Updated Biology Courses cardella

General Biology
Prof. Bryan Cardella, M.Ed.

ap biology eaton

AP Biology 
Dr. Carleen Eaton, M.D.

California Regents

California Regents

From Invertebrates to Vertebrates

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

Section 1: Welcome to Biology
Biology and Biologists

18m 11s

The Chemical Basis of Life

12m 17s

Water and Life

17m 48s

Organic Molecules

16m 32s


16m 7s

Cells: The Basics

16m 3s

More about Cells

23m 19s

Cell Membranes

24m 14s

Section 2: The Gene
DNA Discovery & Structure

13m 1s

DNA Replication

21m 3s

The Transcription of DNA to RNA

17m 5s

Translation: Protein Synthesis

18m 30s

Eukaryotic Genomes

18m 37s

Viral & Bacterial Genomes

12m 50s

Applications of Biotechnology

13m 29s

Section 3: Principles of Heredity
The Cell Cycle & Mitosis

15m 41s

Sexual Life Cycle & Meiosis

26m 5s

The Mendelian Model of Inheritance

16m 33s

Genes & Chromosomes

16m 57s

Section 4: Evolutionary Biology
Darwin in Historical Context

13m 24s

Mechanisms of Evolution

19m 21s


12m 15s

Section 5: Biological Diversity
Systematics: Classifying Organisms

20m 38s

The History of Life on Earth

1m 41s


20m 52s

Unicellular Eukaryotes

23m 9s

Plants and Their Relatives

12m 46s

The Fungi

17m 8s

An Introduction to the Animals

16m 11s

From Invertebrates to Vertebrates

20m 45s

Section 6: The Energetics of Life
Enzymes and Metabolism

17m 52s

An Overview of Metabolism

10m 54s


29m 51s

The TCA Cycle

21m 4s

Electron Transport, ATP Synthesis, and Chemiosmosis

21m 5s

Section 7: Animal Structure, Reproduction and Development
Animal Form and Function


Animal Reproduction

16m 17s

Animal Development

20m 38s

Section 8: Circulation, Body's Defenses, Nutrition
The Circulatory System

20m 19s

The Respiratory System

25m 41s

The Lymphatic System and the Blood

12m 23s

Nonspecific Immune Defenses

11m 28s

Specific Immune Defenses

24m 9s

Diet and Feeding Mechanisms

17m 12s

The Digestive System

21m 5s

Osmoregulation and Excretion


Section 9: Nervous System and Internal Controls
Nervous Systems and Sensation

25m 8s

How Nerves Work

22m 50s


30m 22s

The Endocrine System

19m 24s


13m 58s

Muscle Structure and Contraction

17m 26s

Section 10: Plants: Form and Function
Plant Nutrition

21m 4s

Introduction to Photosynthesis

20m 51s

The Light Reactions

18m 24s

The Calvin-Benson Cycle

14m 32s

Plant Reproduction and Development

21m 35s

Control Systems in Plants

16m 52s

Section 11: Ecology
The Natural Setting

21m 18s

Population Ecology

21m 2s

CommModuley Ecology

22m 29s

Energy Flow and the Water Cycle

21m 56s

Chemical Element Cycles

20m 47s

Section 12: Conservation Biology
Generation Advancement

21m 49s

Basics of Behavior


Social Behavior

24m 3s

This is a quick preview of the lesson. For full access, please Log In or Sign up.
For more information, please see full course syllabus of Biology
Bookmark & Share Embed

Share this knowledge with your friends!

Copy & Paste this embed code into your website’s HTML

Please ensure that your website editor is in text mode when you paste the code.
(In Wordpress, the mode button is on the top right corner.)
  • - Allow users to view the embedded video in full-size.
Since this lesson is not free, only the preview will appear on your website.
  • Answer Engine

  • Study Guides

From Invertebrates to Vertebrates

  • Humans are vertebrates—animals with backbones—as are many of the animals we interact with and observe in our daily environment. Our curiosity about this group of animals is natural. The vertebrates include some of the largest and fastest animals on Earth.

  • But the vast majority of animal species, and individual animal organisms, are invertebrates. All animals have an invertebrate ancestry.

  • As we proceed in our survey of animals from invertebrates to vertebrates, we’ll examine two of the most widespread and successful groups of protostome invertebrates, the mollusks and the arthropods.

  • We’ll then make our way toward the vertebrate branch of the tree of life with an exploration of the two most important phyla of deuterostomes, the echinoderms and the chordates.

  • We’ll see how the vertebrate line arose from the chordates and progressed through fish to land animals, and we’ll find the twig on the tree where the human species is placed.


Please sign in to participate in this lecture discussion.

Resetting Your Password?

Start Learning Now

Our free lessons will get you started (Adobe Flash® required).
Get immediate access to our entire library.

Membership Overview

  • Available 24/7. Unlimited Access to Our Entire Library.
  • Search and jump to exactly what you want to learn.
  • *Ask questions and get answers from the community and our teachers!
  • Practice questions with step-by-step solutions.
  • Download lecture slides for taking notes.
  • Track your course viewing progress.
  • Accessible anytime, anywhere with our Android and iOS apps.