Polarization The Greater the Reduction in Electric Field Strength21:58
 Dielectric Constant (K)22:30
 Formula23:00
 Net Electric Field23:35
 Key Take Away Point23:50
 Example 424:00
 Example 525:50
 Example 626:50
 Example 728:53
 Example 830:57
 Example 932:55
 Example 1034:59
 Example 1137:35
 Example 1239:57
II. Current Electricity
Current & Resistance
17m 59s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Electric Current0:44
 Flow Rate of Electric Charge0:45
 Amperes0:49
 Positive Current Flow1:01
 Current Formula1:19
 Drift Velocity1:35
 Constant Thermal Motion1:39
 Net Electron Flow1:43
 When Electric Field is Applied1:49
 Electron Drift Velocity1:55
 Derivation of Current Flow2:12
 Apply Electric Field E2:20
 Define N as the Volume Density of Charge Carriers2:27
 Current Density4:33
 Current Per Area4:36
 Formula4:44
 Resistance5:14
 Ratio of the Potential Drop Across an Object to the Current Flowing Through the Object5:19
 Ohmic Materials Follow Ohm's Law5:23
 Resistance of a Wire6:05
 Depends on Resistivity6:09
 Resistivity Relates to the Ability of a Material to Resist the Flow of Electrons6:25
 Refining Ohm's Law7:22
 Conversion of Electric Energy to Thermal Energy8:23
 Example 19:54
 Example 210:54
 Example 311:26
 Example 414:41
 Example 515:24
Circuits I: Series Circuits
29m 8s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Ohm's Law Revisited0:39
 Relates Resistance, Potential Difference, and Current Flow0:39
 Formula0:44
 Example 11:09
 Example 21:44
 Example 32:15
 Example 42:56
 Electrical Power3:26
 Transfer of Energy Into Different Types3:28
 Light Bulb3:37
 Television3:41
 Example 53:49
 Example 64:27
 Example 75:12
 Electrical Circuits5:42
 ClosedLoop Path Which Current Can Flow5:43
 Typically Comprised of Electrical Devices5:52
 Conventional Current Flows from High Potential to Low Potential6:04
 Circuit Schematics6:26
 Threedimensional Electrical Circuits6:37
 Source of Potential Difference Required for Current to Flow7:29
 Complete Conducting Paths7:42
 Current Only Flows in Complete Paths7:43
 Left Image7:46
 Right Image7:56
 Voltmeters8:25
 Measure the Potential Difference Between Two Points in a Circuit8:29
 Can Remove Voltmeter from Circuit Without Breaking the Circuit8:47
 Very High Resistance8:53
 Ammeters9:31
 Measure the Current Flowing Through an Element of a Circuit9:32
 Very Low Resistance9:46
 Put Ammeter in Correctly10:00
 Example 810:24
 Example 911:39
 Example 1012:59
 Example 1113:16
 Series Circuits13:46
 Single Current Path13:49
 Removal of Any Circuit Element Causes an Open Circuit13:54
 Kirchhoff's Laws15:48
 Utilized in Analyzing Circuits15:54
 Kirchhoff's Current Law15:58
 Junction Rule16:02
 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law16:30
 Loop Rule16:49
 Example 1216:58
 Example 1317:32
 Basic Series Circuit Analysis18:36
 Example 1422:06
 Example 1522:29
 Example 1624:02
 Example 1726:47
Circuits II: Parallel Circuits
39m 9s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:16
 Parallel Circuits0:38
 Multiple Current Paths0:40
 Removal of a Circuit Element May Allow Other Branches of the Circuit to Continue Operating0:44
 Draw a Simple Parallel Circuit1:02
 Basic Parallel Circuit Analysis3:06
 Example 15:58
 Example 28:14
 Example 39:05
 Example 411:56
 Combination SeriesParallel Circuits14:08
 Circuit Doesn't Have to be Completely Serial or Parallel14:10
 Look for Portions of the Circuit With Parallel Elements14:15
 Lead to Systems of Equations to Solve14:42
 Analysis of a Combination Circuit14:51
 Example 520:23
 Batteries28:49
 Electromotive Force28:50
 Pump for Charge29:04
 Ideal Batteries Have No Resistance29:10
 Real Batteries and Internal Resistance29:20
 Terminal Voltage in Real Batteries29:33
 Ideal Battery29:50
 Real Battery30:25
 Example 631:10
 Example 733:23
 Example 835:49
 Example 938:43
RC Circuits: Steady State
34m 3s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:17
 Capacitors in Parallel0:51
 Store Charge on Plates0:52
 Can Be Replaced with an Equivalent Capacitor0:56
 Capacitors in Series1:12
 Must Be the Same1:13
 Can Be Replaced with an Equivalent Capacitor1:15
 RC Circuits1:30
 Comprised of a Source of Potential Difference, a Resistor Network, and Capacitor1:31
 RC Circuits from the SteadyState Perspective1:37
 Key to Understanding RC Circuit Performance1:48
 Charging an RC Circuit2:08
 Discharging an RC Circuit6:18
 The Time Constant8:49
 Time Constant8:58
 By 5 Time Constant9:19
 Example 19:45
 Example 213:27
 Example 316:35
 Example 418:03
 Example 519:39
 Example 626:14
RC Circuits: Transient Analysis
1h 1m 7s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:13
 Charging an RC Circuit1:11
 Basic RC Circuit1:15
 Graph of Current Circuit1:29
 Graph of Charge2:17
 Graph of Voltage2:34
 Mathematically Describe the Charts2:56
 Discharging an RC Circuit13:29
 Graph of Current13:47
 Graph of Charge14:08
 Graph of Voltage14:15
 Mathematically Describe the Charts14:30
 The Time Constant20:03
 Time Constant20:04
 By 5 Time Constant20:14
 Example 120:39
 Example 228:53
 Example 327:02
 Example 444:29
 Example 555:24
III. Magnetism
Magnets
8m 38s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Magnetism0:35
 Force Caused by Moving Charges0:36
 Dipoles0:40
 Like Poles Repel, Opposite Poles Attract0:53
 Magnetic Domains0:58
 Random Domains1:04
 Net Magnetic Field1:26
 Example 11:40
 Magnetic Fields2:03
 Magnetic Field Strength2:04
 Magnets are Polarized2:16
 Magnetic Field Lines2:53
 Show the Direction the North Pole of a Magnet Would Tend to Point if Placed on The Field2:54
 Direction3:25
 Magnetic Flux3:41
 The Compass4:05
 Earth is a Giant Magnet4:07
 Earth's Magnetic North Pole4:10
 Compass Lines Up with the Net Magnetic Field4:48
 Magnetic Permeability5:00
 Ratio of the magnetic Field Strength Induced in a Material to the Magnetic Field Strength of the Inducing Field5:01
 Free Space5:13
 Permeability of Matter5:41
 Highly Magnetic Materials5:47
 Magnetic Dipole Moment5:54
 The Force That a Magnet Can Exert on Moving Charges5:59
 Relative Strength of a Magnet6:04
 Example 26:26
 Example 36:52
 Example 47:32
 Example 57:57
Moving Charges In Magnetic Fields
29m 7s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Magnetic Fields0:57
 Vector Quantity0:59
 Tesla1:08
 Gauss1:14
 Forces on Moving Charges1:30
 Magnetic Force is Always Perpendicular to the Charged Objects Velocity1:31
 Magnetic Force Formula2:04
 Magnitude of That2:20
 Image2:29
 Direction of the Magnetic Force3:54
 RightHand Rule3:57
 Electron of Negative Charge4:04
 Example 14:51
 Example 26:58
 Path of Charged Particles in B Fields8:07
 Magnetic Force Cannot Perform Work on a Moving Charge8:08
 Magnetic Force Can Change Its Direction8:11
 Total Force on a Moving Charged Particle9:40
 E Field9:50
 B Field9:54
 Lorentz Force9:57
 Velocity Selector10:33
 Charged Particle in Crosses E and B Fields Can Undergo Constant Velocity Motion10:37
 Particle Can Travel Through the Selector Without Any Deflection10:49
 Mass Spectrometer12:21
 Magnetic Fields Accelerate Moving Charges So That They Travel in a Circle12:26
 Used to Determine the Mass of An Unknown Particle12:32
 Example 313:11
 Example 415:01
 Example 516:44
 Example 617:33
 Example 719:12
 Example 819:50
 Example 924:02
 Example 1025:21
Forces on CurrentCarrying Wires
17m 52s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Forces on CurrentCarrying Wires0:42
 Moving Charges in Magnetic Fields Experience Forces0:45
 Current in a Wire is Just Flow of Charges0:49
 Direction of Force Given by RHR4:04
 Example 14:22
 Electric Motors5:59
 Example 28:14
 Example 38:53
 Example 410:09
 Example 511:04
 Example 612:03
Magnetic Fields Due to CurrentCarrying Wires
24m 43s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Force on a CurrentCarrying Wire0:38
 Magnetic Fields Cause a Force on Moving Charges0:40
 Current Carrying Wires0:44
 How to Find the Force0:55
 Direction Given by the Right Hand Rule1:04
 Example 11:17
 Example 22:26
 Magnetic Field Due to a CurrentCarrying Wire4:20
 Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields4:24
 CurrentCarrying Wires Carry Moving Charges4:27
 Right Hand Rule4:32
 Multiple Wires4:51
 CurrentCarrying Wires Can Exert Forces Upon Each Other4:58
 First Right Hand Rule5:15
 Example 36:46
 Force Between Parallel Current Carrying Wires8:01
 Right Hand Rules to Determine Force Between Parallel Current Carrying Wires8:03
 Find Magnetic Field Due to First Wire, Then Find Direction of Force on 2nd Wire8:08
 Example8:20
 Gauss's Law for Magnetism9:26
 Example 410:35
 Example 512:57
 Example 614:19
 Example 716:50
 Example 818:15
 Example 918:43
The BiotSavart Law
21m 50s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:07
 BiotSavart Law0:24
 Brute Force Method0:49
 Draw It Out0:54
 Diagram1:35
 Example 13:43
 Example 27:02
 Example 314:31
Ampere's Law
26m 31s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:07
 Ampere's Law0:27
 Finds the Magnetic Field Due to Current Flowing in a Wire in Situations of Planar and Cylindrical Symmetry0:30
 Formula0:40
 Example1:00
 Example 12:19
 Example 24:08
 Example 36:23
 Example 48:06
 Example 511:43
 Example 613:40
 Example 717:54
Magnetic Flux
7m 24s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:07
 Magnetic Flux0:31
 Amount of Magnetic Field Penetrating a Surface0:32
 Webers0:42
 Flux1:07
 Total Magnetic Flux1:27
 Magnetic Flux Through Closed Surfaces1:51
 Gauss's Law for Magnetism2:20
 Total Flux Magnetic Flux Through Any Closed Surface is Zero2:23
 Formula2:45
 Example 13:02
 Example 24:26
Faraday's Law & Lenz's Law
1h 4m 33s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Faraday's Law0:44
 Faraday's Law0:46
 Direction of the Induced Current is Given by Lenz's Law1:09
 Formula1:15
 Lenz's Law1:49
 Lenz's Law2:14
 Lenz's Law2:16
 Example2:30
 Applying Lenz's Law4:09
 If B is Increasing4:13
 If B is Decreasing4:30
 Maxwell's Equations4:55
 Gauss's Law4:59
 Gauss's Law for Magnetism5:16
 Ampere's Law5:26
 Faraday's Law5:39
 Example 16:14
 Example 29:36
 Example 311:12
 Example 419:33
 Example 526:06
 Example 631:55
 Example 742:32
 Example 848:08
 Example 955:50
IV. Inductance, RL Circuits, and LC Circuits
Inductance
6m 41s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 Self Inductance0:25
 Ability of a Circuit to Oppose the Magnetic Flux That is Produced by the Circuit Itself0:27
 Changing Magnetic Field Creates an Induced EMF That Fights the Change0:37
 Henrys0:44
 Function of the Circuit's Geometry0:53
 Calculating Self Inductance1:10
 Example 13:40
 Example 25:23
RL Circuits
42m 17s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:11
 Inductors in Circuits0:49
 Inductor Opposes Current Flow and Acts Like an Open Circuit When Circuit is First Turned On0:52
 Inductor Keeps Current Going and Acts as a Short1:04
 If the Battery is Removed After a Long Time1:16
 Resister Dissipates Power, Current Will Decay1:36
 Current in RL Circuits2:00
 Define the Diagram2:03
 Mathematically Solve3:07
 Voltage in RL Circuits7:51
 Voltage Formula7:52
 Solve8:17
 Rate of Change of Current in RL Circuits9:42
 Current and Voltage Graphs10:54
 Current Graph10:57
 Voltage Graph11:34
 Example 112:25
 Example 223:44
 Example 334:44
LC Circuits
9m 47s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:08
 LC Circuits0:30
 Assume Capacitor is Fully Charged When Circuit is First Turned On0:38
 Interplay of Capacitor and Inductor Creates an Oscillating System0:42
 Charge in LC Circuit0:57
 Current and Potential in LC Circuits7:14
 Graphs of LC Circuits8:27
V. Maxwell's Equations
Maxwell's Equations
3m 38s
 Intro0:00
 Objectives0:07
 Maxwell's Equations0:19
 Gauss's Law0:20
 Gauss's Law for Magnetism0:44
 Faraday's Law1:00
 Ampere's Law1:18
 Revising Ampere's Law1:49
 Allows Us to Calculate the Magnetic Field Due to an Electric Current1:50
 Changing Electric Field Produces a Magnetic Field1:58
 Conduction Current2:33
 Displacement Current2:44
 Maxwell's Equations (Complete)2:58
VI. Sample AP Exams
1998 AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice Questions
32m 33s
 Intro0:00
 1998 AP Practice Exam Link0:11
 Multiple Choice 360:36
 Multiple Choice 372:07
 Multiple Choice 382:53
 Multiple Choice 393:32
 Multiple Choice 404:37
 Multiple Choice 414:43
 Multiple Choice 425:22
 Multiple Choice 436:00
 Multiple Choice 448:09
 Multiple Choice 458:27
 Multiple Choice 469:03
 Multiple Choice 479:30
 Multiple Choice 4810:19
 Multiple Choice 4910:47
 Multiple Choice 5012:25
 Multiple Choice 5113:10
 Multiple Choice 5215:06
 Multiple Choice 5316:01
 Multiple Choice 5416:44
 Multiple Choice 5517:10
 Multiple Choice 5619:08
 Multiple Choice 5720:39
 Multiple Choice 5822:24
 Multiple Choice 5922:52
 Multiple Choice 6023:34
 Multiple Choice 6124:09
 Multiple Choice 6224:40
 Multiple Choice 6325:06
 Multiple Choice 6426:07
 Multiple Choice 6527:26
 Multiple Choice 6628:32
 Multiple Choice 6729:14
 Multiple Choice 6829:41
 Multiple Choice 6931:23
 Multiple Choice 7031:49
1998 AP Practice Exam: Free Response Questions
29m 55s
 Intro0:00
 1998 AP Practice Exam Link0:14
 Free Response 10:22
 Free Response 210:04
 Free Response 316:22
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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Physics C: Electricity & Magnetism
For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Physics C: Electricity & Magnetism
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Post by Professor Dan Fullerton on March 27, 2015
Correct link: http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/courses/211623.html