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Lecture Comments (32)

0 answers

Post by Peter Ke on September 7, 2015

At 36:02 where did you get the subscript in Br2 from?

2 answers

Last reply by: Khalid Khan
Thu Jun 25, 2015 2:47 PM

Post by Khalid Khan on June 25, 2015

Hi Mr. Ow,

In aqueous reactions, I don't see balanced chemical equations. Is this supposed to happen?

Thanks!

0 answers

Post by Khalid Khan on June 24, 2015

Mr. Ow,

How would someone figure out if they should put a single arrow or two arrows with opposite direction?

Thanks!

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Wed Mar 4, 2015 11:41 AM

Post by Micheal Bingham on March 3, 2015

Since an Acid and Base form water, is it possible to drink an Acid and Base reaction?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Wed Mar 4, 2015 11:39 AM

Post by Kate Danielle Rapinan on December 5, 2014

My textbook says that hydroxides of larger group 2 ions(Ca 2+) and down are soluble, but not Be and Mg. (In addition to group 1) What is your take on this, Mr. Ow?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Wed Mar 4, 2015 11:39 AM

Post by Kate Danielle Rapinan on December 5, 2014

Hello Mr. Ow,
If you are balancing equations in which all the reactants are heteronuclear, are there any rules on which one to begin balancing first?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Sun Oct 12, 2014 11:48 AM

Post by Saadman Elman on October 12, 2014

My Chemistry book clearly documented that All SO4 is soluble EXCEPT, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb, Ag, Hg. With that being said, Ag SO4 can't be aqueous but it is a solid/precipitate/insoluble.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Sun Oct 12, 2014 11:47 AM

Post by Saadman Elman on October 12, 2014

In sample problem 1, no. 4 reaction is incorrect. The Correct formula of Silver Sulphate is Ag2 SO4 NOT Ag SO4.

Then you said Ag SO4 is aqueous.  But Ag SO4 is NOT aqueous. You can double check it. I am 100% sure that it is definitely not aqueous. It's solid, in another words insoluble.

Overall, the lecture was great as usual..

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Fri Oct 10, 2014 9:33 AM

Post by David Gonzalez on October 9, 2014

Hi professor Franklin, hope all is well! I have a problem that's really baffling me! Basically, the problem says to balance C4H10 + O2 = CO2 + H2O. I worked out the answer C4H10 + 13 O2 = 4 CO2 + 5 H2O. What am I doing wrong???? It seems balance, right?!

Thank you in advance.

2 answers

Last reply by: david faizi
Wed Sep 24, 2014 11:07 AM

Post by david faizi on September 22, 2014

Hello,
On the sample 1 problem for KNO3 + CuCl; I don't understand why the subscript of the Cl is not on the product side with Cl as well as, why the NO3 becomes an (NO3)2.

4 answers

Last reply by: david faizi
Wed Sep 24, 2014 11:07 AM

Post by Danny Fanny on August 16, 2014

Hello Mr. Ow:

I have a issue regarding question #4 on your "Sample Problem 1" slide. The answer you give is Li2SO4 + 2AgNO3 => 2LiNO3 + AgSO4. However, if I am not mistaken,the balanced equation should be 2Li2SO4 + 2AgNO3 => 2LiNO3 + 2Ag2SO4. In addition, I believe that silver(II) sulfate, one of the products of this reaction, should be written as Ag2SO4, not AgSO4 as you had written it. If I have misunderstood this problem, please let me know!


Thanks,
   Danny

2 answers

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Tue Aug 5, 2014 7:53 PM

Post by William Kinne on August 5, 2014

On sample 1 problem three shouldn't it be 2KNO3(aq)+ CuCl2 (aq) ---> 2KCl(aq)+Cu(NO3)2 (aq)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Mon Jun 2, 2014 12:42 PM

Post by jared vitt on June 2, 2014

bumbleing my way through various lessons to see what interests me, thus knowing very little, dosent there need to be a catlist for chemical reactions? how it the catlist noted?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Franklin Ow
Fri Feb 7, 2014 10:21 AM

Post by Laura Mejia on January 31, 2014

Hi Mr. Ow,

how do you know the state of the reactants?

Chemical Reactions

  • The need to balance chemical reactions follows from the law of conservation of mass.
  • Electrolytes or electrolytic solutions contain free ions in solution.
  • Strong electrolytes dissociate completely, while weak electrolytes hardly ionize.
  • When predicting if a precipitate will form during an aqueous reaction, it is useful to refer to a table of solubility rules.
  • A net ionic equation only shows the formation of the nonaqueous species from its constituent ions.

Chemical Reactions

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lesson Overview 0:06
  • The Law of Conservation of Mass and Balancing Chemical Reactions 1:49
    • The Law of Conservation of Mass
    • Balancing Chemical Reactions
  • Balancing Chemical Reactions Cont'd 3:40
    • Balance: N₂ + H₂ → NH₃
    • Balance: CH₄ + O₂ → CO₂ + H₂O
  • Balancing Chemical Reactions Cont'd 9:49
    • Balance: C₂H₆ + O₂ → CO₂ + H₂O
  • Intro to Chemical Equilibrium 15:32
    • When an Ionic Compound Full Dissociates
    • When an Ionic Compound Incompletely Dissociates
    • Dynamic Equilibrium
  • Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 18:03
    • Electrolytes
    • Strong Electrolytes and Weak Electrolytes
    • Nonelectrolytes
  • Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction 20:02
    • Single-replacement
    • Example: Li (s) + CuCl₂ (aq) → 2 LiCl (aq) + Cu (s)
    • Example: Cu (s) + LiCl (aq) → NR
    • Example: Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) → ZnCl₂ (aq) + H₂ (g)
  • Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction 23:37
    • Double-replacement
    • Net-ionic Equation
  • Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction 26:12
    • Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds
  • Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction 28:10
    • Neutralization Reactions
    • Example: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → ?
    • Example: H₂SO₄ (aq) + KOH (aq) → ?
  • Predicting the Product(s) of an Aqueous Reaction 30:20
    • Certain Aqueous Reactions can Produce Unstable Compounds
    • Example 1
    • Example 2
    • Example 3
  • Summary 33:54
  • Sample Problem 1 34:55
    • ZnCO₃ (aq) + H₂SO₄ (aq) → ?
    • NH₄Br (aq) + Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ (aq) → ?
    • KNO₃ (aq) + CuCl₂ (aq) → ?
    • Li₂SO₄ (aq) + AgNO₃ (aq) → ?
  • Sample Problem 2 39:09
    • Question 1
    • Question 2
    • Question 3

Transcription: Chemical Reactions

Hi, welcome back to Educator.com.0000

Today's lesson in general chemistry is on chemical reactions; let's go over the outline.0002

We are first going to talk about something very fundamental to all of the physical sciences.0011

That is the law of conservation of mass.0017

We are going to see that in order to obey the law of conservation of mass,0020

anytime we have a chemical equation, we have to make sure that it is completely balanced.0024

After discussing this, we will then go on to something we call chemical equilibrium.0031

Because chemical equilibrium is going to be very applicable to our discussion of reactions in solution.0037

The solutions that we are specifically talking about are electrolyte solutions, nonelectrolyte solutions, and etc.0048

After talking about electrolytes and nonelectrolytes, we are then going to dive into a couple of different reactions that can occur in aqueous solutions.0058

The first one is what we call single replacement reactions.0067

The second one is what we call double replacement reactions.0072

The third one is neutralization reactions.0076

The fourth and final one is going to be reactions that produce unstable compounds0078

that are going to further decompose and form other compounds we cannot initially predict.0084

When this section is done, we are going to be able to predict0092

the compounds that are formed from any of these types of reactions.0095

We will wrap up the session with of course our summary followed by a pair of sample problems.0101

Let's go ahead and start.0107

The law of conservation of mass is fundamental to all of the physical sciences.0110

We always will be obeying this in chemical reactions.0114

Basically the law of conservation of mass tells us the following: that matter can neither be created nor destroyed.0118

In other words, what you have, you are going to have permanently.0126

It is coming from other sources.0131

You are never going to truly eliminate it or get rid of it.0134

But matter as we know can be transformed into different states, etc.0140

If we were to translate this into a chemical reaction before and after, the law of conservation of mass basically tells us the following.0146

That the total mass before a reaction is going to be equal to the total mass after a reaction.0153

In other words, the total mass of what you start with equals to the total mass of what you end up with.0162

Let's go ahead and look at a typical way of representing a chemical reaction.0170

Basically the general format of a chemical reaction is the following.0175

We have the reactants on the left side of the arrow.0180

We have the products on the right side of the arrow.0184

We can go ahead and verbalize this the following way.0186

That A combines with B to form C and D; or A and B yields C and D.0190

Or A and B mix C and D; whatever you are more comfortable with.0197

Basically if we were to apply the law of conservation of mass, this is telling us the following.0204

That the total mass combined of A and B will be equal to the total mass combined of C and D.0209

In order to obey the law of conservation of mass, we have to do what is called balancing a chemical equation.0222

You are going to be using this from now on pretty much in every lesson.0230

This is one of the most fundamental parts of general chemistry that you want to learn to master early on.0235

When we balance a chemical reaction, let's go ahead and look at the following.0242

N2 plus H2 goes on to form NH3.0246

We want to look at the number of elements on both sides of the equation.0252

For example, here we notice that there are a total of two nitrogens on the left side.0255

But there is only one nitrogen on the right side.0262

In addition on the reactant side there are two hydrogens.0266

There are three hydrogens on the right side.0271

We say that this is an unbalanced chemical reaction.0274

We never want to leave a chemical equation unbalanced.0280

The way to go about this is the following.0285

We are going to put what are called coefficients right in front of each of the molecules to go ahead and balance this.0288

The coefficients are usually going to be whole numbers.0301

I want to give you a couple tips.0304

Whenever the reactants are all homonuclear, it doesn't matter which element you try to balance first.0306

What I mean by homonuclear is that it is basically a compound composed of just one element; one element type only.0312

Examples of homonuclear would be N2, H2, O2, Cl2, etc.0326

Those again are what we call homonuclear.0335

A lot of the time, it is trial and error; so let's go ahead and start.0339

N2 plus H2 goes on to form NH3.0343

What I would like to do, I would like to maybe balance nitrogen first.0349

Again it doesn't matter what order you do it in.0352

I am going to go ahead and put a 2 in front of NH3.0356

Then I ask myself: I have now two nitrogens on the left.0361

I have now two nitrogens on the right; the last thing to fix is hydrogen.0364

Now I have two hydrogens on the left; I have six hydrogens on the right.0370

Basically we ask ourselves what multiplied by two is going to give us six.0376

The answer is going to be three.0382

My balanced chemical equation is going to be N2 plus 3H2 goes on to form 2NH3.0384

Always, this is very important, always double check your work to make sure that you have done the balancing correct.0393

As you can see, we have two nitrogens on both sides of the equation.0397

And we have a total of six hydrogens on both sides of the equation.0401

Before we move on, another thing I just want to point out is the following.0409

When you have the coefficient and a subscript, we just multiply them together to get the actual number.0413

That is how we get six hydrogens there; coefficient multiplied by the subscript.0419

Let's go ahead and now move on to another chemical reaction where the reactants are not both homonuclear.0432

For example, CH4 plus O2 goes on to form CO2 and water.0440

We have CH4 which is going to be what we call heteronuclear.0449

That is the compound is made up of more than one element.0453

My advice I usually give is the following: you always save the homonuclear reactant for the last step.0457

That is going to make your life a lot easier.0469

Let's go ahead and try to balance this.0471

Again it is CH4 plus O2 goes on to form CO2 and H2O.0474

I am going to save oxygen for last because it is part of a homonuclear compound.0481

I am left with either carbon or hydrogen to start with.0485

Again it doesn't matter for those; let's just go ahead and pick carbon.0488

Carbon, we have one on each side of the equation.0493

We have one in the CH4 and we have one in the carbon dioxide; so carbon is already balanced.0496

The only thing remaining is hydrogen now to work with before we tackle oxygen.0502

On the left side of the equation, I have a total of four hydrogens.0507

On the right side of the equation, I have a total of two hydrogens.0510

I am going to put 2 right in front of water.0515

Now my hydrogens are balanced; I have four on both sides of the equation.0518

Remember multiply the coefficient by the subscript, two times two gives us four.0522

Now we can go ahead and tackle oxygen.0527

I have a total of two oxygens on the left.0529

I have a total now of two oxygens in carbon dioxide.0534

I have a total of two oxygens in water; remember to carry through the coefficient.0538

So actually I have four oxygens total on the right side of the reaction.0545

I am going to put a 2 right in front of O2.0553

That gives me a total now of four oxygens on both sides of the reaction.0556

That is it; that is our balanced chemical reaction.0560

Another piece of advice I usually give students is the following.0565

Balancing chemical reactions can be very frustrating.0569

You don't always get it right the first time; a lot of it is trial and error.0572

If going by one element the first time doesn't work, try another element until you get it.0577

But remember it always can be balanced.0582

It is a fundamental law of nature; it always can work.0585

Right now, I want to introduce you a chemical reaction where sometimes the coefficients0593

that we are going to use initially are not going to be all whole numbers.0599

Instead the coefficients that we are going to be using are going to be fractional.0603

Remember, remember what we have to do.0609

It is going to be the coefficient times the subscript.0613

That is going to give us the total number of that element in the compound; the total number of element in compound.0620

Let's go ahead and balance this; C2H6 plus O2 goes on to CO2 and water.0633

I have two carbons on the left side; I only have one carbon on the right side.0639

I am going to go ahead and put a 2 in front of CO2; now my carbons are fixed.0645

Remember that I am leaving oxygen for last because oxygen is part of a homonuclear compound.0649

What we have to do now is fix hydrogens.0655

I have six hydrogens on the left; I have two on the right side.0658

Then we ask ourselves: what coefficent, what number times two is going to give me six?0663

That is going to be a three; so now my hydrogens are fixed; six on each side.0669

Now we have the following C2H6 plus O2 goes on to form 2Cl2 and 3H2O.0675

Let's go ahead and look at the oxygen count right now.0685

I have two oxygens on the left side.0688

Here on the right side, I have a total of four oxygens in CO2.0691

I have a total of three oxygens in water.0695

That means I have a grand total of seven oxygens on the right side and only have two on the left side.0700

This is when we have a case of an even-odd number.0710

If you look at the previous examples, we have always had an even number on one side and an even number on the other side.0713

In that case, it is always convenient just to use a whole number.0720

But when you have an even-odd pair like this, there is going to be a little trick we are going to do.0724

Basically you ask yourself the following.0729

You see that I am shy of oxygens on the left side.0732

We have to ask ourselves: what coefficient times two is going to give me seven?0736

Basically 2 goes down stairs; 7 goes upstairs; it is very simple.0743

When you have an even-odd pair, you will always use a fractional coefficient.0750

Basically the bottom number is going to be the subscript from the homonuclear compound.0757

The top number is always going to be the greater number; what you are trying to get the homonuclear compound up to.0771

Once again when you have an even-odd pair, use fractional coefficients.0785

The fractional coefficient I am going to use is 7/2.0789

Remember a few sessions back, we talked about Dalton's atomic theory.0796

Part of his theory was that elements combine in small whole number ratios to form compounds.0802

What that means is the following: we never want to leave a chemical equation in a fractional form.0808

In other words, what we are going to do right now, we are going to eliminate the fraction.0816

We are going to be left with nothing but whole numbers.0819

The fraction we have 7/2; if we want to get rid of a fraction, we simply divide by its denominator.0825

But I just can't multiply oxygen by 2; if I change one element, I have to do it proportionally to everything.0833

My grand and final answer is going to be the following: it is going to be 2C2H6 plus 7O2.0842

That is going to go on and form four carbon dioxides and six waters.0858

This gives us our balanced chemical equation with no fractions.0877

Let's just go ahead and do one final check, make sure we have done it right.0880

Let's go ahead and see if we have the same number of elements on each side.0883

I have 4 carbons total here; 4 carbons total here; carbons are good to go.0889

I have 12 hydrogens here; I have 12 hydrogens here; hydrogens are good to go.0895

Finally I have 14 oxygens here.0903

I have 8 oxygens in CO2 and 6 oxygens in the water; giving me a grand total of 14 oxygens.0907

As you can see, this method does work.0920

Again the final thought is to never leave a coefficient as a fraction.0923

Now that we have learned how to balance chemical equations, let's move on to the next topic of the session.0932

This is what we call chemical equilibrium.0939

When an ionic compound fully dissociates... what I mean by fully dissociates is that it completely breaks up.0944

It forms individual cations and anions.0951

Whenever this happens, we use a single arrow in the forward direction.0954

For example, hydrochloric acid is going to be fully dissociating when dissolved in water.0959

That is going to break up into its respective cation and anion.0966

But not all ionic compounds do this.0972

A lot of ionic compounds really incompletely dissociate which means they don't fully break up into cation and anion.0976

When this occurs, we use a new type of arrow.0985

It looks like a pair of opposite arrows.0991

This is what we call an equilibrium arrow.0995

What the equilibrium tells us is that the reaction is reversible.1004

In other words... let's look at HF, as hydrofluoric acid breaks apart.1019

In other words, as we move in the forward direction, H+ and F- instantaneously form.1024

However look at the reverse arrow; let's go ahead and translate that.1032

What that is telling us is that H+ and F- are going to somehow find each other again.1037

They are going to recombine and reform the original hydrofluoric acid molecule.1042

This is what we call dynamic equilibrium.1048

That is it is a constant process; it is not static whatsoever.1052

Basically both the forward and the reverse reactions happen simultaneously.1057

In other words, as soon as a compound dissociates, the ions are going to recombine into the original compound.1063

Again you are going to call this an equilibrium arrow.1072

We are going to be using this quite heavily in the latter half of this general chemistry class.1075

Now we are going to talk about specific compounds when they dissolve in water.1085

They are called electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.1091

When you hear the word electrolytes, it obviously sounds like electricity or electron.1094

Basically electrolytes are going to be ionic compounds that form ions when dissolved in water.1101

For example, we can go ahead and take a salt, table salt, sodium chloride.1107

Sodium chloride is going to dissociate and form the respective ions; sodium cation and chloride anion.1112

The following is going to be a fundamental requirement for a solution to be conductive.1122

Basically a solution has to have free ions in order to conduct an electric current.1128

That is why they call them electrolytes.1133

Strong electrolytes completely dissociate.1138

For strong electrolytes which completely dissociate, we are going to use a regular single arrow in the forward direction.1143

Weak electrolytes incompletely dissociate.1151

Remember going back to the previous slide, for ionic compounds that incompletely dissociate, we use an equilibrium arrow.1155

Finally there are compounds that when dissolved in water, they do not form ions whatsoever.1162

These are going to be nonelectrolytes; these are going to be typically molecular compounds.1171

For example, if you take ordinary glucose for example, C6H12O6; you go ahead and dissolve it in water.1176

You don't form individual ions; it just becomes aqueous.1190

You see that there are no ions whatsoever.1197

Glucose is going to be a nonelectrolyte solution.1200

Now that we have gotten those vocabulary terms out of the way,1205

what we are going to do right now, we are going to study specific types of aqueous reactions.1208

We are going to learn how to predict the products.1215

The first type of aqueous reaction is what we call a single replacement reaction; also known as single displacement.1218

A single replacement reaction is always going to have the following general format.1228

A... this is usually going to be a metal... plus B and C.1233

Remember this is going to be the metal; this is going to be the nonmetal; usually.1240

Or the cation and the anion goes on to form AC and B.1247

You notice that A has come in and essentially displaced B from its bond with C.1252

We go on to form AC and B; this is called a single replacement.1259

Let's go ahead and look at a couple of examples.1263

You take lithium metal and you react it with copper(II) chloride.1266

Lithium is going to come in and knock out copper; we form lithium chloride instead.1273

Copper is also going to come out as copper solid; however let's reverse the process.1279

If we take copper solid and go on and react it with lithium chloride, we get no reaction at all.1286

Let's go ahead and see why this is going to occur and how you are going to be able to predict this.1295

All of the experiments have been done already.1301

The results are summarized in what is called an activity series.1303

Basically an activity series is the following.1307

You see that lithium is right at the first element.1310

We call lithium a very active metal.1314

It can come in and knock out essentially any other element.1318

Let's look at sodium; the way to use this activity series is the following.1325

Sodium can knock out any element below it, but it cannot knock out any element above it.1329

For example, sodium will not be able to knock out calcium.1335

But it will be able to displace magnesium in a single replacement reaction.1340

Depending on your instructor, you may or may not have to memorize this activity series; definitely be on the lookout for that.1346

Another very common type of single replacement reaction occurs between the following: a metal and acid.1353

For example, when zinc solid is going to get dissolved in hydrochloric acid, we get the formation zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.1363

Essentially zinc has come in and knocked out hydrogen.1373

Let's go ahead and see if we can find hydrogen on this activity series.1377

We know that zinc is going to be right here and right below it is going to be H2.1381

Yes, this activity series does predict that zinc is going to come in and displace hydrogen in a single replacement reaction.1389

Here is the thing; when hydrogen gets displaced, it always forms hydrogen gas.1398

When displaced in a single replacement reaction, it is going to form H2 gas.1405

This is how we use an activity series again for single replacement reactions.1417

The next type of reaction we want to talk about is going to be called a double replacement reaction.1422

It is also known as double displacement.1428

Basically instead of one quote and quote knockout, two occur.1432

We are going to have two swaps; I always like to show brackets with this.1437

Basically A is now going to hook up with D and now C is going to hook up with B to form AD and CB.1443

Please note how the cation always hooks up with the other anion, etc.1452

An example of this is going to be the reaction between sodium chloride and lead(II) nitrate.1459

Sodium is the cation; it is going to hook up now with the other anion which is nitrate.1465

Lead, Pb2+, is going to hook up with the other anion chloride.1471

We get sodium nitrate and lead(II) chloride.1474

Please note... this is very important when you do this... that the charges never change, especially for the transition metals.1479

Remember when we went back to nomenclature and you learned that transition metals can have different oxidation numbers.1488

Here this is going to be Pb2+; there should be really a 2 there; sorry about that.1496

Here in the product side, it is going to remain Pb2+.1505

Please do not ever change a metal's charge in a double displacement reaction.1509

Pb2+ is going to remain Pb2+; that is why it is PbCl2 and not just PbCl for example.1523

The next type of equation though, something very related to this, is the following.1532

That is called a net ionic equation.1537

A net ionic equation is usually written to show the formation of the precipitate.1539

A precipitate is just a fancy name for the solid that is formed in a reaction.1544

Basically a net ionic equation shows the formation of the precipitate, in this case, lead(II) chloride, from its constituent ions.1550

That is basically going to be Pb2+ combining with two chlorides.1558

It is always aqueous plus aqueous goes on to form the solid.1563

Now that we have covered net ionic equations, how do you predict that a compound is going to be solid?1570

Or how do you predict if it is going to remain aqueous in these reactions?1579

This is something you may or may not have to memorize also.1584

So please be on the lookout for that from your instructor.1586

This is what we call the solubility rules for ionic compounds.1591

Basically this table is divided into two areas; first the compounds that are usually soluble.1595

What soluble means is that the compound is going to remain broken up into ions and dissolved.1602

Something that is soluble is going to be essentially aq or aqueous in the chemical reaction.1608

You are going to find ammonium salts, group 1 salts, nitrates, etc.1616

What is important in this solubility table is to pay attention to the exceptions.1623

For example, acetates are usually soluble; for example, sodium acetate will be aqueous in water.1627

However there are exceptions such as silver, Ag1+, and aluminum, Al3+.1635

While sodium acetate is going to be aqueous, silver acetate and aluminum acetate are exceptions.1640

They are going to be solid; that is they are going to be insoluble.1647

So you always have to pay attention to the exceptions.1654

The same goes for the other side of this table; compounds are usually insoluble.1657

They are going to be remaining intact and not break up relatively speaking.1662

They are going to remain as solids; so carbonates, phosphates, etc, are going to be solids.1667

However there are exceptions.1673

Something like magnesium carbonate is going to be mostly a solid in water.1676

But an exception is ammonium; ammonium carbonate is going to remain aqueous in water.1681

Let's go ahead and apply another type of double displacement reaction.1688

That is what we call a neutralization reaction.1697

A neutralization reaction always has the generic formula.1700

An acid is going to react with a base.1703

It is always going to form a salt, water, and it is always going to give off heat.1706

Anytime you mix an acid and a base, it is going to feel warm to the touch.1713

A typical reaction would be between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.1720

Neutralization reactions are going to be typically double displacement reactions.1725

Hydrogen is going to hook up with hydroxide.1729

Chloride is going to hook up with sodium.1733

Let's do the salt; the salt is going to be sodium chloride.1736

From the table of solubility rules which we just covered, this type of chloride is going to be soluble which is aqueous.1742

You see that when hydrogen combines with hydroxide, that is essentially going to form water.1750

That is going to be a liquid.1757

There we have it; a double displacement reaction in the form of what we call a neutralization reaction.1759

Let's do one last example; that is going to be between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide.1765

Sulfate is going to hook up with potassium.1772

Again hydrogen is going to hook up with hydroxide.1775

This time the salt is going to be potassium sulfate.1778

I need two potassiums to balance sulfate's 2- charge.1786

Look at the table of solubility rules; that is going to be aqueous.1790

Again I am going to always form water; let's go ahead and balance it.1794

I am going to need two potassium hydroxides to go ahead and react with the sulfuric acid.1799

I am also going to form two waters as a result.1808

Remember always balance your chemical reactions.1811

We saw that a neutralization reaction is a type of double displacement reaction.1817

There are a few exceptions where using the table of solubility rules1823

and simply going by a generic format for double replacement does not work.1829

These three reactions here are going to form compounds initially that are unstable.1835

These unstable compounds are going to in turn produce additional products which we just can't predict.1842

We are going to now introduce these to you.1850

The first type, number one, is going to be the reaction between a metal carbonate...1852

This is usually going to be a group 1 metal... reacting with an acid, HA.1858

Usually A is going to be the following: Cl, Br, iodine, nitrate, and also can be sulfate.1868

Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, etc.1885

These are what we call the strong acids.1894

Again depending on your instructor, you may have to know a number of different ones.1897

So please definitely be on the lookout for that.1902

When we do the double displacement format, we are going to get H2CO3, carbonic acid, in combination with an HA aqueous.1905

It doesn't stop there; what happens is the following; that carbonic acid is actually unstable in water.1915

It is going to decompose to form CO2 and liquid water; that is one example.1920

Again a metal carbonate reacting with a strong acid goes on to form carbon dioxide gas and liquid water.1928

Similar to metal carbonate reacting with acid, we are also going to see metal sulfites reacting with acid.1937

Very similar, we are going to form instead of H2CO3, we are going to get H2SO3, sulfuric acid, in combination with the salt.1945

Sulfuric acid like carbonic acid is unstable in water.1955

It is going to form not CO2 but SO2 in combination with water.1959

Once again it is going to be a group 1 metal sulfite1965

reacting with strong acid to give you sulfur dioxide gas and liquid water.1968

The third and final example that is an exception is going to be the following.1975

It is going to be an ammonium salt where X is usually a halide.1980

It is going to be the ammonium salt reacting with a metal hydroxide.1988

Again this is usually going to be a group 1 hydroxide.1994

When you do the double displacement, the M is going to hook up with X.1998

Ammonium is going to hook up with hydroxide.2003

It turns out that ammonium hydroxide is unstable in water.2006

It is going to decompose and form aqueous ammonia and liquid water.2011

Once again the third exception, something we just can't predict, is the following.2017

It is going to be an ammonium halide salt in combination with a group 1 metal hydroxide.2021

You are going to form ammonia, NH3, in combination with liquid water.2029

That pretty much covers solutions that are occurring in aqueous environments.2036

Let's go ahead and summarize what we learned.2043

We started off talking about the law of conservation of mass.2046

Remember a big implication of the law of conservation of mass is that we always have to balance any chemical equation.2049

We went on to discuss electrolytes.2059

We learned that strong and weak electrolytes are going to each dissociate to different extents when dissolved in water.2061

We learned several rules; we saw an activity series; we learned the table of solubility rules.2071

We learned the three exceptions that we can use to help us predict the product2079

of any reaction that occurs in aqueous solutions, especially single replacement, double replacement, and neutralization reactions.2085

Let's go ahead and tackle some sample problems.2097

Here I have presented to you the reactants.2100

I want you to come up with the products and of course always balance the chemical equation.2104

Let's go ahead and look at this.2110

We have a zinc carbonate, that is going to be a metal carbonate, reacting with a strong acid, H2SO4.2113

That is one of the exceptions; what is going to happen is the following.2123

We are going to get zinc sulfate.2127

That is going to be aqueous; use your table of solubility rules.2134

This is going to form not H2CO3 but H2O liquid and CO2 gas.2138

Remember H2CO3 is going to be one of those unstable compounds in water.2145

H2CO3 we saw breaks up into liquid water and CO2 gas; let's go on.2153

Next one, ammonium bromide reacting with lead(II) acetate.2163

In this case, lead is going to now hook up with bromine.2172

Ammonium is now going to hook up with acetate.2178

This is yet again another double displacement reaction.2182

When we go ahead and draw the products, let's go ahead and do ammonium now with acetate, NH4C2H3O2, and lead(II) bromide.2186

Remember Pb2+ remains Pb2+; let's not forget the physical states.2201

Ammonium acetate is going to be aqueous.2208

Lead(II) bromide is going to be the solid.2211

Most importantly always balance your chemical equation.2214

I am going to need two of these and I am going to need two of these for my balanced chemical equation.2217

Next one, potassium nitrate aqueous reacting with copper(II) chloride.2226

This is going to be another example of a double displacement reaction.2234

Nitrate is going to hook up with copper.2241

Potassium is going to hook up with chlorine.2244

We are going to get KCl; when you look up the table of solubility rules, that is going to be aqueous.2249

Forming copper(II) nitrate; when you look up the table of solubility rules, that is also going to be aqueous.2258

This is an example of a double displacement reaction that forms no precipitate which is not too uncommon.2267

Final example of sample problem one, lithium sulfate reacting with silver nitrate.2275

Let's go ahead and do the double displacement.2282

Lithium is now going to hook up with nitrate.2285

Sulfate is going to now hook up with silver.2288

When we go ahead and do this, we are going to get lithium nitrate.2294

That is going to be aqueous when you use the table of solubility rules; and silver sulfate.2300

Silver sulfate is going to also be aqueous when you look up the table of solubility rules.2309

We have to balance this; this is going to be two of these and two of those.2318

I forgot, for the third example, the potassium nitrate reacting with copper chloride, I left it unbalanced.2325

Shame on me; again let's go ahead and fix that.2330

We are going to need two of these and two of those.2333

I hope this sample problem one was really testing your ability to not only predict the products2339

but also the physical states in addition of course to balancing.2345

The final set of sample problems involves the following.2351

I have seen a lot of tests.2355

A lot of the times, you have to translate from a sentence or a phrase into a chemical equation.2359

This is really testing your ability of nomenclature also.2365

So this is a nice cumulative type of problem.2368

Solid zinc reacts with aqueous lead(II) nitrate to form aqueous zinc(II) nitrate and solid lead.2373

Let's go ahead and translate it.2382

Zinc solid reacts with lead(II) nitrate going on to form zinc(II) nitrate aqueous and solid lead.2385

Let's go ahead and balance this; we are going to need two zinc nitrates.2407

No, it is going to be zinc(II) nitrate; I'm sorry; this is going to be two of these.2413

I am going to erase that coefficient; very sorry about that.2417

My balanced chemical equation is good to go.2423

This is an example of a single replacement reaction.2426

If you go ahead and look up the activity series, zinc will come in and knock out lead.2430

Second example, solid iron reacts with molecular chlorine gas to form solid iron(III) chloride.2437

Solid iron reacts with molecular chlorine; remember what we mean by molecular chlorine?2446

That is going to be Cl2 gas not just Cl.2453

That is going to go ahead and form solid iron(III) chloride, FeCl3 solid.2457

Let's go ahead and balance this.2465

Iron is good to go already; I have one on each side.2466

But I have two chlorines on the left and I have three chlorines on the right side.2469

We can go ahead and simply put a 3 in front of the Cl2 and a 2 in front of the FeCl3.2474

Finally I am going to need 2 irons.2482

This is again an example of an even-odd pair where you could have used fractional coefficients; that would have worked too. 2485

This is an example of what we call a combination reaction where we have the form A plus B goes on to from AB.2493

Once again a combination reaction.2505

Last example, we have solid barium peroxide forming solid barium oxide and molecular oxygen gas.2508

Let's go ahead and write this and balance it; we have solid barium peroxide.2516

You are told that this forms solid barium oxide in combination with molecular oxygen gas.2529

Remember molecular oxygen; very important; that is going to be O2.2536

My bariums are good to go; the only thing we have to balance are the oxygens.2542

I have two oxygens on the left; I have three on the right.2548

Let's go ahead and put a 2 in front of BaO.2551

That is going to give me four oxygens on the right side now and two bariums.2557

All I have to do is put a 2 in front of there.2561

So I have two bariums on both sides of the equation.2564

I have four oxygens on both sides of the equation.2567

This is what we call a decomposition reaction where we have one compound AB essentially dissociating into A and B.2570

One compound forming multiple products.2585

This is a nice cumulative exercise where it really tests your ability,2589

your knowledge of the nomenclature, and of course to balance a chemical equation.2594

Thank you very much for your time.2600

I will see you next time on Educator.com.2601