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Lecture Comments (12)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Ebs
Wed Jan 8, 2014 12:37 AM

Post by Yisrael Harris on December 21, 2013

In the hot air balloon, why does the expanded air within the balloon cause the balloon to rise?

0 answers

Post by Yisrael Harris on December 16, 2013

When you hold the ice in your hand, and the thermal energy of your hand is transferred to the ice, can you break down into steps what is actually occuring, in terms of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles of your hand and of the ice?

0 answers

Post by Yisrael Harris on December 16, 2013

The temperature of a substance has been defined as the average kinetic energy of its particles. Question: why are collisions relevant? Why is the fact that kinetic energy is transferred between particles upon collision relevant to the determination of a substance's average kinetic energy?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Ebs
Fri Apr 19, 2013 3:00 PM

Post by Yisrael Harris on April 18, 2013

In the section on changing states of liquid, on the graph where point B is a solid and point C is a liquid, what is the state of the substance between points B and C?

0 answers

Post by Yisrael Harris on April 18, 2013

What is the arrangement of atoms in a liquid? Is it at all similar to the solid, or completely random? Are the differences between the arrangement and motion of molecules in a liquid and gas quantitative or qualitative? If merely quantitative, then what is it that gives a gas such a distinctly different appearance to us from a liquid? If indeed qualitative, then what is the nature of that qualitative difference?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Ebs
Fri Apr 19, 2013 2:42 PM

Post by Yisrael Harris on April 18, 2013

I don't see how convection is a type of heat transfer. The actual transfer of heat seems to still be conduction: from the heated pot to the water. The fact that molecules undergo this current as they become less and more dense doesn't seem to be a transfer of heat, but rather an additional phenomenon taking place as a side-effect of the conduction.

Moreover, in the explanation given, from what to what is the heat being transferred? I think that part of the explanation is missing: as the heated molecules rise, other molecules are now at the bottom and they now become heated. In addition, presumably, as the heated molecules rise, they pass some of their heat to other molecules. (Otherwise, as they lose their heat when they rise, what are they losing that heat to?)

Bottom line, though, the actual transfer of heat would still seem to be conduction. The convection is not transfer of heat per se, but rather a phenomenon that facilitates the conduction.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Ebs
Fri Apr 19, 2013 2:31 PM

Post by Antoni Szeglowski on January 21, 2013

So thermal energy is basically total energy?

0 answers

Post by Leili Reza on December 8, 2012

thanks

Related Articles:

Heat and States of Matter

  • The average kinetic energy of a substance is the temperature of the substance.
  • The units used for temperature are Kelvins (K) and degrees Celsius (°C).
  • Thermal energy is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the particles in the matter.
  • Thermal energy is affected by state of matter, temperature of matter, and amount of matter.
  • Heat is thermal energy that is transferred from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature.
  • Heat moves from warm to cool until the two objects are equal temperatures.
  • Specific Heat – Objects change temperature at different rates when the same amount of heat is added. Measure specific heat as the amount of thermal energy needed to increase 1kg of a substance by 1°C.
  • Thermal expansion occurs as a substance’s temperature is increased. The particles of a substance move faster and move away from each other.
  • Heat is transferred by radiation (waves or rays), conduction (direct contact), and convection (currents in a liquid or gas).
  • In a solid, particles are arranged in repeating patterns and solids have a fixed volume and shape. Particles are further away in a liquid that has a fixed volume and takes the shape of the container. Particles are even further apart in a gas that takes the volume and shape of the container.

Heat and States of Matter

What are you measuring when you measure the average speed of the particles in a substance?
Temperature
What instrument is used to measure the average kinetic energy of a substance?
A thermometer
What are the two temperature scales that are used in science?
Celsius and Kelvin
The temperature, amount of matter, and state of matter all affect the amount of which type of energy?
Thermal Energy
Heat will move between two objects at different temperatures in which direction?
From high to low temperature
Heat will move between two objects at different temperatures until what occurs?
Until the objects are at the same temperature (equilibrium)
Below the Earths crust, the liquid part of the mantle moves in currents where hotter magma rises and cooler magma sinks. What is this type of heat transfer?
Convection
What happens when heat is added to a solid object and the particles in the solid gain energy and move faster until a state change occurs?
Melting the solid changes to a liquid
What happens when heat is added to a solid object and the particles in the solid gain energy and move faster and a little bit away from each other, but a state change DOES NOT OCCUR?
Thermal Expansion the solid object grows slightly
What type of matter takes the shape and the volume of the container that it is in?
Gas

*These practice questions are only helpful when you work on them offline on a piece of paper and then use the solution steps function to check your answer.

Answer

Heat and States of Matter

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Temperature 0:04
    • Temperature
    • Fahrenheit to Celsius
    • Celsius to Fahrenheit
    • Kelvins to Celsius and Celsius to Kelvins
  • Thermal Energy 8:06
    • Thermal Energy, Kinetic Energy, and Potential Energy
    • Changing Thermal Energy: Temperature
    • Changing Thermal Energy: State of Matter
    • Changing Thermal Energy: Amount of Matter
  • Heat 10:59
    • Heat
    • Specific Heat
  • Transfer of Thermal Energy 15:15
    • Conduction
    • Convection
    • Radiation
  • States of Matter 20:43
    • Solids: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
    • Liquids: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
    • Gases: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
    • Plasma: Arrangement of Atoms, Shape, Volume, and Molecular Motion
  • Changing States of Matter 27:49
    • Melting
    • Freezing
    • Vaporization
    • Boiling
    • Condensation
    • Temperature and Time Graph
  • Thermal Expansion 36:19
    • Thermal Expansion of Solids
    • Thermal Expansion of Liquids
    • Thermal Expansion of Gases
  • Example 1: Converting Temperatures 40:28
  • Example 2: Thermal Energy 43:35
  • Example 3: Quick Matching 44:58
  • Example 4: Why Does It Feel Cold When You Put Your Hand On the Table? 45:50
  • Example 5: Heat Transfer 46:48
  • Example 6: Changing States of Matter 47:29