Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the conservation of charge and energy in electrical circuits, and were first described in 1845 by Gustav Kirchhoff. Widely used in electrical engineering, they are also called Kirchhoff's rules or simply Kirchhoff's laws (see also Kirchhoff's laws for other meanings of that term). Both circuit rules can be directly derived from Maxwell's equations, but Kirchhoff preceded Maxwell and instead generalized work by Georg Ohm.However, a charge build-up can occur in a capacitor, where the charge is typically spread over wide parallel plates, with a physical break in the circuit that prevents the positive and negative charge accumulations over the two plates from coming together and cancelling. In this case, the sum of the currents flowing into one plate of the capacitor is not zero, but rather is equal to the rate of charge accumulation. However, if the displacement current dD/dt is included, Kirchhoff's current law once again holds. (This is really only required if one wants to apply the current law to a point on a capacitor plate. In circuit analyses, however, the capacitor as a whole is typically treated as a unit, in which case the ordinary current law holds since exactly the current that enters the capacitor on the one side leaves it on the other side.)
First rule: If you go around a circuit loop the potential drop is
Second rule: At a node, the total current entering the node is
equal to the total current leaving the node.
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